Open Journal of Modern Linguistics
2011. Vol.1, No.2, 45-51
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. DOI:10.4236/ojml.2011.12007
A Methodological Probe to Aeronautical English Vocabulary
Aiguo Wang
College of Foreign Languages, Civil Aviation University of China, Tianjin, China.
Received October 20th, 2011; revised November 20th, 2011; accepted November 30th, 2011.
Students’ knowledge of words impacts their achievement in all areas of the curriculum because words are nec-
essary for communicating the content. Aeronautical English vocabulary is a major difficulty which impedes
students’ progress in EAP (English for Academic Purposes) learning (usually conducted in native English coun-
tries) or ESP (English for Specific Purposes). The paper introduces readers to the status quo of aeronautical Eng-
lish vocabulary teaching in P. R. China and some specifics of it in classroom activities so that EAP/ESP teachers
can have a better idea of ESL teaching with regard to width and depth of aeronautical English vocabulary
Keywords: Aeronautical English Vocabulary, Classroom Activity, Teaching Methods
Science and aeronautical technology are committed to the
universal. Aircraft, airports, lighting systems, control towers,
terminal buildings tend increasingly to be world styles. In
aeronautical or aviation sector our sense of differences in cul-
ture and technology diminishes. Take the radiotelephony (RT)
language for example, it is based on the English language with
loans from other cultures and languages. The essence of teach-
ing aeronautical English is the spread of modern science and
technology. And aeronautical English vocabulary is a symbol
and a collection of technological developments in aeronauti-
cal/aviation industry, a linkage network of global transportation.
Since the aeronautical industry consists of different codes and
communities of practice, and displays discursive features and
factors of difficulty for students of aeronautical English (e.g.
condensed grammar in skytalk, specialised phraseological units
in engineering technolect, simplified English in the aircraft
maintenance sector, etc.), the numerous intralexical factors that
affect aeronautical vocabulary learning include pronounce-
ability, orthography, length, morphology, similarity of lexical
forms, grammar, and semantic features. These difficulties are
derived from the multiplicity and variety of aeronautical com-
munities and pose great challenges for aeronautical and/or
aviation university students with regard to the meaning and
form of a word, its pronunciation, spelling, recognition and
retention. Blue says that EAP has two divisions—English for
General Academic Purposes (EGAP) and English for Specific
Academic Purposes (ESAP) (Blue, 1988). However, neither
EGAP nor ESAP seems entirely suitable for the Chinese con-
text. What we practice is like a presessional course for stu-
dents’ further study abroad. Therefore the method we use is
undoubtedly borne with Chinese characteristics.
According to a survey made in Civil Aviation University of
China, 83% students admit that vocabulary is an important
factor in learning the English language. Our research (see ap-
pendix I) indicates that vocabulalry is the number one obstacle
in reading comprehension, followed by grammar and back-
ground knowledge; greatest barrier in listening comprehension,
followed by speaking speed and accent, greatest impediment to
oral and written expression, followed by organizing viewpoint
and grammar. The paper explores methods and tactics of
teaching and learning aeronautical English vocabulalry with
reference to lexicology, such as word formation through com-
pounding and affixation, in the hope that the methods and tac-
tics can be transfered to other contexts of language instruction.
The purpose of aeronautical English vocabulary instruction is
three fold: 1) to develop students’ capability of using English
as a medium to exchange ideas on specific subjects; 2) to
enlarge students’ English vocabulary in respective field of
aviation/aeronautical industry; and 3) to help students grasp
knowledge and skills within the context of aeronautical Eng-
Systematic Recognition of Aeronautical English
Halliday ever says that “language varies as its function varies;
it differs in different situations.” Aeronautical English vocabu-
lary abounds in a large scope of aeronautical and/or aviation
sectors: 1) aviation history and culture; 2) aviation materials; 3)
aircraft structure and systems (control system, lighting system,
electrical system, electronics, hydraulic system, power-plant,
air conditioning, landing gears, fuel and water.); 4) airport
(runway construction, coding, environment, facilities, manage-
ment and operation, fire fighting, terminal building layout); 5)
air traffic control (radiotelephony and its instrumentation, air
traffic rules and regulations, navigation.); 6) airlines (world
airlines and their logos, names, codes, airline management,
cabin service, aircraft types, and flight safety); 7) aeronautical
science and technology (avionics, navigation technology, aero-
dynamics, mechanics, power plant.); 8) miscellaneous (meteor-
ology, medication and psychology for pilots and astronauts,
environment protection: noise, emission, bio-fuel.). An EAP
instructor is not expected to expertise in all vocabulary in the
above mentioned domains, he can not do that! His job is to
*This paper is a partial fulfilment of our research project granted by
Tianjin Education Bureau and prepares for further research at national
apply English lexicology into aeronautical vocabulary sorting
and teaching in the context (course) of aeronautical English,
and to explain certain terminologies or phraseologies in a spe-
cifically chosen context that he has comprehended.
