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The Current Standard Model of the Universe asserts that the universe is generated from a single Big Bang event followed by inflation. There is no center to this universe, hence, no preferential reference frame to describe the motions of celestial objects. We propose a new, Shell Model of the Universe, which contends that the universe is created from multiple, concentric big bangs. Accordingly, that origin presents itself as a unique, preferential reference frame, which furnishes the simplest description of the motions of galaxies in the cosmos. This is similar in manner to how planetary motion is more straightforwardly described via a sun-centered Solar System rather than an earth-centered one. The appeal of the Shell Model of the Universe lies in its simplistic ability to resolve the paradox of quasars, explain the variability in Hubble’s Constant, and solve the problematic accelerated expansion of the universe.

In 1929, Edwin Hubble discovered a linear relationship between the recession velocities of remote galaxies,

is known today as Hubble’s Law, where Hubble’s Constant,

where z is defined to be

frame, and

Spurred by curiosity and concepts from Hubble’s Law, astronomers sought a means of probing into the early expansion history of the universe, which entailed studying relatively distant galaxies. The more remote an object is, the greater the amount of time required for the light to reach us, and thus the further one would be looking back into time. To conduct this probe into the past, it was necessary to find a means of measuring distances to extremely remote galaxies. This could easily be achieved by employing a “standard candle,” which is defined to be any distinguishable class of astronomical objects of known intrinsic brightness that can be defined over a wide distance range [

where f is the apparent brightness of the celestial body. The quest to find such a “standard candle” was fulfilled with the suggestion to use the intensely studied type Ia supernovae.

Astronomers jumped at the chance to employ this newly discovered astronomical tool, feverishly searching for distant type Ia supernovae to probe into the universe’s expansion history. By studying remote members of this class of stellar objects, scientists expected to find the expansion rate of the universe to be decreasing over time. Their expectations were largely influenced by the standard model of the universe at that time, which stated that our mass-dominated universe arose following the Big Bang and inflation [

After studying a number of distant type Ia supernovae, astronomers discovered these objects to be at greater distances,

In addition to helping shape the Current Standard Model of the Universe, Hubble’s Law also has implications to many other aspects of astronomy. In particular, this simple concept has affected how astronomers view the nature of quasars. Quasars, often referred to as quasi-stellar objects or QSO’s for short, were first discovered in 1963^{1}. Their most intriguing aspect lies in their enormously high redshifts, which by Hubble’s Law implies that they are receding away from us at extremely high relative velocities. The exceedingly large recession velocities of quasars imply that they are at distances of 5 to 10 billion light years from the earth. Furthermore, the apparent brightness of a QSO at such enormous separations would imply an energy output of 100 times that of the entire Milky Way Galaxy generated by an object roughly the size of our Solar System! There is no simple explanation for these phenomena, and it is proposed that matter falling into very massive black holes is the mechanism whereby such enormous amounts of energy are energy.

The variations in Hubble’s Constant, the accelerated expansion of the universe, and the tremendous power output of quasars are all explained by the Current Standard Model of the Universe using rather complicated mathematical models. The Shell Model of the Universe was developed to provide a new, alternative framework for interpreting astronomical observations. This unconventional model asserts that the universe is comprised of numerous radially-expanding, concentric, galactic shells, each the result of a big bang.

In order for the framework provided by the Shell Model of the Universe to be relevant and useful for discussing astronomical phenomena, it must be based on real observations. Because no galaxies observed have exhibited blueshifts, only redshifts, the multiple big bangs must have a common center. One piece of data that is crucial to the construction of this model is the largest observed redshift of

For simplicity, this model ignores the decelerating effects of gravitation and assumes that the five galactic shells all have the same, constant radial expansion velocity of

This section will outline the methodology used to arrive at a value of ^{2} belongs to a quasar. By substituting that value into the aforementioned Doppler relation stated in (2), we can determine that the quasar is receding away from us at the tremendous relative velocity of

Utilizing this conception, the calculation of the expansion velocity of the galactic shells, i.e. the expansion velocity of the universe, becomes a straightforward task.

In these formulae, u is oriented parallel to

In this model, S will designate the reference frame located at the center of the big bangs. M will represent the Milky Way’s (our) reference frame, which travels along the positive x-direction at the expansion velocity of

Thus, for a relative velocity of

In this section, we focus our attention on determining the age and the number of galactic shells, correspondingly, the time in between and abundance of big bangs. Hubble’s Constant,

The model that will be employed later for discussion purposes asserts that the universe was created 19.5 billion years ago, when the first big bang generated the outermost of the five shells in our universe^{3}. Accompanying the first big bang was the first inflation that sent the mass engendered flying radially outwards at very rapid speeds. As the effects of inflation subsided, the outermost shell settled at the current expansion velocity of

Five billion years after that first cataclysmic event, another big bang generated the second to the outermost shell. Following a period of inflation, that shell also settled at its current expansion velocity of^{4}.

elapsing and space being occupied [

Now that a working Shell Model of the Universe has been constructed, we will proceed to examine its utility in interpreting astronomical observations.

In the proceeding discussion, we will establish a geometric relationship for determining a galaxy’s relative velocity with respect to us. It may be helpful to make references to

As a concrete example, a value of 30˚ will be substituted for

To determine the location of Galaxy X, where the light we are currently receiving was emitted from, three general cases must be considered. There is the first case of a galaxy residing on the same shell as ours, the second case

of a galaxy residing on an inner shell with respect to ours, and the third case of a galaxy residing on an outer shell with respect to ours.

