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Cooperation among multiple unmanned vehicles is an intensely challenging topic from a theoretical and practical standpoint, with far reaching indications in scientific and commercial mission scenarios. The difficulty of time coordination for a rapid of multirotor UAVs include s predefined spatial paths according to mission necessities. With the solution proposed, cooperative control is accomplished in the presence of time-varying communication networks, as well as stringent temporal constraints, such as concurrent arrival at the desired final locations. The proposed explanation solves the time-coordination problem under the acceptance that the trajectory-genera - tion and the path-following algorithms meeting convinced cohesion conditions are given. Communication is processed in unpredictable paths by the use of path following and directed communication graph. Dijik-Primbert algorithm for finding the shortest collision free paths is used to avoid and detect collision/congestion in unpredictable paths. Without collision detection, it doesn’t seem agreeable to have collision avoidance because there wouldn’t be everything to avoid. Dijikloyd algorithm is used for finding shortest paths in a weighted directed graph with positive and negative edges. Primloyd algorithm is used for finding shortest paths in a weighted undirected graph for conquering the complexity in matrix coding. In case of conges - tion or collision then the whole network is learned about it to all the communica - tors. Hence, communication is taken place in an unpredictable path in a secured manner.

With the enormous amount of communication technology development and embedded systems, the space communications have been very much technologically updated. Particularly without the intervention of the human, the aircrafts have been designed with the goal to flyover in the space for commercial and surveillance purposes. The Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) is a type of aircraft with no pilot on board. Based on the pre-programmable data, the UAV can be remote controlled. In recent times, the field of air vehicle autonomy has many research scopes in the area of sensor fusion, handling communication between multiple agents, path planning, trajectory generation, task allocation and scheduling and cooperative tactics. The ultimate aim is to entirely avoid the pilot in operating the UAV and also to be away from aircraft collision. When the UAV is moved and controlled through the inbuilt programs by the Air Traffic Controller (ATR), there are some toughest tasks to be achieved in order to minimize the distance between the starting point and the ending point. The number of paths available for dynamically may alter the UAV direction during its board time from the usual path is the critical problem.

This paper is focused on controlling the presence of time-varying communication networks, as well as stringent temporal constraints, such as simultaneous arrival at the desired final locations. The coordination task is accomplished by adjusting a coordination variable under trajectory generation algorithm. The proposed solution solves the time-coordination problem under the acceptance that the trajectory-generation and the path-following algorithms meet certain stability conditions [

A discrete Kalman filter is introduced in [

This limitation motivated us to reformulate the path following problem in a different way. The goal of this paper is to provide a new solution in all defined or undefined path by the use of path following and directed communication graph. Path can be found and communication is processed in unpredictable paths by the use of path following and directed communication graph. Dijik-Primbert algorithm for finding the shortest collision free paths is used to avoid and detect collision/congestion in unpredictable paths. Dijikloyd algorithm is used for finding shortest paths in a weighted directed graph with positive and negative edges. Primloyd algorithm is used for finding shortest paths in a weighted undirected graph for conquering the complexity in matrix coding. In case of congestion or collision then the whole network is learned about it to all the communicators. Hence, communication is taken place in an unpredictable path in an obtained manner. The objectives of this paper are to provide best routing conditions for all type of paths, to find the shortest path in both defined and undefined paths, and to avoid and detect congestion/collision in unpredictable paths.

This paper is created as follows. In Section 2, we introduce the proposed work. In Section 3, we describe the path-following problem by giving a suitable set of algorithms. In Section 4, we formulate the communication flow diagram; simulation re- sults are explained in Section 5. Finally, in Section 6, the main conclusions are presented.

In this section, a proposed work for cooperative path-following control algorithm of UAV is introduced. In order to overcome the existing problems, here it is proposed a Dijik-Primbert algorithm is used for finding collision free shortest paths for source to destination in unpredictable paths.

Overview of a Proposed UAV EnvironmentIn this section, we propose a Dijk-Primbert algorithm for finding collision free shortest paths in a weighted directed graph and weighted undirected graph.

