^{1}

^{2}

^{*}

The present calculations of three geometry conformation for tetrahydrofuran (THF, C_{4}H_{8}O) using density functional theory lead to the energy level sequence *E*(C_{1}) < *E*(C_{s}) < *E*(C_{2v}), where, both the geometry symmetry C_{2v} and C_{s }are probably a transition structure. The C_{1} symmetry is the equilibrium conformation, for its energy is the lowest one and it is only possible without the negative harmonic frequency. In C_{1} conformation, the 4 of carbon atoms C and oxygen atom O constitute a curved surface or the helix surface. The tetrahydrofuran molecule can be as a simple prototype of deoxyribose and has been reviving a quite deal of interest in radiation damage research. It is well known that the sugar ring of deoxyribose is considered as a plane in most of the references. If the equilibrium conformation of THF is C_{1} symmetry with the helix surface, and for the same reason, the sugar ring of deoxyribose would be also the helix surface; this probably causes the double helix of DNA. It is hardly believed that the sugar ring is a plane in deoxyribose.

Tetrahydrofuran (THF) also called diethylene oxide or oxacyclopentane is a good solvent, and the study of its structure is a current focus for it can be as a moiety of nucleosides. It is well-known that a large amount of energy deposited in living cells by ionizing radiation is channeled into the production of low-energy secondary electrons. Therefore, investigation of radiation damage in living tissue upon exposure to high-energy radiation must include and apprehend these subsequent processes describing reaction between secondary electrons and cell constitutes. The dissociation of small DNA’s basic components as a function of incident energy of bombarding electrons has been shown to correlate to the measured DNA damage [_{4}H_{8}O) has revived a quite deal of interest in radiation damage research in recent years.

Where (a) is the tetrahydrofuran molecule (C_{4}H_{8}O), (b) is the deoxyribose ring.

Several papers on electron interaction with either gaseous or surface deposited THF have been recently published, which consider electron spectroscopy of resonance-enhanced vibration excitation [^{−} from thin films [3,4] and electron induced damage of solid THF film [

Since the discovery of the DNA double helix in 1953 [_{2} group, which may be a transition structure [7,8]. However, ab initio calculation predicts that the equilibrium structure of THF is an envelope conformation of C_{s} [

In DFT, electronic energy E is divided into several components,

where E^{T} is the electronic kinetic energy, E^{V} is the potential energy including the electron-nucleus attraction and nucleus-nucleus repulsion, E^{J} is the electron-electron repulsion, and E^{XC} is the exchange-correlation. Except nucleus-nucleus repulsion, each term can be expressed as the function of electron density

,(3)

where all the three terms are the functions of electron density. E^{X}(ρ) and E^{C}(ρ) are the exchange and correlation functional, respectively, the former is a local functional only related with the electron density, and the later is a gradient-corrected functional related with the electron density and its gradient Ñρ. In 1988, Becke [

where ρ is a function of r, , γ is a parameter fitted with the exchange energy of noble atoms (γ = 0.0042 a.u.). Similarly, in 1992, Perdew and Wang [

suggested a corrected functional as

where

Here r_{s} is the density parameter and ζ is the correlated spin polarization. DFT is a joint calculation with the exchange and correlation functional. The B3LYP method is to combine Becke’s exchange functional and the correlated functional of Lee, Yang and Parr, with both are gradient-corrected. The local correlation functional is from Vosko, Wilk and Nusair(VWN). Then the so-called Becke’s three parameter functional [

Using G1 method, Becke has obtained: c_{0} = 0.20, c_{X} = 0.72 and c_{C} = 0.81 by optimizing of exchange and correlation energy. The Eq.9 with the lower energy calculated will be used for the presented DFT-SCF calculations.

The molecular electronic state is the irreducible representation of molecular group, therefore, before the calculation, it is necessary to derive the possible electronic states based on the resolution, reduction and product of group representation [16-19]. Now, we derive the possible electronic states for some of possible symmetry groups, for example, tetrahydrofuran (THF) will be possible group C_{2v}, C_{s}, or C_{1}.

