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The nature, origin and propagation of the electric field are discussed for the first time on the basis of the presence of vibrating strings in the space and their self-excitation process. It is considered that the electron is formed from strings and it has specific vibrational frequency. This excites the strings which are close by with the self-excitation process. This procedure which is continuous in the space according to the symmetry and vibrational energy in the form of waves spreads near the electron (or the charge particle), which behaves and carries energy known as electric field. In fact, the electron does not continuously emit energy in any form but induces (or excites) and organizes energy in a self-sustain vibrational form and extends in three dimensional space. Only on the basis of the presence of strings (vibrational energy), several electromagnetic phenomena have been explained in a consistent way. The vibrational nature of the electric field is also examined with the help of Stark effect and X-ray diffraction approach to support the present view.

In spite of several years of research work, important aspects of electric field are not well understood, particularly its nature and how it propagates in vacuum. According to the accepted theory [

This observation has no explanation on the basis of classical electrodynamics. However, in the frame work of Quantum Field Theory (QFT) some explanation is provided. According to it (QFT), there exist intermediate energy states. The sum of these states forms an integral which includes all energy states and momentum. Integrals related with momentum become divergent. The renormalization route converts them into virtual (off shell) particles. This results in absorption and emission of virtual particles by the electron (ultraviolet divergence). This hypothesis based on QFT theory helps to explain the conservation of the charge of the electron [

A virtual particle is an explanatory conceptual entity that is originated in mathematical calculations in quantum field theory and it is a confusing subject. This is a highly speculative assumption and the absorption of the virtual particle is neither conformed theoretically nor experimentally. Sometimes, it is considered as disturbances in the field. Meanwhile, the absorption of the field in vacuum by vibrating strings and its feedback process given by Van der Pol nonlinear differential equation do explain satisfactorily the conservation of charge and mass [

The other very significant and fundamental aspect is that the charge particle (positive or negative) forms equivi-potential circles (or points) and a field of lines (or sometimes field of force) are directed from the positive charge outwards in the space meanwhile for the negative charge the field of lines are attracted towards it [

Recently, some work has been carried out in this direction and Gauss law has been re-examined and it is established that the energy does absorb in vacuum and space is filled with an excitable medium [

A re-examination of Gauss law [

Moreover, the above point of view, namely the considerable absorption of vibrational energy associated with strings very close to the electron does explain the cloudy nature around the electron. The density of the cloud varies from point to point very close to the electron and this cloud moves with the electron. A careful measurement shows that the intensity of the electric field is slightly altered because of the shielding effect of clouds. In fact, the distribution of charge of the electron can be written as

where α_{observed} is the charge of the electron that is observed (1.6 × 10^{?19} Coulombs); α_{naked} is the true charge which is not measured and α_{cloud} is the charge distribution around the central part. According to the quantum mechanical model, at the central part of the electron the cloud density is maximum, while it reduces considerably outside.

This origin for the presence of clouds near the electron has never been examined critically. However, in the frame work of quantum field theory, it is explained on the basis of ultra-violet divergence of fields by using renormalization process. According to it, the contribution in the divergent integrals associated with the correction term to the mass or charge of the particle. However, the most important aspect namely the origin for α_{cloud}, the correction term to the cloud of electron, is not addressed in QFT [

Recently, several fundamental aspects of electromagnetic fields such as Maxwell’s equations [^{−33} cm). Several interesting aspects of the electric and magnetic fields are explained with branes, which are a physical entity that generalizes a point particle to higher dimensions. D_{1} brane is like a string, it vibrates and it also has quantum fluctuations. Several properties related with elementary particles have been explained with the extra dimensions of branes. According to the string theory, the D-brane plays a crucial role. It is assumed that it carries the electric or magnetic field and open strings couple to the electromagnetic field at their end points. Maxwell fields are associated with the attachment of the open string and D-brane (in an extra dimension). Even though a considerable work has been reported in this direction, a totally different approach is taken in the present work. It is worth mentioning that in this discussion only the presence of strings in the vacuum is taken into account as vibrating units and no other aspects of the string theory such as the presence of branes of any dimension (D_{0} (point), D_{1} (line), D_{2} (surface) and so on) are considered. Quantum harmonic oscillators (or vibrating units) in space permit us to consider conversion of energy into kinetic, potential and also in storage form. The direct consequence of it is that the space becomes an excitable medium through which the energy in some form can be transported (not by flow, motion or stream of any kind) by a non-conventional mechanism like propagation of induced “self-excited vibrations” in strings.