Aeronautical English terminology is an inseparable part of
aeronautical English vocabulary, it refers to a technical term or
vocabulary, i.e. a collection of terms which has a certain co-
herence because the terms belong to a single subject area. The
conceptual system-underlying terms belonging to a subject
field show such a close generic, hierarchical or associative
relationship that it is impossible to regard them as common
words belonging to the general vocabulary of the layperson. To
have a systematic recognition of aeronautical/aviation English
terminology, we need to distinguish between different types of
terminology because they need different focus and treatment
according to students’ different aims of learning. The basic
terminological relations include equilent relation (see Figure 1),
hierarchical relation (see Figure 2) and associative relation.
Phonetic Phraseology in Radiotelephony
Spoken vocabulary appears especially important in air com-
munications, it is often the result of combining phonetics with
certain specific information, or phonetic transcription phrase-
ology. The terms convey with them specific meanings, and can
be further extended into the field of aeronautical/aviation lexi-
cology. Take “WILCO” for example, it is special because it is a
phonetic combination of “we’ll comply”. Spoken vocabulary in
aeronautical/aviation English may include the phonetic forms
of alphabetics and numerics along with some frequently and
normally used terms. The following are phraseologies used in
RT communications along with their meanings and Chinese
ACKNOWLEDGE: Let me know that you have received
and understood this message. Its Chinese equivalent is “qíng
rèn shōu”.
APPROVED: Permission for proposed action granted. Its
Chinese equivalent is “tóng yì”.
CANCEL: Annul the previously transmitted clearance. Its
Chinese equivalent is “qú xiāo”.
CORRECTION: An error has been made in this transmis-
sion (or message indicated) the correct version is ... Its Chi-
nese equivalent is “gēng zhèng”.
GO AHEAD: Proceed with your message. Its Chinese equi-
valent is “qǐng jiǎng”.
ROGER: I have received all of your last transmission. Its
Chinese equivalent is “shōu dào”.
Equivalent relation
Quasi-synonym Synonym
We’ll comply
Yes, sir/madam.
Preferred term
Figure 1.
Equivalent relation.
Hierarchical relation
meronymy Polysymy
Shuttle, tow bar, tractor, fork lift truck, ramp, sweeper,
snow blower, ambulance, ice-melter, refueler, catering
Nose, fuselage, tail, propeller, windshield, cockpit,
cabin, rudder, stablizer, elevator, slat, spoiler,
undercarriage, tyre, …
Figure 2.
Hierarchi cal rela tion .
A. G. WANG 47
STANDBY: Wait and I will call you. Its Chinese equivalent
is “děngdài”. There are quite a number of such words and
expressions in RT language. The accurate use of the spoken
vocabulary does play an important role in air communica-
Terminate stop
affirmative yes
negative no
descend go down
monitor mind
commence start
request ask
report tell
contact call
Compared with its synonyms which only have one syllable,
word with two or more syllables has its own advantages on
decreasing the fuzziness in RT English.
Technical, Semi-Technical and General Lexicology
Technical lexicology has specialized and restricted meanings
in certain disciplines and may vary in meaning across disci-
plines, while semi-technical lexicology is used in general lan-
guage but has a higher frequency of occurrence in specific and
technical description and discussion (Dudley-Evans & St John,
1998: p. 83). Aeronautical/aviation English instructors will un-
avoidably come across technical lexicology in language in-
struction. His job is to assess the importance of such words in
accordance with learners’ specialty, and decide if they should
be treated as technical, semi-technical or general words, and
guide the English learners to grasp, recognize or identify them.