For simplicity, we firstly derive the electronic state of furan (C_{4}H_{4}O), its ground state is known as of C_{2v}. It is supposed that we have the following reaction

All the irreducible representation for given the reactive molecules with given state are resolved into the irreducible representation of molecular group C_{2v} of C_{4}H_{4}O, as follows. Oxygen O atom must be the singlet excited state, in order to result the singlet ground state of furan based on the quantization vector addition of spin. The resolution of the irreducible representation, i.e. the electronic state for 2 of C_{2} and 2 of H_{2}, all are the same as

And the resolution of of O atom is

The direct product will be

There will be component for furan (C_{4}H_{4}O) i.e. the allowed electronic state.

For tetrahydrofuran (THF), we have the following reaction

Here, we only list these results by a table without the details of derivation.

The molecular property without indicating the symmetry and electronic state is meaningless. The electronic states derived here are proved by the following calculations.

The present calculation is based on the density functional theory (DFT) described above and used the B3P86 method of Eq.9 with basis set 6-311G**.The calculated energy with B3P86 is usually the lowest one. The GAUSSIAN03 [

The calculated geometry of C_{2v} is shown in _{2v} and C_{2} is z-axis passing through oxygen atom O and bisecting the opposite bond C-C. The electronic state is and triplet state is in a high level by 6.569 eV than. Each carbon atoms C is not to be sp^{2} hybridization, for each carbon atoms C has four bonds to connect four of atoms, then, it will be impossible to have plane structure. In addition, the lowest two of 33 harmonic frequencies (cm^{–}^{1}) are negative, i.e. B_{1} = –222.7; A_{2} = –207.4 (To see the end of _{2v} geometry would be a transition state, which is agreement with reference [7-9]. This is why to have energy level sequence C_{1} < C_{s} < C_{2v}.

The calculated geometry of C_{s} is shown in _{s} conformation [_{s} is a little lower than that of C_{2v}. The lowest two of 33 harmonic frequencies (cm^{–}^{1}) are also negative, i.e. A" = –222.8; A" = –207.7 (To see the end of _{s} would be a transition state, and is not a ground state which is contrary to that of [

The calculated geometry of C_{1} is shown in ^{−1} than that of C_{2v} with. The harmonic frequencies (cm^{−1}) for the C_{1} geometry are A = 53.91, A = 266.1, A = 576.1,···, A = 3080, A = 3113.8 and A = 3122.3. Moreover, the important thing is no negative value only for this conformation, Therefore, the ground electronic state is for tetrahydrofuran (THF) in which 4 of carbon atoms C and oxygen atom O do not constitute a plane, but, like a “wave plane”, or the “helix surface” as shown in

The calculations with method B3P86/6-311G** show that the energy level sequence is for tetrahydrofuran (THF). Although the symmetry of C_{2v} is relatively high, the energy of is not the lowest, or the highest one. And there are two of negative harmonic frequencies. Therefore, the C_{2v} conformation with state is probably a transition structure.

For C_{s} conformation with state, there are also two of negative harmonic frequencies and it is not possible to be the equilibrium conformation of THF. This would be contrary to Reference [

The C_{1} symmetry with ground state () is the equilibrium conformation of THF, we believe, for its energy is the lowest one and it is only possible without the negative harmonic frequency. In this conformation the 4 of carbon atoms C and oxygen atom O constitute a curved surface or the helix surface shown in

In the C_{2v} conformation, 4 of carbon atoms C and oxygen atom O all are on a plane, and for the C_{s} conformation, 4 of carbon atoms C are on a plane, both of them would be under the much molecular internal stress-strain, because of no sp^{2} hybridization for each carbon atoms C as described above.

As mentioned before, tetrahydrofuran (THF) molecule (C_{4}H_{8}O) can be as a simple prototype of deoxyribose and has been reviving a quite deal of interest in radiation damage research. It is well known that the sugar ring of deoxyribose is considered as a plane in most of the references such as [_{1} symmetry with the helix surface, and the sugar ring of deoxyribose would be the helix surface, this

probably causes the double helix of DNA. It is hardly believed that the sugar ring is a plane in deoxyribose ring. Many of properties for molecular biology, for example, the sugar moiety itself in DNA being active in the initial molecular processes leading to single strand breaks, have been studied [

This work is supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Hainan (Grant No.110001).