Energy and Power Engineering, 2009, 100-109
doi:10.4236/epe.2009.12016 Published Online November 2009 (
Copyright © 2009 SciRes EPE
Power Management Integrated Circuit with 90Plus
Efficiency Used in AC/DC Converter
Yanfeng JIANG
Microelectronic Center, College of Information Engineering, North China University of Technology, Beijing,
Abstract: Recently, resonant AC/DC converter has been accepted by the industry. However, the efficiency
will be decreased at light load. So, a novel topology with critical controlling mode combined with resonant
ones is proposed in this paper. The new topology can correspond to a 90 plus percent of power converting.
Soa novel topology of an state of-art integrated circuit, which can be used as power management circuit, has
been designed based on the above new topology. A simulator which is specific suitable for the power con-
troller has been founded in this work and it has been used for the simulation of the novel architecture and the
proposed integrated circuit.
Keywords: integrated circuit, power management, resonant
1. Introduction
Energy consumption has become one of the primary
concerns in electronic design due to the recent popularity
of portable devices and environmental concerns related
to desktops and servers.[1] The battery capacity has im-
proved very slowly (a factor of 2 to 4 over the last 30
years), while the computational demands have drastically
increased over the same time frame.
The resonant controller of AC/DC output mainly uses
series resonant as the main structure, it is categorized
into two operating zone for load curve [2]. SRC is oper-
ated on the resonant point (operated in the inductor load
area); LLC is operated below the resonant point and be-
tween the second resonant point (operated at the inductor
load area). Figure 1 (SRC) and Figure 2 (LLC) below
gives further explanation.
Figure 1. SRC load curve
Y. F. JIANG 101
Figure 2. LLC load curve
From Figure 1 SRC load curve, it can be seen that the
resonant controller’s operating zone, frequency is from
Fmin~Fmax. In other words, the switching frequency
Fsw operate above the resonant point Fsw>=Fr.[3]
From Figure 1 SRC load curve, it can be seen that the
frequency of the resonant controller’s operating zone is
from Fmin~Fmax. In other words, when operating above
the second resonant point and between Fsw>=Fr2~Fr1,
at light load the frequency will be Fsw>Fr1. Therefore,
comparing the advantage and disadvantage when de-
signing SRC and LLC, LLC is by far more difficult to
design compared to SRC. It is difficult to design if load
curve is not simulated, so SRC is much easier to design
because it only needs to design on a single resonant point.
There will not be design issues even if simulation is not
done. So, as to the serial resonant controller, there are
two operating zone. SRC is the one with switching fre-
quency operated on the resonant frequency while LLC
operates between two resonant points, therefore LLC
design is comparatively difficult.
For the SRC converter, it can be operated at high effi-
ciency at normal mode, even surplus 90 percent. How-
ever, it will be decreased dramatically at light load. So,
the total efficiency during the work period is not an ideal
one. Authors in this paper have demonstrated that the
SRC converter can be combined with different operation
modes, CCM and DCM modes. At light load, the con-
verter can be changed into DCM mode. In this way, the
novel converter can have an enough high efficiency,
even as high as 92%. [4]
2. Design of Critical Switching Mode
Switch Mode Power Supplies (SMPS) can operate in two
different conduction modes, each one depicting the level
of the current circulating in the power choke when the
power switch is turned on. As will be shown, the proper-
ties of two black boxes delivering the same power levels
but working in different conduction modes, will change
dramatically in DC and AC conditions. The stress upon
the power elements they are made of will also be af-
fected. This article explains why the vast majority of
low-power FLYBACK SMPS (off-line cellular battery
chargers, VCRs etc.) operate in the discontinuous area
and present a new integrated solution especially dedi-
cated to these particular converters.
Figure 3a and 3b show the general shape of a current
flowing through the converter’s coil during a few cycles.
In the picture, the current ramps up when the switch is
closed (ON time) building magnetic field in the induc-
tor’s core. When the switch opens (OFF time), the mag-
netic field collapses and, according to LENZ’s law, [5]
the voltage across the inductance reverses. In that case,
the current has to find some way to continue its flow and
start its decrease (in the output network for a FLYBACK,
through the freewheel diode in a BUCK etc.).
If the switch is switched ON again during the ramp
down cycle, before the current reaches zero (Figure 3a),
we talk about Continuous Conduction Mode (CCM).
Now, if the energy storage capability of the coil is such
that its current dries out to zero during OFF time, the
Copyright © 2009 SciRes EPE
Figure 3. General shape of a current flowing through the converter’s coil during a few cycles at different modes ( Figure 3a.