The following text illustrates the difference between these
types of lexicology.
… A line drawn from the leading edge to the trailing edge of
an airfoil is referred to as the chord line. The camber of an
airfoil is the curve of its surface. On general aviation training
aircraft, the upper camber is usually more pronounced than the
lower camber. Any object moving through the air encounters a
relative wind. This wind is always parallel to and opposite the
flight path. The angle formed between the relative wind and the
chord line is called the angle of attack. The principle behind lift
was discovered by a Swiss physicist , named Bernoulli, when he
observed what happened to air as it passed through a tube. The
principle simply states that as the velocity of a fluid or gas
increases, its pressure decreases. He also found that with a
constant velocity, the pressure of the air remains the same at
both ends of the tube. If a constriction is placed in the middle of
the tube, the same amount of air has to go through a smaller
area. This increases the velocity and decreases the pressure.
(excerpt from Basics of Aerodynamics).
Technical lexicology: leading edge; trailing edge; airfoil;
chord line; camber; angle of attack; Bernoulli principle;
Semi-technical lexicology: velocity; fluid; pressure; con-
striction; tube;
General lexicology: encounter; pronounced; constant; in-
crease; decrease.
For students of aircraft engineering specialty, the lexicology
in aircraft stucture is both core and technical. So it is a must for
them to grasp these words. For example, an airframe structur-
ally consists of fore, middle and rear parts for which there are
specific words or terms: In cockpit, there are control system
and instrument system, the former includes pedals and joysticks
that control the movement of the aircraft, such as yaw, pitch
and roll. The later includes altimeter, attitude indicator, air-
speed indicator, fuel gauge, variometer, gyroscope and mag-
netic compass that offer data information to pilots. In cabin,
there are galley, trolley, toilet, interior fittings, floor, ceiling,
lighting system, air-conditioning, intercom, oxygen masks, em-
ergency slide, aisle, compartment, jump seat, life vest, locker,
window, window-blind/shade, seat belt, armrest; emergency
exit, fire extinguisher, gust wind lock that cabin attendants need
to grasp in EAP vocabulary learning. In the middle part, espe-
cially the aircraft wings, there are words like slat, flap, aileron,
leading/trailing edge, flaperon; wingtips; rib, spar, spoilers,
stringer, dihedral. In rear part, there are words like empennage,
fin-rudder, and stabilizer-elevator that should be mastered by
students majoring in aircraft engineering or even flying tech-
niques. Of course, it may take some time for an EAP instructor
to acquaint himself with the chosen text and vocabulary before
his teaching activities.
Aviation Ab b r eviations
With the rapid development of science and technology in the
aeronautical field, more and more new words or terms pop out,
and information on this aspect is up to minute. Words like as-
tronaut, cosmonaut, taikonaut keep appearing day and night.
Therefore, the teaching of lexicology in aeronautical and/or
aviation industry is a challenge for us language practitioners.
To help our students/trainees grasp more words and terms like
this, we can seek aids from lexicology. Newly coined words are
a trend to vocabulary growth in this field. The various ways of
word-formation in lexicology can be well applied to the ac-
quaintance of aviation terminology. Abbreviation is a common
way of word formation in aeronautical or aviation language. It
can be further divided into initialisms and acronyms (see Table
An acronym is an abbreviation coined from the initial letter
of each successive word in a term or phrase. In general, an
Table 1.
Initialisms and acronyms.
AIA Aerospace Industries Association of America
CAA Civil Aeronautics Administration
CAB* Civil Aeronautics Board
FAA Federal Aviation Administration
IATA* International Air Transport Association
ICAO* International Civil Aviation Organization
GCSS Global Communication Satellite System
GPS Global Positioning System
ILS Instrument Landing System
SONAR* sound navigation and ranging
DACOS* data communication operating system
PAPI* Precision-Approach Path Indicator
SPOT* satellite positioning and tracking
MAD* magnetic airborne detector
VASI* Visual-Approach Slope Indicator
acronym made up solely from the first letter of the major words
in the expanded form is rendered in all capital letters (NATO
from North Atlantic Treaty Organization; but there are excep-
tions, such as ASEAN for Association of Southeast Asian Na-
tions). In general, an acronym made up of more than the first
letter of the major words in the expanded form is rendered with
only an initial capital letter (Comsat from Communications
Satellite Corporation. Hybrid forms are sometimes used to
distinguish between initially identical terms (WTO: WTrO for
World Trade Organization and WToO for World Tourism Or-
ganization). As the above table is concerned, those labeled with
asterisk are words that can be pronounced as ordinary words,
they are usually called acronyms. Those without asterisk labels
are called initialisms in lexicology, they are read out letter by
letter in the alphabetic order of the word.
