Low Carbon Economy, 2011, 2, 230-238
doi:10.4236/lce.2011.24029 Published Online December 2011 (http://www.SciRP.org/journal/lce)
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. LCE
Conceptual Framework of Low Carbon Strategy
for Nepal
Sunil Prasad Lohani, Bivek Baral
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kathmandu University, Kathmandu, Nepal.
Email: splohani@ku.edu.np
Received August 25th, 2011; revised September 27th, 2011; accepted October 11th, 2011.
This paper presents proposed methodologies for carbon mitigation strategy and expected frame for lo w carbon strategy
for Nepal. It deals with the national scenario of energy consumption in different sectors and the share of fuel types in
each sector. Based on national energy situation green house gas (GHG) emissions in each area are evaluated. With the
use of both fuel types in energy mix, end use energy conversion technology and current GHG trend; potential energy
related green h ouse gas mitigation areas are identified. Moreover, non energy related probable GHG reduction areas
are also identified. The outcome of this work will facilitate to realize th e vision of low carbon society through su stain-
able development pathway as it helps in formulating a comprehensive strategy and action plan for low carbon strategy
for Nepal.
Keywords: Green House Gas, Mitigation, Energy Mix
1. Introduction
The concept of low carbon society has originated as a
response to mitigate greenhouse (GHG) gases, which are
considered to be responsible for global warming and
climate change. The basic activities of a modern society,
including production of goods and service, and transpor-
tation should have near zero carbon emissions or have
minimum value to cease or at least hold back the global
warming phenomenon, which has come up as one of the
biggest challenges to modern human civilization.
Since the industrial revolution, humans have exten-
sively exploited the resources of the nature which re-
sulted in upsetting of the delicate balance of the global
environment. It has been predicted by several studies that
if the global warming phenomenon is not confined within
a limit, the results would be catastrophic.
The gases including carbon dioxide (CO2), methane
(CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs),
perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6)
are considered to be direct greenhouse gases which are
the direct results of fossil fuel combustion (CO2), land
use and agricultural activities (CO2, CH4 and N2O) and
industrial activities (HFCs, PFCs and SF6). Apart from
those gases, the gases including carbon monoxide (CO),
sulphur dioxide (SO2), oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and
non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) are
considered to be the indirect greenhouse gases. However,
the most significant gases in terms of their potential
harmfulness and amount of production are CO2, CH4,
N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6. Kyoto Protocol also requires
the removals of the direct greenhouse gases. However,
GHGs are critical in maintaining the average earth tem-
perature at around 15˚C; without them, the earth tem-
perature would dip down to –18˚C and life on earth
would cease to exist. If the greenhouse gases are emitted
within a certain limit they are recycled back to nature and
held in the form of organic compounds in the vegetations
and do not cause any harm to the global environment.
When the balance of this cycle is not maintained due to
excessive GHG emissions, the temperature of the earth
will increase. During the period between industrial revo-
lution and recent years (1850 to 1998), approximately
270 (± 30) G t o f carbo n w as released into the atmosphere
as carbon dioxide (CO2) as a result of fossil fuel combus-
tion and cement production (67% of the total), and land
use and land use change (remaining 33%) [1]. About
40% of these emissions remain in the atmosphere while
the other 60% was assumed to be absorbed by the ocean
and terrestrial ecosystems. Thus, during the period 1850
to 1998, the atmosphe ric CO2 concentration increased by
about 28%, i.e. from 285 ppmv at the end of 19 th century
to 366 ppmv at the end o f 20th Century [1]. This in cr ea s ed
Conceptual Framework of Low Carbon Strategy for Nepal 231
CO2 concentration is believed to be causing an increase
in global temperature. Apart from the increase of CO2 in
the atmosphere, some CO2 is dissolved into the oceans
and is transferred gradually to the deep ocean, and the
carbon content in this reservoir is continuously increas-
Although the prediction of consequences of global
warming cannot be done with absolute certainty, the risk
associated with certain increase in global mean tempera-
ture has been guesstimated. Some of the major impacts
of global warming, if not confined, can be summarized as
follows [2]:
There will be sudden shifts in regional weather pat-
tern including monsoon in South Asian region and El
Nino. This may lead to changes in the spatial and
time pattern of precipitation causing extreme rainfall
and drought events.
There will be rise in the sea level due to thermal ex-
pansion of the waters inundating the coastal areas.
The increase in sea level may also be contributed by
melting polar ice caps and glaciers, which in land
would induce floods. Global mean sea level has been
estimated to rise by about 49 cm in the year 1990- 2100
considering current emission scenarios. However,
considering the high emissions scenarios the rise has
been estimated to about 110 cm for the same period [3].