CCM mode; Figure 3b. DCM mode)
Figure 4. Schematic for determining critical state (Figure 4a. Circuitry schematic of FLYBACK topology; Figure 4b. Voltage
wave of Secondary coil)
supply is said to operate in Discontinuous Conduction
Mode (DCM), as shown in Figure 3(b). The amount of
dead-time where the current stays at a null level defines
how strongly the supply operates in DCM. If the current
through the coil reaches zero and the switch turns ON
immediately (no dead-time), the converter operates in
Critical Conduction Mode.
There are three ways you can think of the boundary
between the modes. One is about the critical value of the
inductance, LC, for which the supply will work in either
CCM or DCM given a fixed nominal load. The second
deals with a known inductance L. What level of load, RC,
will push my supply into CCM? Or what minimum load
my SMPS should see before entering DCM? The third
one uses fixed values of the above elements but adjusts
the operating frequency, FC, to stay in critical conduc-
tion. These questions can be answered after a few lines
of algebra corresponding to Figure 4’s example, a FLY-
BACK converter:
To help determine some key characteristics of this
converter, we will refer to the following
Statements [6]:
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Y. F. JIANG 103
Table 1. The poles, zeros and voltage gains in different modes for FLYBACK topology
DCM mode CCM mode
The first pole 2
 
The second pole (1 )
 
Left zero 1
SR out
  1
SR out
 
Right zero
(1 )
(1 )
V 2
 1
V 2
input L
(1 )
input output
SAW input
Figure 5. Total architecture of combination of critical mode with resonant ones
1) The average inductor voltage per cycle should be
2) From figure 1b, when L=LC, IL(avg) = 2xIp
3) An 100% efficiency leads to Pin=Pout
So, the key parameters corresponding to critical mode
used in FLYBACK topology converter have been deter-
mined. With the same principle, the poles and zeros in
DCM and CCM modes can all be deduced, which are
shown in Table 1. Additionally, the FLY BACK voltage
gain under different modes is included, too.
In Table 1, FSW is switching frequency, VSAW is ampli-
tude of PWM saw wave and LP corresponds to primary coil.
Copyright © 2009 SciRes EPE
Figure 6. Half bridge circuit
Figure 7. Application diagram of NCUT_9000
3. Total Architecture of Resonant Ones
Combined with Critical Controlling
After critical controlling mode be determined, the design
process of resonant ones with critical mode is listed below:
1) Input spec (350Vdc ~ 395Vdc)
2) Output spec (normally 5V or 12V/24V)
3) Decide resonant frequency (Fr: normally set at 50
4) Decide controller IC (NCUT_9000) Minimum
working frequency (same Fmin and Fr)/Maximum wor-
king frequency (Fmax normally set at 200Khz)
5) Decide the Q value of resonant frequency (normally
set between 0.3 ~ 0.5)
6) Structure Choice (below 500W use half bridge CL-
ASS D, above 500W uses standard half bridge or full
The total architecture of combination of critical mode
with resonant ones is listed in Figure 5.
In Figure 5, the values of key parameters are obtained
based on 300W 12V/25A system. Figure 6 is the SRC
half bridge circuit.
After the total architecture with 90 plus efficiency has
been obtained, we will extract an integrated circuit, which
acting as a power management with resonant function
and critical mode controller. The circuit is named after
our university’s abbreviation as NCUT_9000. Its basic
function will be introduced in next section. Its applica-
tion diagram is shown in Figure 7.
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Y. F. JIANG 105
Figure 8. Block diagram of NCUT_9000
Figure 9. Layout of NCUT_9000, based on TSMC 0.6μm BiCMOS technology
4. Design of NCUT_9000
Based on the above analysis and Figures 5-7, NCUT_
9000’s block diagram is shown in Figure 8.
The NCUT_9000 is the Green-mode resonant control-
ler in critical mode for Desktop PC and high density AC
adapter with 90 plus efficiency. For the power supply, it’s
input current shaping PFC performance could be very
close to the performance of ML4800 leading edge
modulation average current topology.
NCUT_9000 offers the use of smaller, lower cost bulk
capacitors, reduces power line loading and stress on the
switching FETs, and results in a power supply fully
compliant to IEC1000-3-2 specifications. This IC in-
cludes circuits for the implementation of a leading edge
modulation, input current shaping technique “boost” type
PFC and a trailing edge modulation current.
This circuit operates at 100kHz. A PFC OVP com-
parator shuts down the PFC section in the event of a
sudden decrease in load. The PFC section also includes
peak current limiting for enhanced system reliability.
The layout of NCUT_9000 is shown in Figure 9,
based on TSMC 0.6μm BiCMOS technology.
Copyright © 2009 SciRes EPE
Figure 10. The internal circuitry of a generic single output CCM PWM controller
Figure 11. The simplified diagram for IGBT and its macro model (Figure 11(a). The simplified diagram for IGBT; Figure
11(b). The IGBT’s macro models)
5. Simulation of Power Supply Controller
Combined with Output Power IGBT Device
Power supplies controller is notoriously difficult to simu-
late as component models in SPICE, due to the inherent
instability of oscillator circuits in computer simulator.