The other significant aspect of string theory is that particles are not point like. Instead they are vibrational modes. This means that elementary particles are formed from a specific arrangement of vibrating strings and therefore all particles have vibrating nature with specific frequency. In addition to this, the electron has a rotational motion (or spin). By considering the vibrational and rotational motions of electron, several properties of electromagnetism have been coherently explained earlier just by taking into account strings in a compact form of dry liquid [

In fact, as mentioned earlier, the electron does not emit energy or field. The vibrations associated with electrons induce excitations in vibrating strings with which the space is filled. A self-excitation process [

Self- excited systems begin to vibrate with their own accord under special conditions [

It is known from string theory that strings behave like quantum harmonic oscillators with quantum fluctuations (zero point energy) [

Now, let us imagine a vibrating electron (or charge particle) in three dimensional space which will induce self-activated vibrational energy in the nearest region. According to the symmetry, the nearest region will activate vibrations in strings which lie in the next circle and so on. After time t, the strings in radius ct will have vibration energy due to the self-activation process. However, it is worth to mention that the amplitude of vibrations (or the intensity) will go on reducing from one stage to another as the number of participating layers of strings increases [

To appreciate the nature of the electric field and its association with vibrations, it is necessary to examine the interaction of the electric field with vibrating systems as it is difficult to estimate or evaluate the properties directly because of unknown parameters of strings related with vibrations and quantum harmonic oscillators.

According to the string theory also, some of the properties of strings are associated with quantum harmonic oscillators [

Morse potential is an interatomic interaction model between two atoms or molecules. It is better approximated to the potential associated with the vibrational nature of the system [

Delly [

where f(E) is the perturbation induced by the applied electric field. Here r is the distance between two nucleus of interest and r_{o} is the equilibrium distance. Obviously “a” has dimensions of (length)^{−1}. De is the energy associated with the dissociation of the bond length. Taking into account the additional term, the frequency and the bond length have been examined for some molecules like Nacl, H_{2}O and experimental data are in agreement with the calculated values. The addition of the term f(E)∙r in the potential of the harmonic oscillator also implies that the energy associated with the electric field is related with the vibrational energy. This approach has been further extended by Hashjin and Mott [

The detailed calculations of energy splitting have been carried out earlier by Novotny [

It is known that an electric field, internal or externally applied, perturbs molecular vibrations considerably. The changes induced by the applied electric field are measured by VSE, thus it provides a direct mapping between vibrational modes and electric field.

One of the few experimental evidences where the electric field is directly related with the vibrational energy of the system at atomic or molecular level is Stark effect; which shows the shifting and splitting of energy states due to the presence of the external electric field. VSE provides a direct relation between the observed variation in the vibrational modes and the applied electric field. Recently, it has been suggested that the external electric field alters the potential energy of the surface perturbing the Morse potential of the molecule. This causes the change in the bond length and hence changes in the frequency. The field induced changes in the frequency and the force constant are given by [

where the subscript E shows the value perturbed by steady state electric field and subscript o denotes a free field value.

A detailed calculation has been carried out for the applied electric field and the field induced frequency is given [

where K is a constant and whose value depends upon the magnitude and direction of the applied electric field. The obtained results are compared with the calculated values for several molecules like H_{2}, N_{2}, O_{2} and F_{2} (homo-nuclear ) and HF, HCl, CO (hetero-nuclear) and they are in agreement .The details are given by Hashjin and Matt [

The additional effect is also observed by X-ray diffraction technique where the electric field induces the changes in the bond length or inter- atomic distances [

The electron and its associated field have vibrational nature. Therefore, it is interesting to examine other elementary particles and the nature of the corresponding fields. In a compact liquid, as considered in the present case, the mechanism associated with Van der Pol equation is not valid. However, a liquid in a confined region like the nucleus has several particles and their interacting fields which give rise to the damping coefficient and increase the magnitude of the constant of string µ. Van der Pol equation, therefore, might play a crucial role in the system which is given by [

Here ζ is a damping coefficient. Recently this equation has been solved by the algebraic method and it is found that constants ζ and µ play a very crucial role. The solution of the above equation is given [

where b and

The nature, origin and details of the propagation of the electric field on the basis of self-excitation process are discussed. Contrary to the accepted theories, it is found that the electron induced vibrational energy by self-ex- citation mechanism. The excitation process continues in space and the vibrational energy in the form of electric field spreads. Unexplained properties like electron cloud and Poincare stress become the natural consequences of the proposed theory. The electric field is examined with the help of VSE and X ray diffraction approaches. It is worth mentioning that several electromagnetic properties have been explained in a consistent manner by assuming only the presence of vibrating strings in the space.

Narahari V. Joshi, (2016) The Nature, Origin and Propagation of the Electric Field: A New Insight to Fundamental Physics. Journal of Modern Physics,07,1132-1137. doi: 10.4236/jmp.2016.710102