There will be catastrophic effects in the ecosystems of
the planet. About 15% to 40% of species will face
potential extinction even after only 2˚C of warming.
The increased level of carbon dioxide levels in the
atmosphere results in ocean acidification, which will
largely affect the marine ecosystems, with possible
declination of f ish stocks [2].
The already warm region of the earth will have higher
temperature leading to increased heat stress related
deaths and increase the occurrence of tropical disease
including m a l aria and dengue fever [2] .
The above impacts will ultimately result in decrease in
agricultural yields, large exodus, and conflicts over the
share of resources including food, water and space. The
changes in the regional climate may differ substantially
depending on the g eographical locatio n. This implies that
the impact of climate change might be more severe in
one region than the other. Most of the developing coun-
tries including Nepal are in the already warm regions of
the earth and is experiencing further increase in tem-
perature. Over the last twen ty-five years, the temperature
in Nepal has been increasing at the rate of 0.06˚C per
year [4]. In high altitudes, it increased by 0.6˚C over the
last thirty years [4]. And it is almost certain that Nepal,
along with the other developing countries will encounter
greater impact of global warming in terms of decreased
agricultural produce (which these countries’ economy de-
pend upon), shortage of water, mass migration, increases
in diseases causing overburden to the already poor health
sector. These i mpacts will furt her adve rsely affect the socio-
economic development of this part of the world. At this
junctur e, a country like Nep al must stand ahe ad to set an
example as a low carbon society to the developed world.
This will put moral pressure on the developed world to
curtail their GHG emissions for a better future of the
2. Nepalese Scenario
Nepal, together with more than other 150 other countries,
signed the United Nations Framework Convention on
Climate Change (UNFCCC) at the United Nations Con-
ference on Environment and Development (UNCED)
held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992 [5]. Nepal ratified the
Convention on 2nd May in 1994, and this convention
came into force in Nepal on 31st July in 1994. As a non-
Annex country, Nepal is not required to curtail the GHG
emissions. However, it has an obligation to prepare and
periodically update the national green house gas inventory
and submit “National Communications” to the UNFCCC.
As a response to this obligation, Nepal completed Initial
National Communication to the Conference of the Parties
of the UNFCC in 2004 [4]. However the updates of the
greenhouse gas inventory in recent years is yet to be
According to the estimation of GHG emissions in Ne-
pal, the total contribution of the gases is very modest
compared to other developing and developed countries at
present and it is not very likely that the emissions will
increase very much in the near future. Figure 1 compares
CO2 emissions (in tons) from fuel combustion in Nepal
with other developed and developing countries.
3. GHG Mitigation and Low Carbon Society
Low carbon society is a current effort of almost all coun-
tries of the world to respond climate change in an effect-
tive way. However, low carbon strategy itself requires
Figure 1. CO2 (tons) emissions from fuel combustion in 1997
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. LCE
Conceptual Framework of Low Carbon Strategy for Nepal
visualizing social, economic and technological change
through which societies respond to global effect of cli-
mate change. An overlook of any one of the dimensions
social, economic or technological will not achieve the
As discussed earlier that the earth cannot afford more
than 2˚C increase in its average temperature, both devel-
oping and developed world should consider development
pathway with the 2˚C global stabilization target.
To stabilize the emissions within the 450 ppmv of CO2
in the atmosphere (2˚C temperature rise in 2100), there
must be huge economic cost. Moreover, the country
should prepare its different development path scenario
including sustainable development while stabilizing car-
bon emissions within the limit. Different development
models should be prepared after having comprehensive
analysis of current economic, social and technological
context along with the vision where we want to be in
In this study, we have proposed a conceptual frame-
work for the preparation of a comprehensive strategy for
the development of a low carbon society applicable to
Nepal. In addition, we have focused on Energy Sector,
which covers Residential, Transport, and Industrial (GHG
emission from fossil fuel combustion in industries and
not the industrial processes) where immense energy sav-
ing opportunities is present.
To develop carbon mitigation strategy of the country,
first and foremost important factor is to know about po-
tential GHG emission sectors and the share of it in total
national GHG emissions. The potential sectors have been
identified in which mitigation strategy and action plan
can be implemented to make a low carbon society. In
order to analyze the potential areas of GHG mitigation
from energy consuming sector, we must have an over-
view of energy consumption pattern of Nepal.