SPICE can all too often settle into a static mode where
the circuit no longer oscillates, or takes so long to con-
verge between time iterations as to make simulation too
time consuming to be useful. Simulating the switching
behavior of a Switch Mode Power Supply (SMPS) is not
always an easy task. This is especially true if the de-
signer wants to use an exact SPICE model for the Pulse
Width Modulator (PWM) controller which will be used
in the design. The PWM model may exist, but its syntax
may be incompatible with your simulator. The solution
that is proposed in this part consists of writing your own
generic model of the PWM controller and then adapting
its intrinsic parameters to comply with the real one you
are using. Fixed frequency Current Control Mode (CCM)
models will be thoroughly covered in this part. Based on
this simulator, Voltage Control Mode (VCM) model can
Copyright © 2009 SciRes EPE
Y. F. JIANG 107
be done quickly in the same principle. For the power
system, there always exist the power driver devices. The
biggest stumbling block that engineers run into is turning
vendor data sheet specifications into SPICE models that
emulate real devices and run without convergence prob-
lems. This is especially true for power devices, like
IGBTs, where the cost of testing and possibly destroying
devices is prohibitive. For the demand to simulate the
whole circuit with SMPS controller and power driver
device, the macro model for IGBT is extracted and com-
bination has been made on the two models.
Figure 10 shows the internal circuitry of a generic sin-
gle output CCM PWM controller, which being the most
well known architecture. The modelling of such a block
consists the below two aspects. One is defining and test-
ing each subcircuit individually. The other should be
assembling all of these domino-like circuits to form the
complete generic model. All individual blocks should be
tested before they are used within larger models.
An IGBT is really just a power MOSFET with an
added junction in series with the drain. This creates a
parasitic transistor driven by the MOSFET and permits
increased current flow in the same die area. The sacrifice
is an additional diode drop due to the extra junction and
turn-off delays while carriers are swept out of this junc-
tion. Figure 11(a) shows a simplified schematic of an
IGBT. Note that what is called the “collector” is really
the emitter of the parasitic PNP. What we have is a
MOSFET driving an emitter follower. Although this
model is capable of producing the basic function of an
IGBT, refinements are required for more accurate mod-
eling and to emulate the non-linear capacitance and
breakdown effects. Figure 11(b) shows the complete
subcircuit. The subcircuit is generic in nature, meaning
that component values in the subcircuit can be easily
recalculated to emulate different IGBT devices. The
model accurately simulates, switching loses, nonlinear
capacitance effects, on-voltage, forward/reverse break-
down, turn-on/turn-off delay, rise time and fall tail, ac-
tive output impedance, collector curves including mobil-
ity modulation.
Based on the above simulator which has been founded
following the above analysis, the simulation results for
NCUT_9000 have been listed in Figure 12, Figure 13
and Figure 14. Figure 12 shows the high voltage input
load curve. Figure 13 shows the regular voltage input
load curve and Figure 14 shows the low voltage input
load curve.
Compared the three curves shown in Figure 12 to Fig-
ure 14, one can observe the fact that they all work in an
apparent resonant mode. The property of the total power
converter is less influenced by the load variation. So, the
improvement on the property compared with conven-
tional resonant ones can be observed under different load
6. Conclusions
A novel architecture of power converter for AC-DC is
proposed in this paper. Based on conventional resonant
ones, the critical mode has been added on it. The princi-
ple of this architecture has been demonstrated by actual
circuit design. The total circuit for the architecture is
implemented and an IC circuit extracted from the total
circuit is discussed, which named NCUT_9000, denoting
the efficiency of this circuit be higher than 90%. As far
as authors know, this is the first integrated circuit with
intelligent property on power converter’s architecture.
Figure 12. High voltage input load curve
Copyright © 2009 SciRes EPE
Figure 13. Regular input voltage load curve
Figure 14. Low input voltage load curve
The properties of IC is discussed. The layout of IC is
listed, too. Moreover, a simulator tool, which is suitable
for the critical mode circuit, has been founded, which is
specific for simulation of power controller. Based on the
simulator, the novel architecture and the proposed IC
have been demonstrated, which shows that the power
efficiency has been improved on light load.
7. Acknowledgement
This work is supported by Natural Science Foundation of
China under No.60876078, Funding Project for Aca-
demic Human Resources Development in Institutions of
Higher Learning Under the Jurisdiction of Beijing Mu-
nicipality. (PHR(IHLB)) and Beijing Novel Research
Copyright © 2009 SciRes EPE
Y. F. JIANG 109
Star(2005B01) funded by Ministry of Beijing Science
and Technology.
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