_{1}

The main experimental characteristics (multiplicity characteristics) of secondary particles have been investigated in interactions of
^{28}Si with emulsion at 4.5 GeV/c per nucleon at rest of emulsion, nuclei. The complete destruction of the heavy target nuclei (Ag, Br) has been studied. The average of shower particles < n
_{s} > is weakly dependent on the target mass whereas the average multiplicity of grey particles < n
_{g} > is strongly dependent on it. The correlations between the multiplicities of the charged secondaries at different mass number of the projectile and center-of-mass-available energy are investigated.

The study of the phenomena of complete destruction of heavy target nuclei is very interesting. This interest stems from the fact that most of these interactions are due to central collisions. The central collisions provide a unique opportunity to investigate the consequences of nuclear compression, such as hydrodynamic effects [_{h} ≥ 28, since [n_{h} = (n_{g} + n_{b}) gray particles and black particles] was used to select events of complete destruction of (Ag, Br) nuclei. Nowadays, there are huge amounts of data concerning the study of this phenomenon. Different beam nuclei at various energies have been used in the experiments. There are two main directions for the interpretation of the experimental results of complete destructions. The first direction considers such events as a tail in the multiplicity distribution which can be accounted for by the cascade evaporation process inside the target nucleus. The second one implies a one-step like process which occurs due to the collectivity of the target nucleons together. In the present work, we study complete destruction n_{h} ≥ 28 of (Ag, Br) emulsion nuclei induced by 4.5 A GeV/c ^{28}Si nuclei. The average multiplicities of the different emitted charged particles have been compared with the corresponding experimental values obtained from the interactions of different types of nuclei with emulsion at the same incident momentum per nucleon. The energy available in the centre of mass system for the complete destruction of the target nucleus has been studied for different projectiles. The multiplicity correlations between the charged secondaries produced in these interactions and both the mass number of the projectile and the available energy have also been analyzed. The previous detailed analysis [_{h} ≥ 28 corresponds to the complete destruction of the target nucleus, nearly, into individual nucleons and light fragments leaving no measurable residual nucleus.

Nuclear emulsions of the type BR-2 were exposed to 4.5 A GeV/c ^{28}Si beams at the Dubnasynchrophasotron. The pellicles of emulsion have the dimensions of 20 cm × 10 cm × 600 µm (undeveloped emulsion). The intensity of the beam was ~10^{4} particles/cm^{2} and the beam diameter was approximately 1 cm. Along the track, a double scanning has been carried out fast in the forward direction and slow in the backward one. In the measured interactions, all the charged secondary particles have been classified according to the range L in the emulsion and the relative ionization g^{*} = g/g_{0}, where g is the particle track ionization and g_{0 }is the ionization of a relativistic shower track in the narrow forward cone of an polar angle θ ≤ 3˚, (the polar angle θ of each track, i.e. the space angle between the direction of the beam and that of the given tracks) into the following groups:

1) Shower tracks of produced particles, “s-particles”; have a relative ionization g^{*} ≤ 1.4; these tracks have an emission angle θ ≤ 3˚; they have been further subjected to multiple scattering measurements for momentum determination in order to separate the produced pions from the single charged projectile fragments. 2) Grey tracks of produced particles, “g-particles”, having a relative ionization (1.4 ≤ g^{*} < 10) and L > 3 mm. 3) Black tracks of produced particles, “b-particles”, having L ≤ 3 mm. 4) The b and g tracks, taking together, are both called heavily ionizing particles, “h-particles”.

