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This study examines the Benard convection of an infinite horizontal porous layer permeated by an incompressible thermally conducting viscous fluid in the presence of Coriolis forces. The porous layer is controlled by the Brinkman model. Analytical and numerical solutions are obtained for the cases of stationary convection and overstability. The critical thermal Rayleigh numbers are obtained for different values of the permeability of porous medium, Chandrasekhar number and Taylor number for different boundary conditions. The related eigenvalue problem is solved using the Chebyshev polynomial Tau method.

In recent years, considerable attention has been paid to thermal instability theory in fluid. The convection in a thin horizontal layer of fluid heated from below is well suited to illustrate the many facts, mathematical and physical, of the general theory of hydrodynamic stability. The earliest experiments demonstrated the onset of thermal instability in fluids, are those of Benard [

The stability of Benard problem for a fluid in a porous medium has been examined by Horton and Rogers [

Rotating Rayleigh-Benard convection has important applications in geophysical and astrophysical flows as well as industrial applications. Many flows in nature are driven by buoyant convection and subsequently modulated by rotation. Such systems are relevant to numerous astrophysical and geophysical phenomena, including convection in arctic ocean, in the earth’s outer core, in the interior of gaseous giant planets and the outer layer of the sun. Thus the problem is of interest in a wide range of sciences including geology, oceanography, climatology and astrophysics.

In this work Benard convection in a horizontal porous layer affected by rotation is studied for both stationary and overstability cases with different boundary conditions. Analytical and numerical solutions will be obtained. The numerical method used to solve the problem is the Chebyshev Tau method. This method is better suited to the solution of hydrodynamic stability problems than expansions in other sets of orthogonal polynomials. Several authors used this method to obtain numerical solutions of thermal stability problems [

Consider an infinite horizontal porous layer permeated by an incompressible viscous fluid which is heated from below and confined between the planes x_{3} = 0, and x_{3} = d. The layer is subjected to a constant gravitational acceleration g in the negative x_{3} direction and is rotated about the x_{3} axis at a constant angular velocity_{3}-axis is aligned vertically upwards.

If the Boussinesq approximation is adopted, i.e.

where _{0} and

where P is the pressure, _{1} is the permeability of porous medium and _{3}-direction, that is a solution of the form

Thus

where

Now let the basic solution be slightly perturbed such that

Substitute in Equations (1)-(3) and linearize these equations to obtain

We now introduce the dimensionless variables as follows

Then Equations (6)-(9) take the form

where the hat superscript has been dropped but all the variables are non-dimensional and where

The non-dimensional numbers R, N, P_{r} and T_{a} are the Rayleigh number, the permeability of porous medium, the Prandtl number and the Taylor number respectively. Apply the curl operator to Equation (11) we obtain

where

The related boundary conditions are

The differential Equations (12)-(14) and the boundary conditions (15) and (16) constitute a linear boundary value problem that can be solved using the method of normal modes. We write

where

where

which is an eighth order ordinary differential equation to be satisfied by w.

Here we shall consider both boundaries to be free but later on we shall present results for the corresponding rigid boundary value problem. For the free boundary value problem,

Thus Equation (17) has eigenfunctions

The solutions of (22) are functions of

Here we put H = 1 in Equation (22) and we need to discuss the roots of the polynomial equation

Thus if

Here

To determine the critical Rayleigh number for the onset of stationary convection we set

The critical Rayleigh number can be obtained by minimizing R over the wave number for several values of N and

which means that rotation has a stabilizing effect on the system, and the permeability of porous medium has a stabilizing effect on the system provided that

To obtain the critical Rayleigh number for the overstability case we suppose that

where

Equating the real and imaginary parts of this equation we obtain the following pair of equations

From Equation (28) we obtain

from which we conclude that in order for

So in order to have overstability the condition (30) must be satisfied. This condition can be satisfied provided

1)

Substitute for

from which we conclude that

i.e. rotation has a stabilizing effect on the system but the permeability of porous medium has a destabilizing effect on the system.

