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According to some fundamental hypotheses compatible with microphysics theory in allusion to property of graviton shot by the spiral galaxy, we set up a motion trace equation of graviton in the three-dimensional space, concluding method for measuring the velocity of graviton. This theory reveals formation mechanism of symmetric rotating arm image of the spiral galaxy. The rotating arm image conforms to Archimedes spiral. Under the condition of using dynamic constraints, the image that astrolabe is in thin-disk structure is naturally obtained. And then, we also deduce the law that astrolabe thickness
h is inversely proportional to the square root of the distance
r_{xy} between astrolabe and galaxy center, according with actual crossrange galaxy observation image excellently. This article, by utilizing several typical galaxy observation images with completely different appearances and shapes, verifies the motion trace law of graviton in three-dimensional space. And the theoretical simulation data meet observation image data very well. As per the discovery in the simulation of three-dimensional theoretical model, changes of parameters in theoretical model will exert a great influence on the shape of galaxy. This theory owns exclusively important meaning, not only to astrophysics, but also to reconstruction and development of relativity theory and the whole basic physics theory, as well as breaking through the current dilemma in studying graviton property.

As reported on websites of Cornell University, USA [

1) Within a distance of 730 kilometers, the neutrinos are detected to travel 60 ns faster than light; In another word, neutrinos travel more 6 kilometers than light every second.

2) There is a relationship between travelling velocity and energy of neutrinos.

In June 2012, scientists from European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) made clarification that, the previous experimental results were wrong, and the problem happening to cable port of experimental facility led to occurrence of error [

As per Einstein’s special theory of relativity, the speed of light is the limit of universal speeds, and any other speed cannot surpass light. Indeed, due to limitation of present experiment conditions, particle travelling faster than light has not been measured so far, but, it does not mean that there is no such particle, or guarantee that the particle with such property will not be discovered in the future. So, if “XX particle travels faster than light” is verified to be true, the classic theory of Einstein’s will be revised. If the phenomenon of “XX particle travels faster than light” exists, does the velocity of graviton travel faster than light? How to measure? Is there any experimental observation datum to support?

Answers to the above questions, also come down to difficulties haunting modern physics for a long time, i.e., where is graviton? Which property it has? What is its velocity? Why cannot discover it in experiment? No matter whether graviton velocity surpasses light or not, physicists all know that the property of graviton may greatly affect construction of the whole physical theory. In today that graviton still cannot be measured, it is not proper to simply think that, the velocity of graviton is just light or must not exceed light.

Because universal gravitation is extremely weak, it cannot be found in the present experimental condition. In my article [

In documents [

Supposed:

1) In any inertial reference system, the velocity of graviton in different directions shot is identical―theory of constant graviton velocity, that is, graviton owns property similar as photon.

2) The equivalent center of some spiral galaxy rotates with a constant rotational angular velocity w, with unit as radian/s. Attention: due to difference in direction of rotation axis, a plus-minus sign may exist.

3) Graviton shot outward by the spiral galaxy, mainly comes from the equivalent center of galaxy, as the major part in forming the gravitational field of the galaxy. Other stars are in such gravitational field.

4) The shooting processes of different gravitons are mutually independently.

5) In motion process, different gravitons may exert interaction effect each other, which can be omitted.

6) In the galaxy, peripheral stars are in normal distribution along the perpendicular line of motion trace of graviton.

So, the motion of graviton should meet the formula (1), getting the velocity of graviton via the formula (2).

wherein,

The characteristics of this theory (please see hypothesis 1 and 2), accord with “Archimedes Spiral” [

trace formed by the motion point. The proportionality coefficient is got by

With application of this theory into M51 spiral galaxy, observing data via M51 galaxy, several important formulas are obtained, which can be seen in formula (3’) and (4’). As to detailed data processing procedure, please see the primary source [

Unit:

Unit:

By reason of discovering shell structure in M51 rotating arm afterwards, we deduct data of mutation area for transformation between shell structures, solve the formula (3’) and (4’), and then get the formula (3) and (4). Later on, when processing data, the formula (3) and (4) will be taken as the criterion. In order to saving writing length, this part is omitted.

Please note that, in the formula (3) and (4), implication and unit of every parameter and variable are same with that in the formula (3’) and (4’).

In short, via experimental observation data analysis, the document [

1) The motion trace of graviton in the spiral galaxy accords with Archimedes spiral, perfectly meet observation data.

2) The guess that “the velocity of graviton is a constant” obtains support of observation data for the first time.

3) The upper limit of graviton velocity is obtained from observation data for the first time, i.e., the maximum velocity of graviton does not surpass 443,000 times of light speed.

4) Meanwhile, this article raises a possible approach to measure the lower limit of graviton velocity, and a new thought on utilizing observation data such as thickness of galactic center of the spiral galaxy to measure angular rotation velocity of the equivalent center.

