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The paper is devoted to study theoretically, the effects of some parameters on the visibility of the speckle patterns. For this propose, a theoretical model for a periodic rough surface was considered. Using this theoretical model, the effects of grain height, its density, the band width and spectral distribution of the line profile (Gaussian and Lorentzian) illuminating a rough surface on the visibility of speckle pattern are investigated. An experimental setup was constructed to study the effect of surface roughness and coherence of the illuminating light beam on the contrast of speckle pattern. The general behavior of the experimental results, which agree with published data, is compatible with the new theoretical model.

Speckle metrology techniques are promise to be a fruitful approach for solving a number of difficult problems in industry. The speckle pattern technique seems to be well suited for problems involving surface phenomena, fragile specimens and others [1-3]. A speckle pattern formed by partially spatially coherent light has been studied theoretically by many authors [4-6]. Fujii and Asakura [^{ }as a function of the temporal coherence function and an equivalent optical^{ }transfer function. The relation between the statistical^{ }properties of the speckle pattern and the coherence^{ }characteristics of the illuminating source have been^{ }studied by Asakura et al. [

Suppose a grain of dimension (a, b) is located on the surface of the transparent diffuser (_{i}, y_{i}, 0). The wave function scattered from an element of dimensions (dx_{i}, dy_{i}, 0) located at position (x, y, 0) and illuminating a point P_{ }of coordinates (X, Y, Z) on a screen placed a distance apart from the diffuser is given by

where is the scattered amplitude per unit area from the diffuser,

Let the grain under study is of dimensions a, b, and position (x_{i}, y_{i}, 0).

For and x_{i }, and and y_{i} we get:

Using the Bernwlli inequality, one gets

for. Thus r can be written as

The integration of the wave amplitude given by Equation (5), over the entire area of a grain pensioned on (x_{i}, y_{i}, 0) gives the resultant wave amplitude emitted from and reaching point P_{ }on the screen as

Let now another type of grain of thickness

where is the refracted index of used diffuser. Since the amplitude is considered to be constant. Thus the wave amplitude reaching the point P from the second grain type will be given by:

with

where. Using the binomial expansion theorem one gets after excluding the higher terms

Let now an N × N number of grains of the first type per unit area be resident on the diffuser, thus the resultant wave amplitude reaching the point P on the screen will be given by:

i.e.

where, and.

Similarly for the second type of the grains of number N × N per unit area, the resultant wave reaching the point P will be given by:

From Equations (11) and (12), it is seen that the phase difference between the two resultant waves is given by:

Since

with Equation (14) becomes

For and, it follows and.

Setting Y = 0, and can be rewrite in the form

with,

and

Thus the intensity can be written as

Setting, where

and, where (21)

In the forgoing derivation, monochromatic irradiation of the rough surface was considered. In the paragraph to follow, the rough surface will be assumed to be non-monochromatic having different spectral distribution.

Assuming a symmetrical spectral line profile around having a half width and given by the

to irradiate the rough surface of the target where and.

The intensity on the screen might be given by:

Setting

, and .

The integration of (26) gives, with the following expression for the intensity distribution

From (27) it is obvious that the intensity reaches its maximum as, and its minimum as, with. Considering the above conditions for maximum and minimum intensity in (27) and setting the obtained expressions for and, one obtains,

In this case it is assumed that a symmetrical spectral line profile around following a Lorentizian profile function,

where

The intensity distribution is

where

ForThen I_{L}_{ } can be written as

From (32) it is obvious that the intensity is a maximum as, and its minimum as, with. Setting the above conditions in (32), one gets after determining and the following equation for the visibility

To illustrate the dependence of the visibility on the grain height (surface roughness, the spectral half width, and the density of the grains, Equations (28) and (33) are computed for great distance between the diffuser and the screen, this distance chosen in the computation to be equal 400 cm. The area of the diffuser is constant = 1 cm^{2}. ^{6} in cm^{2 }and 50 μm respectively. From the figure it is evident that the visibility of Gaussian distribution is greater than that obtained from Lorentzian one considers the same half width is due to the higher effective spectral band width in the Lorentzian distribution which is larger than that in the case of the Gaussian one. The obtained behavior is in agreement with experimental data given in [6,11,12].

At a grain height of 10 μm, a spectral half width of 10^{12} Hz and varying grain width, Equations (28) and (33) were computed to study the effect of the grain density on the visibility of speckle patterns.

dependence of the visibility of speckle patterns on the grain width in case of Gaussian and Lorentzian profiles. It is evident that the greater density of the grains yields higher visibility of the speckle patterns. This behavior can be interpreted by the following: By increasing the density, the randomization in difference between the interfering beam become smaller leading to increase the visibility.

By keeping grain width equals 10μm and varying the grain height, Equations (28) and (33) were computed also to study the effect height on the visibility of the speckle patterns. ^{12} Hz. ^{13} Hz. It is evident that by increasing the half width of the ra-

diation, the visibility of speckle patterns decreases. It is due to the inverse dependence of the degree of coherence of the light beam and its half width.

To verify the theoretical model an experiment as shown in

coherent light.

By using software program (Image J), the value of the mean intensity and the standard deviation σ_{i }of the speckle pattern was obtained and substituted in the contrast equation.

^{13} Hz, 2.59 × 10^{13} Hz, 1.857 × 10^{13} Hz, 1.295 × 10^{13} Hz respectively.