Experimental Methods of Aeronautical English
Vocabulary Instruction in the Chinese Context
The ex-president of ICAEA (International Civil Aviation
English Association) Fiona A Robertson pointed out, while
ground to air communication has been developing, so has the
general language training process. This has moved from the
grammar-translation approach through many different phases,
the audio-lingual, audio-visual, structural, notional–functional,
communicative, task based, lexical, EAP and needs analyses.
The modern language teacher has a whole panoply of method-
ologies to choose from, many of which spring from advances in
applied linguistics. Since aeronautical English lexicology con-
sists of words and expressions from a large variety of fields, we
must first be sure of our target students, their English level,
their major and their needs. Aeronautical materials have been
collected and analyzed for the teaching of aeronautical English
lexicology in the Chinese context, such as aviation English
project publication series: An Engish Course for Cabin Atten-
dance, An English Course for Air Transportation, An English
Course for Air Navigation, Public Avation English Through
Reading, An English Course for Avionics, An English Course
for Aircraft Maintenance. Besides, there are Miscellaneous
aeronautical/aviation English course materials and aviation
related video clips. As far as lexicology is concerned, six
methods, including some traditional ones, are being used and
recommended in the process of EAP instruction.
1) Phonetic method. Aviation phonetics is a part of the cur-
riculum in EAP. On the basis of learning international phonet-
ics systematically, learners will focus on aviation phonetics.
These include the reading of numbers, alphabets, time, code of
airport, air pressure and aircraft type, etc. For example, in Eng-
lish radiotelephony “3” is read out /TREE/ instead of /θri:/ as
usual, “4” is read out /FOW-er/, “9” is read out /NIN-er/ in-
stead of /nain/ as usual, because, to pronounce the sound /θ/, we
have to put the tongue between the teeth, in addition, it is
voiceless and this makes it difficult to be heard by the listener
in communication, so the /θ/ sound is replaced by alveolar and
plosive /t/ in air communication, and the word “thousand” is
pronounced as /TOU-SAND/. Therefore /tr/ is likely to replace
/θr/ in this case with the consideration of efficiency and clarity.
The pronunciation of the number “4” gets easily confused with
that of the preposition “for”, so the vowel /er/ is added (/FOW-
er/) to distinguish the two sounds. In pronouncing number “9”,
the second /n/ sound in /nain/ is a nasal and this makes it diffi-
cult to be heard too, so it would be safer and easier to be heard
if we read it as /NIN-er/, with a vowel /er/ added to it. Phonetic
method will help us effectively grasp aeronautical English
words for practical purposes.
2) Context and illustration method.
Good students often use context clues to determine the
meanings of unfamiliar words, if they are available in the text.
They can locate other words and phrases in a passage that give
clues about what an unknown word means. Struggling students
who do not do this should be given direct instruction in how to
effectively look for clues or definitions. The clues may be any
of the following types of information embedded in the text:
definition, restatement, example, comparison or contrast, de-
scription, synonym or antonym. In classroom activities, we
may use the words, sentences, or paragraph(s) surrounding the
unknown word to help determine its meaning. Sometimes illus-
tration provides a considerable amount of information about the
meaning of an unknown word. For example, after analyzing the
structure and identifying different parts of an aircraft, students
are then required to describe these different parts along with
their functions (see Figure 3).