5) The conclusion of this article gives out a significant prompt, reminding scientists studying graviton of not suffering from limitation of “the light speed is extremity” stated in the relativity theory, or ignoring analysis in various measurement signals before optical signal (optical signal is usually regarded as reference signal). Perhaps many significant discoveries occur in that time zone.

Although the conclusion that “the upper limit of graviton velocity does not surpass 4.43 × 10^{5} times of the light speed” [

In spite of the document [

The Section 2 below is to establish the physical model for graviton movement of spiral galaxy in the three- dimensional space, explore the influence of change of several key parameters in the model on the disc shape of spiral galaxy and use the observation image to explain the corresponding galaxy pattern also exists in reality. Section 2.1, Establishing three-dimensional physical model; Section 2.2, taking the observation image of M51 galaxy as an example to obtain the parameter of the corresponding physical model; Section 2.3, discussing the influence of the parameter change of physical model on the disc shape of galaxy, for example, differential change of rotational angular velocity “

The Section 3 is to research that force equilibrium condition is the intrinsic internal factor for spiral galaxy to form a think disc shape. At first, establishing the physical model of force equilibrium conditions of dynamics; Section 3.1, Based on the stable equilibrium conditions parallel to the direction of astrolabe plane to deduce general conditions that stars in the galaxy shall meet. When

The Section 4 is to summarize the relevant conclusions obtained above.

The actual spiral galaxy always has a certain thickness. In the previous research, the motion mechanism of graviton in the astrolabe axis direction has not been taken into account. So, in the next text, consider motion process of graviton in the astrolabe axis direction.

Supposed:

1) In any inertial reference system, the velocity of graviton in different directions shot is identical―theory of constant graviton velocity, that is, graviton owns property similar as photon.

2) The equivalent center of some spiral galaxy rotates with a constant rotational angular velocity

3) Graviton shot outward by the spiral galaxy, mainly comes from the equivalent center of galaxy, as the major part in forming the gravitational field of the galaxy. Other stars are in such gravitational field.

4) The shooting processes of different gravitons are mutually independently.

5) In motion process, different gravitons may exert interaction effect each other, which can be omitted.

6) In the galaxy, peripheral stars are in normal distribution along the perpendicular line of motion trace of graviton.

7) The motion of graviton shot in line with a certain shooting angle can be resolved into two motions. One is moving along principle plane paralleled to astrolabe (perpendicular to rotation axis of galaxy), and the other is moving toward the direction of rotation axis paralleled to galaxy.

8) Stabilizing celestial body nearby the motion curve of graviton is also in need of satisfying condition for force equilibrium in dynamics.

As shown in

plane. As per the above assumption,

tant, we get,

wherein,

In order to simplify discussion process, just discuss

According to in-depth and careful analysis in M51 galaxy data recently, a shell structure exists inside, so we make some modifications in allusion to the formula (3) and (4) stated in the document [

This article applies revised formula, putting the formula (9) into the formula (5) and (6), and then obtaining that similar to the three-dimensional motion equation of graviton in M51 galaxy as follows,

Here, units of

Please note: As for the formula (12), there should be one more constraint condition. Otherwise, in special

condition, it will come up with

a boundary, smaller than it. Perhaps there is another element beginning to exert significant effect.

With the formula (10), (11) and (12), make use of Matlab to program and calculate it. The three-dimensional curve formed in line with motion trace of graviton is as shown in

From

From

1) The influence of change of angular rotation velocity

When

Of

and the contour lines are as shown in

From the contour line in

When

and the contour lines are as shown in

Known from the contour lines in

The example concerning a actual galaxy: The living example that contour lines of galactic center shown in

history (the original size of image: 6637 × 3787). NGC1300 stretches across 100,000 light years. This image shot by Hubble will play a leading role in indicating rodlike structure of the whole galaxy and perfectly display splendid spiral arms. Actually, if carefully check the hard core of this typical rodlike galaxy, you can find a obvious spiral structure area with span reaching 3000 light years.

There is also a living example in

2) The influence of change of initial value of rotation angle

Except that the increase of rotation velocity will product ringlike contour line (as shown in

Seen from the contour lines in the position of

As for

The document [

As per this theory, the regular spiral pattern generates naturally because of graviton motion trace, complying with the principle of Archimedes spiral. The symmetric double rotating arm pattern also comes into being naturally, and the reason for it is that graviton is shot toward 4p space simultaneously at any time. Attention: In the previous analog computation, in the coordinate system in

system, letting the value range of

When

In order to expressly indicate the above-mentioned theory, insert data of M51 galaxy, and draw corresponding contour line in

Here it is, the reason that why most spiral galaxies present symmetric double rotating arm pattern. Actually, the law followed by the spiral galaxy is the most spontaneous and simplest natural law.