Communication network is used to exchange the information among the vehicles. Once the communication takes place, UAV will select Robert algorithm to avoid collision/congestion in unpredictable paths. After that Dijikloyd and Primloyd algorithm is referred by UAV which way it needs to travel. If the path is clear the UAV will select the Dijikloyd algorithm and go through the path already assigned by us i.e. predefined path. If the path is not clear the UAV will select the Primloyd algorithm and go through

the undefined path. The undefined path is identified by nearest path/node from the original/predefined path. Path following allows each vehicle to follow its assigned path with the desired speed profile. If the path is identified it will check the time coordination if it’s clear it will sustain to the travel path. If the time coordination is not clear it will wait until to get the clear paths. Time coordination regulates the vehicle according to time where one vehicle cannot collide with each other. Time coordination will check the reference generation whether any vehicles is travelling on the path or not. If all are clear the vehicle will travel on the path following.

We now address the path-following problem of a fleet of multirotor UAVs. As already mentioned earlier, path can be found and communication is processed in all direction and informed to overall network increase the network topology. Dijik-Primbert algorithm is used for finding collision free shortest paths for source to destination in unpredictable paths.

Dijik-Primbert algorithm is the combination of Dijikloyd algorithm, Primloyd algorithm and Robert algorithm. Dijik-Primbert algorithm for finding the collision free shortest paths, which is used to avoids/detects collision/congestion in unpredictable paths. Collision detection is simply the act of surveying the known vicinity and detecting the presence of a possible collision. Without collision detection, it doesn’t seem acceptable to have collision avoidance because there wouldn’t be anything to avoid.

Collision avoidance is the plan for action the robot algorithm takes to evade the oncoming collision. As previously declared, there is no need for collision avoidance algorithm if there are no collisions to avoid. The node diagram of finding unpredictable path using Dijik-Primbert algorithm is shown in

Dijikloyd algorithm is the combination of dijkstra’s algorithm and Floyd-warshall

algorithm. Dijkstra’s algorithm is a graph search method that finds the path with reduced cost between the vertex and it solves the single-source shortest path dispute for a graph with non-negative edge path costs, producing a shortest path tree to the destination vertex. This algorithm is often used in routing and subroutine in other graph algorithms for superficial directed graphs with non-negative weights. Floyd-Warshall algorithm is a graph analysis method for finding shortest paths in a weighted graph with either positive or negative edge weights. The Floyd algorithm is an example of dynamic programming. Dijikloyd algorithm is a graph search algorithm for finding shortest paths in a weighted directed graph with positive and negative edge weights. The merits of this algorithm are easier to code and fast computation of path finder networks.

Primloyd algorithm is the combination of Prims algorithm and Floyd-warshall algorithm. Prims algorithm is a rapacious algorithm that finds a minimum spanning tree and ordering the edges by weight for a weighted undirected graph. This means it finds a subset of the corner that forms a tree that contains every vertex using a priority queue, where the total weight of all the corners in the tree is minimized. The Floyd-Warshall method analyses all possible paths through the graph for finding the simplest path between each pair of vertices. If there are negative periods, the Floyd-Warshall algorithm can be used to identify them. The Floyd-Warshall algorithm typically only supports the lengths of the paths between all pairs of vertices. When a new shortest path is found between two vertices, the matrix including the paths with the maximum flow between the vertices is updated. Primloyd algorithm is used for overcoming the complexity in matrix coding. The merits of this algorithm are simple and easier to code.

Let the node at which the UAV is starting called the initial node. The distance from initial node to destination node is taken as Y.

Let the Dijik-Primbert algorithm is a dignified version of simple one liner and it works well for an over simplified paths. Dijik-Primbert algorithm will also assign initial node values and will try to find out collision free shortest path in a step by step manner.

1) Declare the inputs in the communication networks.

2) Check whether the congestion/collision condition y ≤ n.

3) If the above condition satisfied then it will detect and correct the congestion/ collision using Robert algorithm.

4) After that the primloyd algorithm is used to trace the possible undefined paths and it finds the shortest distance between the traced paths.

5) If the condition is not satisfied then it will go through with the Dijikloyd algorithm.

6) The Dijikloyd algorithm is used to find the shortest predefined path.

Let the node at which we are starting UAV be called the initial node. Let the distance of node Y be the interval from the initial node to Y. Dijikloyd algorithm will assign some initial length values and will try to improve them step by step.

1) Assign a conditional distance value to each and every node: set zero to the initial node and to infinity for all other nodes.

