Journal of Quantum Informatio n Science, 2011, 1, 111-115
doi:10.4236/jqis.2011.13015 Published Online December 2011 (
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. JQIS
Possibility to Realize the Brain-Computer Interface from
the Quantum Brain Model Based
on Superluminal Particles
Takaaki Musha1, Toshiki Sugiyama2
1Advanced Science- Tech n olo gy Research Organization, Namiki, Yokohama, Japan
2EKBO Inc., Oigawa, Atsugi-shi, Japan
Received August 1, 2011; revised Sept ember 22, 2011; accepted December 1, 2011
R. Penrose and S. Hameroff have proposed an idea that the brain can attain high efficient quantum computa-
tion by functioning of microtubular structure of neurons in the cytoskeleton of biological cells, including
neurons of the brain. But Tegmark estimated the duration of coherence of a quantum state in a warm wet
brain to be on the order of 10–13 seconds, which is far smaller than the one tenth of a second associated with
consciousness. Contrary to his calculation, it can be shown that the microtubule in a biological brain can
perform computation satisfying the time scale required for quantum computation to achieve large quantum
bits calculation compared with the conventional silicon processors even at the room temperature from the
assumption that tunneling photons are superluminal particles called tachyons. According to the non-local
property of tachyons, it is considered that the tachyon field created inside the brain has the capability to exert
an influence around the space outside the brain and it functions as a macroscopic quantum dynamical system
to meditate the long-range physical correlations with the surrounding world. From standpoint of the brain
model based on superluminal tunneling photons, the authors theoretically searched for the possibility to real-
ize the brain-computer interface that allows paralyzed patient to operate computers by their thoughts and
they obtained the positive result for its realization from the experiments conducted by using the prototype of
a brain-computer interface system.
Keywords: Brain-Computer Interface, Evanescent Photon, Tachyon, Quantum Computation, Decoherence
1. Introduction
There are some researchers to attempt to explain the
higher performance of human brains, including con-
sciousness from the standpoint that the human brain
functions as a quantum computer system proposed by
Feynman. Hameroff and Penrose have constructed a the-
ory, in which human consciousness is the result of quan-
tum gravity effects in microtubles, which they dubbed
Orch-OR (orchestrated object reduction) that involved a
specific form of quantum computation conducted at the
level of synapses among brain neurons [1]. Hameroff
suggested that microtubules in the brain were acting as
waveguides for photons and as holographic processors
[2]. The cytoskeleton of biological cells, including neu-
rons of the brain, is made up of microtubules, which are
comprised of subunits of the protein, named tubulin [3].
Each tublin molecule can function as a switch between
two conformations which exist in quantum superposition
of both conformational states.
According to Jibu et al. [4,5], microtubule quantum
states link to those of other neurons by quantum coherent
photons tunneling through membranes in biological sys-
tems and the cytoskeletal protein conformational states
are entangled by these photons which form coherent do-
mains in their interaction with the local electromagnetic
field. According to their hypothesis of quantum brain,
microtubule quantum states link to those of other neu-
rons by quantum coherent photons tunneling through
membranes in biological systems functioning in a way
resembled as an ion trap computers. However, Max
Tegmark [6] published a refutation of the Orch-OR
model in his paper that the time scale of neuron firing
and excitations in microtubules was slower than the de-
coherence time by at least 1/1010. According to his paper,
it is reasonably unlikely that the brain functions as a
quantum computer at room temperature. Contrary to the
Tegmark’s calculation, Musha [7] has shown that the
microtubule in a biological brain can perform computa-
tion satisfying the time scale required for quantum com-
putation to achieve large quantum bits computation com-
pared with the conventional silicon processors even at
the room temperature from the assumption that the eva-
nescent photon is a superluminal particle called tachyon.
A brain-computer interface (BCI), sometimes called a
direct neural interface or brain-machine interface, is a
direct communication pathway between a brain and an
external device. Based upon the brain model by superlu-
minal evanescent photons, the authors searched for the
possibility to realize the brain-computer interface from
the theoretical analysis and they also conducted the ex-
periment to confirm the theory by using the manufac-
tured BCI system.
2. Theoretical Possibility of the
Brain-Computer Interface System
2.1. Possibility of Quantum Superposition
outside the Biological Human Brain
M. Jibu et al. [8] proposed that the conscious process in
the brain was related with the macroscopic condensates
of massive evanescent photons generated by the Higgs
mechanism, i.e. that of general biological cell function-
ing arising from dynamical effects of electromagnetic
interaction among electric dipoles in biological systems.
They claimed that human consciousness could be under-
stood as arising from those creation-annihilation dynam-
ics of a finite number of evanescent (tunneling) photons
in the brain. E. Recami [9] claimed in his paper that tun-
neling photons traveling in an evanescent mode can move
with superluminal group speed, which can be shown as
The evanescent photon generated in quantum domain
satisfies the following Klein-Fock-Gordon equation given
22 2
mc xt
 