The differential Equations (18)-(20) together with the boundary conditions (15) and (16) are to be solved numerically for the case when the fluid layer is heated from below using the method of expansion of Chebyshev polynomials. We express all the variables of the problem in terms of Chebyshev polynomials in the following way

Substitute into Equations (18)-(20) and the boundary conditions to obtain an eigenvalue problem of the form

The relation between the Taylor number, T_{a}, and the critical Rayleigh number, R, for different values of the non-dimensional permeability of porous medium, N, when both boundaries are free for the stationary convection case is displayed in _{a} is less than a certain value and when T_{a} exceeds that value then R increases as N increases which indicates that rotation has a profound effect on the effect of the non- dimensional permeability of porous medium. These results coincide exactly with Equations (24) in the analytic solution. In case of no porosity the critical Rayleigh number, R, is less than that of the porous medium case provided T_{a} is less than a certain value and when T_{a} exceeds that value then the critical Rayleigh number in the absence of porous medium case is always higher.

In the overstability case, the relation between the Taylor number, T_{a}, and the critical Rayleigh number, R, when both boundaries are free for different values of N is displayed in _{a} increases, R increases which indicates that rotation has a stabilizing effect on the system in this case also. Moreover as N decreases, R increases for all values of

medium permeability decreases. In case of no porosity the critical Rayleigh number, R, is less than the corresponding Rayleigh number in porous medium for all values of T_{a}.

It is important to remark that in absence of porous medium, which is the classical Benard problem under the effect of rotation, overstability appears when the Taylor number, T_{a}, exceeds a certain value and the Prandtl number P_{r} < 1. In this work this result is proved analytically and numerically in the presence of porous medium.

A comparison between the stationary convection and overstability cases when both boundaries are free is displayed in _{r} < 1 and the Taylor number, T_{a}, exceeds a certain critical value. This critical value of T_{a} increases as N decreases. Moreover for the overstability case we notice that as P_{r} increases the critical Rayleigh number, R, increases which indicates that the Prandtl number has a stabilizing effect on the system.

Numerical results are also obtained when both boundaries are rigid. In this case the relation between the Taylor number, T_{a}, and the critical Rayleigh number, R, for different values of the non-dimensional permeability of porous medium, N, for the stationary convection case is displayed in _{a} increases R increases which indicates that rotation has a stabilizing effect on the system. Moreover as N increases R decreases for all values of T_{a} and we notice here that this conclusion is different from that in the case when both boundaries are free. In case of no porosity the critical Rayleigh number, R, is always less than the corresponding Rayleigh number in porous medium for all values of T_{a}.

In case of overstability, the relation between the Taylor number, T_{a}, and the critical Rayleigh number, R, when both boundaries are rigid for different values of N is displayed in

as T_{a} increases, R increases which indicates that rotation has a stabilizing effect on the system in this case also. Moreover as N increases, R decreases for all values of T_{a}. i.e. the system becomes more stable as the porous medium permeability decreases. In case of no porosity the critical Rayleigh number, R, is always less than the corresponding Rayleigh number in porous medium for all values of T_{a}.

A comparison between the stationary convection and overstability cases when both boundaries are rigid is displayed in _{r} < 1 and the Taylor number T_{a}, exceeds a certain critical value. This critical value of T_{a} increases as N decreases. Moreover for the overstability case we notice that as P_{r} increases the critical Rayleigh number, R, increases which indicates that the Prandtl number has a stabilizing effect on the system.

A comparison between the free and rigid boundaries in the stationary convection case is shown in

The Benard convection in a horizontal porous layer is investigated when the layer is affected by rotation. Analytical and numerical solutions are obtained for the stationary convection and overstability cases. The numerical results are in agreement with the analytical solutions obtained. In the free boundary problem it appears that

rotation has a profound effect on the permeability of porous medium for the stationary convection case. In general the effect of permeability of porous medium is to destabilize the system. In case of no porosity it appears that the system is less stable than the corresponding one in presence of porosity.

The authors would like to thank Institute of Scientific Research and Revival of Islamic Heritage at Umm Al-Qura University (Project ID 43205018) for the financial support.

Abdullah AhmadAbdullah,Abeer HabeebullahBakhsh, (2015) Rayleigh-Benard Instability in a Horizontal Porous Layer Affected by Rotation. Applied Mathematics,06,2300-2310. doi: 10.4236/am.2015.614202