3) Word analysis method. English lexicology shows that
there are at least 8 ways of word formation: compounding,
derivation, blending, abbreviation, borrowing, onomatopoeia,
conversion, and clipping. The majority of English words have
been created through the combination of morphemic elements,
that is, compounding and affixation (derivation). Root is the
most important word element from which most of the meaning
is derived, and it carries the majority of the denotative or dic-
tionary meaning. Prefixes are those elements added to roots at
the beginning of a word while suffixes at the end. Affixation
changes the semantic and grammatical meanings of a word
respectively. A knowledge of affixes (i.e. prefixes and suffixes)
and roots has many values for learners of English. If learners
understand how this combinatorial process works, they possess
one of the most powerful understandings necessary for lexi-
cology growth (Anderson & Freebody, 1981: pp. 77-117). Take
affixation for example, while interpreting the word intercom-
munication, we may 1) analyze its lexical formation: prefix +
root: inter + communication; with more such words as inter-
phone, intersection, intervention, etc., 2) clip it to a shorter
form: intercom, 3) find out its related words: handset, broadcast,
loudspeaker, megaphone, microphone, announcement, chime,
etc., 4) associate it with prefabricate chunks: PA (passenger
address) system, crew call system, lavatory call system, push-
to-talk switch, PSU (passenger service unit), etc.
Another example is blending, for example,
avionics = Aviation + electronics;
ballute = balloon + parachute;
comint = communications + intelligence;
comsat = communications + satellite;
heliport = helicopter + airport;
helipad = helicopter + pad;
avigator = aviation + navigator;
flaperon = flap + aileron;
altiport = altitude + airport;
lidar = light + radar;
hijack = high + jack;
airtel = airport + hotel.
Research shows that students can be taught strategic behav-
iors to improve their ability to learn the meaning of words
(Kuhn & Stahl, 1998). While skills such as application of mor-
phological clues, reference works, and spelling clues to word
meanings are all useful, they become more powerful and func-
tional when combined with the use of context clues in a delib-
rate strategy. e
A. G. WANG 49
1. Propeller 2. Landing Gear 3. Wing Strut
4. Wing 5. Right Wing Aileron 6. Right Wing Flap
7. Fuselage 8. Horizontal Stabilizer 9. Fin and Dorsal
10. Rudder 11. Elevator 12. Left Wing Flap
13. Left Wing Aileron 14. Door 15. Seat
16. Windshield 17. Engine Cowl 18. Spinne
19. Wheel Cover 20. Landing Light 21. Wing Tip Light
Figure 3.
The main parts of an airplane.
4) Mnemonic aids. Different people have different capacity
of memory. Some people can remember a new word by reciting
once or twice, while some others need more times. So, good
mnemonic aids can help save time and improve efficiency.
Most widely used memory aids are imagery and keywords.
Imagery is a way in which learners remember something
through images or pictures rather than words. Imagery is best
used when learning more concrete words. Using keywords
means to think of a catchy sentence or phrase that is related to
the unknown word in some way.
5) Personal vocabulary notes. Besides those basic strategies
for vocabulary acquisition, we teach our students to use some
other tactics. Personal Vocabulary Notes (PVN) is another way
of enlarging students’ vocabulary in a personalized style that
helps them become autonomous learners. The basic activity of
PVN is straightforward. Students are encouraged to write
words in their native language when they do not know how to
say the English word.
Give students a daily journal or PVN note paper to record
vocabulary items. (PVN: if you do not know an English
word, write the native language, show you partner, com-
municate, and then check the English later).
Tell students that the English language is preferred in class.
Engage students in some kind of fluency activity and en-
courage them to write words in native language if they find
it hard to express in English.
Ask the students to look up their PVN and find the English
translations. They then should write sentences using their
The teacher collects the PVN, checks it, and hands it back in
the following class.
Students keep a section in their notebook for PVN and do
follow up activities with it such as peer teaching and review
6) Knowledge-oriented lexicology instruction. Students are
required to memorize these specific terms and be able to ex-
plain them orally. This method is not confined to lexical in-
struction, but special terminologies. For example:
EICAS/ECAM: The Engine Indication and Crew Alerting
System (for Boeing) or Electronic Centralized Aircraft Monitor
(for Airbus) will allow the pilot to monitor the following in-
formation: values for N1, N2 and N3, fuel temperature, fuel
flow, the electrical system, cockpit or cabin temperature and
pressure, control surfaces. The pilot may select display of in-
formation by means of button press.