In the previous text discusses motion trace of graviton of spiral galaxy. Viewed from ideal condition, stars rotating around the equivalent center of rotation galaxy are ought to distribute nearby motion trace of graviton. But because there is universal gravitation between the equivalent center of rotation galaxy and stars, it needs satisfy condition for force equilibrium in dynamics. Therefore, not all graviton motion trace can stabilize and remain many stars nearby them. For purpose of probing into the influence of kinetic equilibrium, we set up the coordinate system as shown in

Supposed that, the quality of the equivalent center of rotation galaxy is M, and it is located in the original point O of coordinate system; the quality of stars rotating around the equivalent center of rotation galaxy is m, and it is located in the point _{; }is vector between the original point O and the location of_{ }is the projection of

Here,

For paralleling to XOY plane direction, its condition of stable equilibrium is: The formula (14) is equal to the formula (15).

In the two-dimensional space ,when

The formula (18) is the famous Kepler’s Third Law, i.e., in the two-dimensional space, the manifestation pattern of stable equilibrium condition (17) is just Kepler’s Third Law. That is to say, astronomical phenomena which can be explained by stable equilibrium condition (17) and traditional Kepler’s laws will not cause any conflict; as for generated new laws in the three-dimensional space, please see the following in-depth research.

Acquire by the formula (17),

Discussion: 1) The thickness

2) The thickness _{ }is inversely proportional to the square root of distance _{ }between it and galactic center.

3) The thickness

4) Because of

Special attention: In the above deduction, the difference between actual rotation trace s of graviton and radius _{ }is not distinguished especially. In the formula (14), (15) and (16), simply adopt the radius concept of location to replace the concept of actual motion trace. In these two concepts, which one will be adopted to deduce and more accurate in meaning? We would better use experimental data to conduct comparison and correction. Adopting the meaning at present mainly because of considering that, the surface density formed by quantity of graviton in unit solid angle conforms to inverse-square rate, and deduction and application is relatively simple. In addition, the angular rotation velocity

Supposed

Here,

Convert unit of length in the constant G into light year,

(light year^{3}・kg^{−1}・s^{−2} ). Take angular rotation velocity

Put these data into the formula (21), getting the relation between thickness _{ }as,

Unit:

Attention,

1. When

2. From the formula (22) to (23), adopt_{. }So, strictly speaking, from mathematical derivation, £ in the formula (23) will not be established. But in order to embody that physical meanings accommodating stars is allowed in the trace smaller than

3. In programming and calculating, please not that

Combining constraint conditions in the formula (20) or (21) with the formula (5), (6) and (7), we gets the image that stars of spiral galaxy are all located in thin disk, which accords with practical situation very well. So as to display this beautiful image, especially inset observation data of M51 galaxy into the above-mentioned formula, then gain a group of formulas which can be shown in figure, such as the formula (10), (11), (12) and (23) discussed previously. Its 3D image can be drawn by using Matlab software, as shown in

Applying the above-mentioned theory that the thickness of astrolabe is inversely proportional to the square root of distance _{ }between it and galactic center into image of NGC891 galaxy (see

In figure, the horizontal and vertical red line, representing two symmetric axises that are meristic with the center of NGC891, which are used to establish coordinate system. The vertical line is

There is a question, that is, the present popular theory also put forwards a exponent distribution model [

The fitting formula of exponent distribution model raised by the present popular theory can be denoted by the formula (24).

We conduct the same data processing in allusion to data in

Viewed from

In addition, the document [

same size rotating slowly is fat and plump. As per the formula (22),

galaxy thickness h is inversely proportional to angular rotation velocity

1) On the basis of motion law of graviton of spiral galaxy in the two-dimensional space proposed in the document [

2) The combination, between motion law model of graviton of spiral galaxy in the three-dimensional space and dynamic constraint condition, is able to naturally reveal mechanisms of symmetric double rotating arm structure and thin disk structure of spiral galaxy.

3) Through applying theories in this article, analyzing image of galaxy greatly differing from M51, such as M101 and Hoag’s Object shown in

4) The changes of different parameters in the theory of this article can result in galaxy images with great difference in shape, and the actual picture of corresponding galaxy image can be found in observation image, which indicate that this theory owns universality.

5) The law that galaxy thickness changes with radius deduced theoretically in this article, is not only simple in model and clear in physical meaning, but also that its precision is better than exponential decay law [

Special thanks to Professor Ye Zhiyao of Beijing Chemical Defense Institute for encouragement and support, also Professor Cao Shenglin, a astronomy expert from Beijing Normal University, Chen Yue, Wu Yuejiang, Zhu Hongbo, Meng Xiaodong and Zhao Caifeng, former graduate students from Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University, putting forward lots of valuable advices in the research process of this project.