4. An Overview of Energy Consumption
Pattern in Nepal
Various countries have their own fuel diversification str-
ategy to ensure that the country is not over-dependent
one main energy sources [6]. However, Nepal has no
policy on fuel diversification strategy and is heavily de-
pendent on biomass energy. Nepal’s energy resources are
generally divided into three categories: Traditional,
Commercial and Alternative [7]. Table 1 shows the distri-
bution of energy consumption by various fuel types in
2008-2009. It is seen from Tab le 1 that the total energy
consumption of the country is 401,000 TJ in 2008-2009.
The largest share in energy distribution is met by fuel
wood whose contribution is about 78% whereas other bio-
mass resources like agriculture residue and animal dung
contribute about 4% and 6%. Share of petroleum fuels is
Table 1. Share of energy consumption by fuel types [7].
Fuel Type % Share 1000, GJ
Fuel wood 77.7 311577
Agriculture residue 3.7 14837
Animal dung 5.7 22857
Petroleum 8.2 32882
Coal 1.9 7619
Biogas 0.6 2406
Electricity 2 8020
Solar and micro hydro0. 2 802
about 8% and the share of electricity in the total energy
supply of the country is only about 2%. The total energy
consumption of 2008-2009 is about 9% higher than the year
of 2004-2005 with an annual average growth of 2.4% [7].
The amount of energy consumption and its type are
directly related to the population of a country and its
economy. Increased supply of energy will enhance the
rate of economic growth; however, this relation is not
very strong in the present Nepalese context. Ho wever, in
the future, energy may be one of the major determinants
of economic growth due to the gradual shift of economy
from traditional agriculture to industrial and commercial
ones [8].
As seen in Table 1 the energy demand and supply
structure of Nepal is such that it is met mostly by bio-
mass resources including fuel wood, agriculture residue
and animal waste.
The large share of fuel wood (77.7%) in total energy
supply has led to deforestation (1.7% annual deforesta-
tion rate in 2008/2009 [7]), which has caused ecological
imbalance in many sectors. Sustainable use of forest to
meet national energy demand using energy efficient
conversion technology like efficient cooking stoves and
gasifiers are necessary to ensure ecological balance as
well as to have energy security.
4.1. Fuel Consumption by Sectors
Table 2 illustrates fuel consumptio n by different sectors.
It is crucial to have an idea of the fuel consumption by
various sectors so that potential energy savings sectors
can be identified. The table shows that residential sector
consumes about 89% of total energy whereas transport
sector consumes about 5% and the industrial sector con-
sumes about 3%. Commercial and agriculture sectors
together consume approximately 2%. From the table it is
clear that energy saving and substitu tion, and less energy
consumption practices in residential sectors is very cru-
cial to move towards a low carbon society. Moreover,
transport and industrial sectors are also potential sectors
in which energy saving measures can be implemented.
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. LCE
Conceptual Framework of Low Carbon Strategy for Nepal 233
Table 3. Share of different fuel used in residential sector [7]. Table 2. Energy consumption by various sectors [7].
Energy consumption by sector % Share 1000, GJ
Residential sector 89.1 357291
Industrial sector 3.3 13233
Commercial sector 1.3 5213
Transport sector 5.2 20852
Agriculture sector 0.9 3609
Other 0.2 802
4.1.1. Fuel Type in Residential Sector
It is also relevant to explore the share of different fuel
types in residential sector to estimate an amount of car-
bon emission from this sector. Table 3 depicts that about
89.1% (357291 TJ) energy is consumed by residential
sector out of which biomass resources are the major fuel
sources in this sector namely fuel wood (86.5%), agri-
culture residue (3.7%) and the animal waste (6.5%). Al-
together about 97% energy in residential sector comes
from biomass resources while share of electricity and
liquidified petroleum gas (LPG) is about 1% each. As
residential sector energy consumption is about 89.1% of
total national energy consumption, the share of fuel wood
is about 86.5%. The use of animal waste is popular in
Terai region of the country where fuel wood resources
are not easily accessible due to several reasons.
The biomass energy that is being consumed in residen-
tial sector is usually in the form of thermal energ y (i.e. in
the form of cooking energy). The biomass energy con-
version technology practiced in Nepal is generally con-
ventional which implies that the energy conversion effi-
ciency is very less. This means that the energy saving
potential in residential sector is huge as more than 87%
of total national energy consumption is met by biomass
resources. Further, the effort for achieving energy effi-
ciency and fuel diversification policy can reduce great
amount of carbon emission and improve indoor air qual-
ity in residential sector [8]. Besides biomass energy,
share of commercial energy in total national energy con-
sumption is about 12%, out of which 8% is shared by
petroleum, 2% is shared by electricity and 2% is shared
by coal.