FMS: The Flight Management System/Control Unit may be
used by the pilot to enter and check for the following informa-
tion: flight plan, speed control, navigation control.
Manoeuvring area: The part of an aerodrome provided for
the take-off and landing of aircraft and for the movement of
aircraft on the surface, excluding the apron and any part of the
aerodrome provided for the maintenance of aircraft.
Knowledge-oriented lexicology instruction is more suitable
for aeronautical English learners in a content-centered specialty.
No single individual can grasp the whole English vocabulary.
Many EAP learners have realized this point and paradoxically
have been discouraged. To teach students aeronautical English
vocabulary, we need to put these EAP words or terminologies
into language context. Therefore material selection is of crucial
importance. Many texts are excerpted from operation manuals
of different types of aircraft with a focus on lexicology in addi-
tion to flight operation knowledge. Lexicology is thus classified
into different categories and involved in its corresponding con-
text. In the basics of aerodynamics, for example, students are
required to fill in the blanks according to their basic aerody-
namic knowledge or the video clips provided:
There are four forces acting on an airplane in flight. These
forces are _________, ___________, ___________ and
__________. (lift, thrust, drag, gravity)
A line drawn from the leading edge to the trailing edge in an
airfoil is called the ______________. (chord line)
The _____________ of an airfoil is the curve of its surface.
It is important to note that an airplane ___________ when-
ever the critical angle of attack is exceeded, which can occur
in any flight attitude and at any airspeed (stalls).
In just the same way, we may apply lexicology in vocabulary
instruction in emergency situations, words and terminologies
can be put into different contexts like decompression, water
leakage, cabin fire and dangerous goods. After we finish the
text, students are asked to speak out the special terms or words
of cabin equipment. For example:
Symptoms of hypoxia: dizziness, nausea, blurred vision,
slurred speech;
Emergency equipment for cabin fire: oxygen mask, PBE
(protective breathing equipment), smoke goggle, fire-proof
glove, water/Halon extinguisher;
Emergency equipment for ditching: life vest, life raft, crash
7) translation method. Translation method will help students
not only to learn aeronautical terms in bilingual languages but
also to consolidate what they have learnt. Most EFL teachers
may appeal to this method in their lexicology instruction.
Mother tongue equivalents may serve as a hint to remind stu-
dents of the English term they have learnt (see Table 2).
Aeronautical English Vocabulary Teaching
Cannot Be Separated from Aviation Culture
While reading aeronautical or aviation materials we often
come across proper names, aircraft types or makes, abbrevia-
tions of organizations, clubs, codes, technology systems, air-
lines and airports, etc which hardly appear in dictionaries.
These terms or expressions are part of aviation culture or his-
tory. Traditional vocabulary teaching method seems more con-
cerned with the pronunciation and literal sense of an individual
word. The superficial meaning of a word should not be our
focus, as it is time-consuming to nod over it while totally ne-
glecting its cultural connotations.
When learners of the English language reach an intermediate
level, they may find that collocation is something difficult to
grasp. From lexical and semantic point of view, collocation can
be considered as the third step of mastering the English lan-
basic words phrases and idioms collocations com-
plete sentences.
This is equally true with Aviation English (not just confined
to RTFE). When students have learned quite a number of words
and expressions, they come into the problem of collocation.
Therefore, it is the teacher’s responsibility to help them find out
the rules and regularities of collocating words and phrases,
especially with specialty lexicology. Meanwhile we must bear
in mind to explain them in EAP. For example:
black box: The flight recorder, as on a military or commer-
cial aircraft, that documents preflight checks, in-flight pro-
cedures, and the landing (hēixiázi);
sniffer dog: Dog whose work is to sniffle the drugs, espe-
cially in Customs (xiù tàn quăn);
base leg: A flight path at right angles to the landing runway
off its approach end. The base leg (sì biān) normally extends
from the downwind leg to the intersection of the extended
runway centerline. Similarly, the equivalents of downwind
leg, crosswind leg and upwind leg in Chinese are sān biān,
liǎng biān and yī biān.
Collocation training can help students realize the peculiarity
Table 2.
English and Chinese terms in power plant system.