2) Mark all the nodes interval from the initial node and from a queue.

3) Take the essential distance value from the queue.

4) If any queue is empty or distance is maximum then get the acquaintance of the current node.

5) If there is no neighbour compute new distance for a neighbour distance which is neighbour + current node distance.

6) If there is neighbour calculate the negative characteristic of node i.e. the threshold value is more than the negative value.

7) The new distance value should be less than the old one in both the cases of step 5 and step 6.

8) If step 7 satisfies proceed to the next node, if not discard.

Let the node at which we are selecting be called the initial node. Primloyd algorithm will also selects the initial distance values and will try to find out undefined path in a step by step manner.

1) Initialize a tree with single vertex, allow a tentative distance value to each and every node.

2) Insist the variables n, X, Y, num = 1. Set the input number of rows then initialize X = 1 and Y = 1.

3) Trace the possible paths and find the shortest distance between the traced paths.

4) If X is less than or equal to n and Y is less than or equal to n then print num value and increment num, Y.

5) If they recognize the candidate model then get a neighbour of the current node.

6) If X is less than or equal to n and y is not equal to n then print n and increment X value.

7) If X is not less than n then stop.

The flow diagram of finding defined path using Dijikloyd algorithm is shown below in

dignified version of simple one liner and it works well for an over simplified paths. Dijik-Primbert algorithm will also assign initial node values and will try to find out collision free shortest pathway. In dijikloyd algorithm, start with a starting vertex with distance zero. Trace the possible paths from starting vertex and find the shortest distance. Mark it as a next starting terminal add the present distance with previous. Repeat

the above steps. In primloyd algorithm, start with an initial vertex and trace the possible paths. Find the shortest distance between the traced paths and fix the shortest path. From the new vertex again repeat the above steps and finally check all the vertices have traced.

In this section, we present simulation results for Dijik-Primbert algorithm run in MATLAB and NS2. Here nine nodes are generated, three acts as header nodes and seven as UAVs nodes. Dijik-Primbert algorithm is used for finding collision free shortest paths for source to destination in unpredictable paths. Initially explains the command window of showing the defined and undefined paths with less computational cost and communication overhead.

In the existing system, Multivehicle cooperative supremacy pursues the trajectory- generation algorithm, path-following algorithm and the time coordination control algorithm have been used. A Path-following controller allows each vehicle to converge to and follow its assigned path but it detects the congestion in the predefined path only. So there is a need of implementing an algorithm to find out the unpredictable path. So, it is proposed to implement a Dijik-Primbert algorithm to find out the shortest collision free path in unpredictable paths.

Path selection mode | Number of nodes | Required time |
---|---|---|

Ideal communication-ideal PF | 4 | 0 |

2 | 0.6 | |

0 | 2.8 | |

Non-ideal communication-ideal PF | 4 | 0 |

2 | 1.4 | |

0 | 4.2 | |

Non-ideal communication-non ideal PF | 4 | 0 |

2 | 3.2 | |

1 | 4.0 | |

Dijikloyd | 5 | 1.0 |

3 | 2.2 | |

1 | 3.2 | |

Primloyd | 5 | 4.2 |

3 | 1.2 | |

2 | 3.0 | |

Robert | 5 | 0 |

3 | 2.2 | |

1 | 4.0 |

In this work, an efficient path is determined by proposing the Dijk-Primbert algorithm to direct UAVs and to consider out the collision free shortest paths in an unpredictable path. Dijk-Primbert algorithm has the features of Dijikloyd, Primloyd and Robert algorithm. Dijikloyd has the features of finding shortest path in positive and negative edges. Primloyd algorithm is used for overcoming the complexity in matrix coding. Here the performance of calculating the shortest collision free path is improved. It is also used efficiently for UAVS. Future works will implement time delayed communication, i.e., Markovian rule for finding the collision free paths. Markov Decision Process (MDP) produces the multiple threats resolution logic for the collision avoidance system and the unique feature is to formulate the collision avoidance problem in real-time.

Sushmitha, P. and Kanthavel, R. (2016) Developing Dijik-Prim- bert Algorithm for Finding Unpredictable Paths over Time-Varying Networks. Circuits and Systems, 7, 3541-3555. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/cs.2016.711301