To investigate the dependence of the average multiplicity s> and g> on the mass number of the beam nucleus A _{p}, we consider the reactions listed in _{ }

In these reactions, the momentum per incident nucleon is constant and it equals 4.5 GeV/c. The experiments were carried out under the same conditions. _{p}. The points are the experimental data while the continuous lines are the result of fitting by the relation _{ }

where i = s or g. The values of the coefficients a_{i} are 0.39 ± 0.05 and 0.18 ± 0.01 and a_{i} are 2.21 ± 0.66 and

Projectile | s> | g> | Ref |
---|---|---|---|

^{1}H | 1.6 ± 0.1 | 2.8 ± 0.1 | [ |

^{2}H | 2.5 ± 0.1 | 3.9 ± 0.1 | [ |

^{3}H | 3.6 ± 0.1 | 3.1 ± 0.1 | [ |

^{4}He | 3.8 ± 0.1 | 4.4 ± 0.1 | [ |

^{12}C | 7.6 ± 0.2 | 5.9 ± 0.3 | [ |

^{16}O | 10.5 ± 0.6 | 7.6 ± 0.6 | [ |

^{28}Si | 11.9 ± 0.5 | 7.3 ± 0.3 | Present work |

3.11 ± 0.06 for shower and grey particles respectively. This result agrees with the fact that the interaction cross section is proportional to _{ }

In the present work, the probability of complete destruction of (Ag, Br) emulsion nuclei p is defined as the ratio between the number of events of n_{h} ³ 28 to the total number of inelastic interactions of the incident particle with (Ag, Br) nuclei. _{p} for various projectile nuclei, all at 4.5 A GeV/c. It is seen that the probability p increases linearly with ^{.} The values of the probability p, predicted by the cascade evaporation model [_{p} in the present experiment does not agree with the calculations of the cascade evaporation model.

For the events having n_{h} ≥ 28, and implying the complete destruction of the target nuclei, the relation between s> and the energy available E _{av} in the centre of mass system is shown in _{av} is given by: _{}

where M_{p}, is the projectile rest mass in GeV and _{0} is the projectile momentum in

GeV/c. The effective target mass M_{t} is equal to_{}

and the energy available in the centre of mass system, E_{av}, for different projectiles at the same incident momentum, which shows that as the projectile mass number increases, E_{av} increases and consequently s> increases. The dependence of s> on E _{av}, shown in _{ }

with A = −13.09 and B = 11.46.

In the present work, we studied the correlation of complete destruction (n_{h} ≥ 28) of (Ag, Br) emulsion nuclei induced by 4.5 A GeV/c ^{28}Si nuclei. The probability of complete destruction of AgBr nuclei different projectile at various energies is shown in [_{s}) and s> = f (n _{g}) for the event with n _{h} ≥ 28 accompanied by total target disintegration are presented in _{g}. This can be seen from the value of χ ^{2} for each type of particle. This means that the degree of _{ }

… | … | 14.02 ± 0.23 ^{ } | 0.87 | −15.60 ± 0.07 | 0.56 | 29.65 ± 0.16 | 0.95 | |

10.42 ± 0.76 | 0.96 | … | … | 19.60 ± 0.25 | 0.65 | 20.30 ± 0.69 | 0.95 | |

−33.10 ± 0.54 | 0.94 | 14.02 ± 0.23 | 0.84 | … | … | 27.09 ± 0.58 | 0.87 |

disintegration of the target does not depend strongly on the number of shower particles. One can observe the correlation between the fast and the slow stages of the inelastic interactions of tow nuclei by studying the dependencies b> = f (n _{s}), b> = f (n _{g}) and (n _{s}), (n _{g}) on the (n _{b}). From _{s} and n _{g} have negative slopes. Also, from the correlation dependencies of s>, g> and h> on n _{b}, one can see that the slope of h> is positive while the slopes of others are negative. From the above results, one can see that b> has a negative correlation with n _{s} and n _{g} and the correlation of s> and g> with the n _{b} is negative. This may be due to increase the number of interacting projectile nucleons as the impact parameter decreases. _{ }

From the present study, one may concluded that the average number of the shower particles is proportional to _{p}, and the average multiplicity of the emitted shower particles depends strongly on the projectile mass number, while does not for the grey and black can be particles. A good correlation between the energy available at the center of mass system, E_{av}, and the average multiplicity of the shower particles emitted in the complete destruction is found.

A. Abd EL-Daiem, (2016) Complete Destruction of Ag Br Emulsion Nuclei BY^{28}Si Ions with 4.5 GeV/Nucleon Energy. Journal of Modern Physics,07,1506-1511. doi: 10.4236/jmp.2016.712137