, (1)
where c is the light speed, 0 is an absolute value of
the proper mass of the evanescent photon and is the
Planck constant divided by .
This equation has the solution for the photon traveling
in an evanescent mode given by
Et px
xt A
, (2)
which corresponds to the elementary particle with an
imaginary mass that travels at a superluminal speed
, (3)
where is the energy of the superluminal particle and
is its momentum given respectively as
, (4)
. (5)
Hence, it can be seen that tunneling photons traveling
in an evanescent mode can move at a superluminal speed.
Therefore it seems highly plausible that it is not the mi-
croscopic quantum mechanical system of electrons but
the macroscopic quantum ordered dynamical system of
evanescent photons in the brain plays the essential role in
realizing long-range biological order in living systems.
Ziolkowshi pointed out in his paper that superluminal
pulse propagation which permits consequent superlu-
minal exchange without a violation in causality is possi-
ble in the electromagnetic metamaterial [10]. If inner me-
dium of the cylinder of microtubule possesses the char-
acteristics of metamaterial with negative refractive index,
the tunneling photons are actually enhanced and propa-
gates losslessly inside the neurons not restricted by its
wavelength, and the infrared photon can be used for the
manipulation of qubits in the brain.
Laszlo [11] pointed out the puzzle in his book that the
living organism is extraordinary coherent with the world
around it, dynamically, almost instantly correlated with
all other parts, shown as follows;
The mind of one person appears able to act on the
brain and body of another.
Modern people display a capacity for spontaneous
transference of impression and images, especially
when they are emotionally close to each other.
This is impossible if the human brain functions similar
to the conventional computer systems using silicon proc-
essors. The level of coherence exhibited by organism
suggests that quantum type processing take place in them.
The living organism, it appears, is in some respects a
macroscopic quantum system.
If the brain is functioned by the superluminal particles
called a tachyon, this puzzle can be clarified.
From the Klein-Fock-Gordon equation for a scalar
field with an imaginary mass given by
 
, (6)
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where 0
mmc. From which, we can obtain an ele-
mentary solution shown as
  
 
32 32
exp exp
 ,
where 2
. Thus it can be seen that tachyons
cannot be localized in space from the superposition of
solutions given by Feinberg shown as [12].
 
xfk kx
 
, (8)
k is a function of bounded support, k
is a
set of elementary solutions of the Klein-Fock-Gordon
equation with an imaginary mass and
is the
Dirac’s delta function. Thus such a quantum superposi-
tion cannot be made to vanish outside the sphere of finite
radius, but rather has a finite tail which is made to de-
crease with an arbitrary power of
for large values, by
choosing the weight function
k to have a zero of
suitable order at 0
km. If the brain is a quantum
computer system functioned by superluminal photons, it
can be entangled with each other via the tachyon field
created from the quantum vacuum around it according to
the property of non-locality to exert influences outside
the extent of the biological brain as shown in Figure 1.
2.2. Quantum Coherence between the Tachyon
Field and Electrons in a PC Processor
A particle interaction with a scalar field through the
Hamiltonian has been studied for the case, in which only
thermal-excitation effects of the scalar field are taken
into account and the effect of zero-point vacuum fluctua-
tions is neglected [13].
According to Zurek, the density matrix
the particle in the position representation evolves by the
master equation shown as [14]
mkT xx
 
 
, (9)
Figure 1. Tachyonic field in the brain which affect wave
functions of electrons in a computer system.
is the particle’s Hamiltonian,
is the re-
laxation rate,
k is the Boltzmann constant, and is
the temperature of the field.
Zurek has shown that the off-diagonal peaks of the
density matrix,
will decay at the
mk Tx
 
. (10)
From which, quantum coherence will disappear on a
time scale shown as
mk T
, (11)
The decoherence time for the quantum computation
utilizing superluminal particle, Musha has shown the
formula in his paper shown as [7]
 
, (12)
is the decoherence time for the superluminal
particle. In this formula
is the rate of the velocity of
the superluminal particle relative to the light speed
shown as
dd d
 , (13)
is an angular frequency of the particle and
is the size of the tunneling barrier. When we suppose that
the tachyon field can be generated in a microtubule in a
human brain with the frequency at the infra-red spectrum,
which wavelength is given by
µm, we have
1.3 10
DD for the case when we let 15d
that is the same order as the extracellular space between
the brain cells.
Then the decoherence time for the tachyon field in a
brain which influences wave function of electrons in a
PC processor is given by
 