English terms Mother tongue
(Chinese pin yin) English terms Mother tongue
(Chinese pin yin) English terms Mother tongue
(Chinese pin yin)
nacelle (cowl Yín qīng duǎn cāng spinnner luó xuán zhuàn zi pod fā dòng jī diào cāng
air inlet or intake jìn qì dào bird, water
ingestion fā dòng jī xī rù niǎo, shuǐforeign object damage Wài lái wù sǔn shāng
fan Fēng shàn windmill Fēng chē rotor zhuàn zi
fan blades Fēng shàn yè piàn propeller luó xuán jiǎng propeller blade jiǎng yè
propulsor tuī jìn qì reduction gearboxJiǎn sù qì LP and HP compressors dī yā he gāo yā yā suò jī
huán xíng rán
shāo shì
combustor guǎn xíng rán shāo shì can-annular combustor guǎn huán rán shāo shì
reverse-flow annular
huí líu shì huán xíng
rán shāo shì turbocharger wō lún zēng yā qì turbine wheel wō lún dao xiang qi
engineering trouble jī xiè gù zhàng the engine runs
fā dòng jī gōng zuò
bú wěn dìng the engine runs smoothly fā dòng jī gōng zuò
wěn dìng
A. G. WANG 51
of EAP so that they get into the habit of speaking English in its
specialty domain and using terminologies at proper times. In
order to overcome “cultural distance”, learners may be exposed
to FL texts of popular literature, such as “aircraft safety cul-
ture”, manuals of Airbus/Boeing series, introduction to airlines
in English speaking countries. Learners can easily recognize
the social stereotypes on which these texts are based. Thus,
instead of fixed typologies of isolated cultural facts, learners
learn to match checklists of cognitive typologies or universal
networks of meaning with specific texts.
Aeronautical English lexicology teaching is actually a study
and interpretation of aviation language and culture in depth, a
process of telling students how to analyse word formation, how
to employ association and connection, how to get involved in
aviation culture. The learner’s mother tongue, the lexicology of
the target language he has acquired, the encyclopedic and word
knowledge may all be a stimulus in the storage and retrieval of
new word information. Different levels of word information
will build an associative network, which helps to consolidate
the semantic networks of mental lexicon.
The proper usage of teaching materials, classroom activities
and correct teaching methods targeted at different groups of
students are all perceived as enjoyable ways to teach aeronau-
tical English lexicology. Theoretically, the more words are
analyzed either phonologically, semantically or comprehen-
sively, the more they are enriched by associations rendered by
learners, the longer they will be stored in memory. For instance,
in the process of memorizing a group of structurally related
words like dynamic (adj..), dynamics (n.), aerodynamics (n.),
aero-astro-dynamics (n.), EAP learners can associatively me-
morize them with derivational knowledge. Learners are en-
couraged to make their own lexical associations when learning
new lexicology. As Hulstijn (2001) has stated, to some extent it
can transform the lexicology learning task from uninspired
drudgery into newfound delight. In fact, aeronautical lexicol-
ogy teaching strategy is greatly concerned with quantity and
quality of lexicology knowledge. EAP instructors should real-
ize the significance of aeronautical lexicology teaching and
have it penetrated into EAP teaching activities.
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son (Ed.), Academic Writing: Process and Product (pp. 129-148).
London: MET and British Council.
Chall, J. S., & Jacobs, V. A. (2003). Poor children’s fourth-grade slump.
American Educator, 27, 14-15.
Dudley-Evans, T., & St John, M. J. (1998). Developments in English
for specific purposes. Cambridge: CUP.
Hulstijn, J. (2001). Mnemonic methods in foreign language vocabulary
learning: Theoretical considerations and pedagogical implications. In
J. Coady and T. Huckin (Eds.), Second Language Vocabulary Acqui-
sition (p. 220). Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language Education
Kuhn, M. R., & Stahl, S. A. (1998). Teaching children to learn word
meanings from context: A synthesis and some questions. Journal of
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Appendix I. Survey Result (Frustrations in Acquiring Language Skills)
skills/items Vocabulary Grammar/Structure Accent/Speed Culture
Listening %: 50 12 30 8
Speaking %: 44 18 18 20
Reading %: 79 8 6 7
writing %: 48 32 8 12