This section will draw upon numerous references to

and B and M at a radius of

consistent with principles stating that movement is the most fundamental quantity/unit; only when we have movement, we have the concepts of elapsing and space being occupied, discussed earlier in Section 2.3.

When we take a gander up at the night sky and see Galaxy B, we are not looking at Galaxy B at its present location. Rather, we are looking at Galaxy B of the past and light that is t years old from a time when Galaxy B was still at B′. Thus, when astronomers measure the distance to Galaxy B, they are actually measuring the distance to B′ and not to Galaxy B′s current location, which is presently unobservable. Here we make the distinction that the measured astronomical distances are actually the distances traveled by the light before hitting our eyes or instrument (the light-traveled distances, d) and not the actual distance to the celestial object’s current position. Computing d is straightforward, as it is simply a product of the speed of light and the time traveled by the light, i.e.

This concept is extremely important, because it is this the accurate measurement of this value that sparked the search for a standard candle. It was also the employment of this value in calculating Hubble’s Constants of the past and present that led to the conclusion that our universe was undergoing an accelerated expansion.

Another important relation,

can be derived from this diagram using the law of cosines. Using this formula, we are able to calculate t, given the expansion velocity of the universe, the current age of our shell, and

As an example, if the age of our shell is

It will be helpful to refer to

and the radius of the shell in which M is located is given by the same relation stated in (8).

Because it has taken the light emitted when Galaxy A was at position A’ a time of t to reach the observer at M, the light-traveled distance is

Reasonable values for V and ^{5} for T. The coordinates of A' are given by (11a-b).

If

In this final case under consideration, it would be informative to refer to

and M at a radius given by (8).

It has taken the light emitted by Galaxy C when it was at C′ a total of t years to reach an observer at M. Hence,

the distance from M to C′ is, again, simply

can be derived to solve for t. Again, values for the expansion velocity of the universe (V) and the age of our shell (

For example, if

Assuming that our universe can be modeled by a Shell Model of the Universe consisting of five shells: 1) the shell containing our galaxy, which is at an age of 13.5 billion years, 2) a shell one billion years younger than ours at an age of 12.5 billion years, 3) a shell one billion years older than ours at an age of 14.5 billion years, 4) a shell six billion years younger than ours at an age of 7.5 billion years, and 6) a shell six billion years younger than ours at an age of 19.5 billion years,

The previous sections provided us with the means of constructing a view of the universe based our limited, historically-based perspective (see

Additionally, we derived methods for determining the light-traveled distance,

Suppose Galaxies A, B, and C are all expanding along the same line, such that their trajectory vectors make a 30 degree angle, _{0} = 13.5 Gyr, we can arrive at and compare the ratio of

Solving the first law of cosines Equation (10) for t and multiplying by c, we obtain a value of

for Galaxy B at B′.

By solving for t in (13) and multiplying by the speed of light, we calculate the light-traveled distance to be

for Galaxy A at A′.

Similarly, by deriving t from Equation (15) and multiplying by c, we arrive at a value of

for Galaxy C at C′.

Because the recession velocity for all three of these galaxies is the same, the only factor in the variability of

yielding the smallest values and those at the closest proximity producing the largest numbers. These results imply that as we look further and further back into time, i.e. we look at more and more distant galaxies, “Hubble’s

Constant” decreases. Thus, as the universe has aged, the ratio of

Model of the Universe, the resulting increasing progressing in “Hubble’s Constant” with the passage of time implies an accelerated expansion of the universe. The ever elusive dark energy is purported to be the driving force behind this increase. However, throughout this discussion and the history of the Shell Model of the Universe, it has been assumed that the expansion velocity of the universe has remained a constant,

tion in the ratio of

Dark energy has no place in this new model.

The appeal to this new Shell Model of the Universe over the Current Standard Model of the Universe lies in its simplicity and its ability to straightforwardly address the quasar paradox, the variation in “Hubble’s Constant,” and the purported accelerated expansion of the universe. Consideration of this new model would seriously call to question not only the current model but more fundamentally, Hubble’s Law. Just from the example above, we see that there is no one-to-one correspondence between

A useful model should not only be able to explain current phenomena but should also be able to make predictions.

Previously, in

younger than ours. We cannot calculate a ratio for

cannot gather data from things we cannot see. In the subsequent discussion, we will calculate where that cutoff is, i.e. what is the youngest a shell can be for us to be able to see it. Looking at

and 2) that light has traveled the distance that we are from the origin of the multiple big bangs, i.e.

From equations (8) and (9), we saw that

In our current working model

The final prediction that will be discussed will utilize

observe galaxies with redshifts less that or equal to

and

This new Shell Model of the Universe has been constructed to provide simpler explanations to astronomical phenomena. This model has parsimoniously addressed the quasar paradox, the variability of “Hubble’s Constant,” and the purported accelerated expansion of the universe, something which the Current Standard Model of the Universe has had limited success with. In science, Ockham’s Razor reigns supreme.

Tower Chen,Zeon Chen, (2016) The Shell Model of the Universe: A Universe Generated from Multiple Big Bangs. Journal of Modern Physics,07,611-626. doi: 10.4236/jmp.2016.77062