 
When we set Kg, T = 300˚K and
9.11 10m
cm. If the relaxation time were of the order of
macroscopic time satisfying 1
sec, quantum co-
herence would be destroyed4
which might be sufficient to affect wave functions of
electrons in the PC processor. In a semiconductor, the
mass of electrons can be replaced by the effective mass
given by 0.258m, the decoherence time can be postponed
about 4 times longer than the free electron case accord-
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Copyright © 2011 SciRes. JQIS
Table 1 shows the statistical values obtained by six
trials. From which, we can recognize the influence of the
human consciousness on the total curve on the PC by the
consciousness of the person under trials.
ing to Equation (14) and it is strongly supported that
human consciousness can influence the PC processor via
the tachyon field generated inside the bra
3. Experimental Results by Using the Trial
Manufactured BCI System
According to an idea that human consciousness can in-
fluence electrons in the PC processor via the tachyon
field generated inside the brain, the Brain Computer In-
terface (BCI) system composed of the PC processor that
can generate serial data at 2500 bit per second, was
manufactured by one of the authors, Sugiyama, as shown
in Figure 2, the block diagram of which is shown in
Figure 3.
As shown in the block diagram, the noise source gen-
erates pulses with the randomized length of pulse and
they are supplied to the gate circuit and then sent to the
pulse counter, which counts the pulse number within a
finite length of time. It is designed to output the low level
of voltage for the case when the count number is even
and output the high level for the case when the count
number is odd at the terminal of this electric circuit.
Figure 2. Photo of the manufactured BCI system.
From which, the curve of total sum can be constructed
on the computer display. The curve is composed of
20000 bit data as a total sum and the time duration of
which is 8 seconds. If there in no disturbance from out-
side, we can observe the curve of random walk on the
display according to the probability theory. Supposing
that the human consciousness can influence the move-
ment of electrons in the computer processor, the accu-
mulation curve will shows a different characteristics
from the random walk as predicted by the theory of ran-
dom walk that standard deviation scales increase in pro-
portional to the square root of bit number of the data as
shown in Figure 4. At the experiment, the subjects kept
in mind two cases such as “converge” or “spread” of the
data shown on the display. Figure 5 shows some exam-
ples of the experimental result when subjects kept in
their mind to converge the data.
Figure 3. Block diagram of the BCI system.
Table 1. Experimental results.
No Standard
Variance (A)
variance (B) B/A Command
1141.4 20000 8325.2 0.42 converge
2141.4 20000 2436.0. 0.12 converge
3141.4 20000 5513.2 0.28 converge
4141.4 20000 3891.2 0.19 converge
5141.4 20000 31657.3 1.58 spread
6141.4 20000 39621.3 1.98 spread
Figure 4. Display of the BCI system according to the random walk theory.
Figure 5. Experimental result by the BCI system.
From these experimental results, it is considered that
the human consciousness can influence the computer
function as predicted by the brain model based on the
superluminal particles. Thus it is considered that these
results open the door to the possibility to achieve the
brain-computer interface to operate computers of move
robotic arms using nothing but human’s thoughts.
Further experiments conducted by using the random
data sampled about an hour ago to display on the screen
showed a similar result that the accumulation curve was
changed according to the human will on real time. This
result showed that the human will affected the computer
function beyond time. This result has shown the violation
of causality, which confirms our hypotheses that con-
sciousness is a field of tachyonic or superluminal matter
located beyond the barrier of the light. Some researchers
such as Prof. R. Dutheil proposed the same idea that our
consciousness or the mind is composed of tachyons lo-
cated in superluminal space-time and our subliminal
universe is merely a holographic projection of the fun-
damental universe, where information and meaning are
located [15]. From the application of superluminal hu-
man consciousness, it is considered that there is a possi-
bility to develop a computer-brain interface with higher
capabilities than the conventional electric systems.
4. Conclusions
Based upon the brain model that consciousness is com-
posed of superluminal evanescent photons, the authors
searched for the possibility to realize the brain-computer
interface both by the theoretical analysis and the experi-
ment, and they obtained the positive result for its realiza-
tion. Hence it is considered that that there is a possibility
to develop a computer-brain interface which can ma-
nipulate electric systems by thought alone. By realizing
the interface between the brain and the computer, it will
help persons who are unable to move or speak to resume
their interaction with the world around them.
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