4.1.2. Fuel Type in Industrial Sector
Industrial sector energy consumption is about 3.3%
(13233 TJ) of the total national energy consumption in
2008/2009, which is third largest energy consuming sec-
tor. Table 4 shows that coal, electricity and agricultural
residue have larger shares in industrial energy. From this
data it can be said that within the industrial sector the
Fuel Type in residenti al s ec tor % Share 1000, GJ
Fuel wood 86.5 309057
Agri residue 3.7 13219.8
Animal waste 6.5 23223.9
LPG 0.9
Kerosene 0.6
Electricity 1
Biogas 0.6
Solar and micro hydro 0.2 714.5
Table 4. Energy consumption in industrial sector [7].
Fuel type in industrial sector % Share 1000, GJ
Coal 57.7
Diesel 1.9
Kerosene 0.8
Other petroleum 0.9 119.1
Electricity 23.2
Agriculture residue 10.1 1336.5
Fuel wood 5.4 714.6
energy saving potential is high since many industrial
processes and energy conversion technology are conven-
tional where immense potential can be tapped by imple-
menting energy efficiency measures.
4.1.3. Fuel Type in Transport Sector
While GHG emission is large in this sector, the emission
reduction potential is also high. In general, emission re-
duction is possible by substituting high carbon intensive
fossil fuel with less carbon intensive fuel, by improving
road networks and by enforcing stringent measures to
control emission from vehicles. Table 5 shows that fuel
type energy consumption in transport sectors.
4.1.4. Fuel Type in Agriculture Sector
Energy consumption in agricultu re sector is negligible as
compared with other sectors as agricultural activities in
Nepal are mostly traditional and uses of machineries are
very less. Some of the energy consuming activities in this
sector including operation of agro-machineries and irri-
gation, are mostly done by diesel. Only a small number
of irrigation facilities are connected with electricity [8].
Since more than 95% of energy demand is met by diesel
as shown in Table 6, which can be replaced by carbon
neutral fuel, carbon emission reduction potential is high
in this sector.
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. LCE
Conceptual Framework of Low Carbon Strategy for Nepal
Table 5. Energy consumption in transport sector [7].
Fuel type in Transport Sector % Share 1000, GJ
HS diesel 67 13970.8
LS diesel 0.1 20.8
ATF 11.9
LPG 1.1
Gasoline 19.9
Table 6. Agricultural energy consumption [7].
Fuel type in agriculture sect or % Share 1000, GJ
Electricity 4.8
HS diesel 95.1 3432.1
L diesel 0.1 3.7
5. Proposed National Carbon Mitigation
5.1. Scope of the Strategy
The idea of low carbon society has originated as a re-
sponse to mitigate greenhouse gases (GHGs), which are
considered to be responsible for global warming and
climate change. A national carbon mitigation strategy
must be developed in order to mature an idea of low
carbon society. However, in developing countries like
Nepal having very low per capita emissions (as well as
total emissions), and still needing to meet basic devel-
opment needs including education, healthcare and the
like. This is a problem with the developing countries.
Therefore, Nepal might not be able to afford concentrated
focus on deep emission cuts development pathway,
which might incur massive cost of development. Never-
theless, it should prepare to opt for one of the emerging
and accepted approaches to overcome development pa-
radox that is through sustainable development (SD). The
sustainable development pathway results in lower emis-
sion mitigation costs in addition to creatin g opportunities
to realize co-benefits without compromising the original
objective of enhancing economic and social development.
Such co-benefits include improved air (indoor, outdoor)
quality and associated social cost reduction [11]. More-
over, the cost (GDP loss) associated with low carbon
development pathway (sustainable development pathway)
can be compensated through international financial as-
sistance (direct financial assistance, technological trans-
fer or carbon trading mechanism like CDM etc.).
Also, to meet the demand of low carbon emission and
to continue the economic development would be possible
if the country prepares a strategy and action plan to c o mb a t
the future scenario in advance. Hence, for realizing the
vision of low carbon society, a comprehensive policy
instruments as well as technological options are required
for implementation of the carbon mitigation measures
[12]. To realize GHG mitigation strategy a set of proce-
dure is being proposed.
5.2. Methodology
A deep national economy crisis, unstable national econ-
omy and baffling national development plans signifi-
cantly complicates the estimation of future GHG emis-
sions. However, to prepare an effective carbon mitigation
strategy a set of policy as well as technological interven-
tion is necessary. A cautious evaluation of the following
steps is recommended:
Preparation of accurate national GHG inventory
(from energy and non-energy sectors);
Accurate identification of the sources and causes of
GHG emissions;
Project long term GHG emissions on different sce-
nario of development pathway (use simulation tools
and models);
Development of baseline scenario of emissions and
its projection;
Accurate analysis of mitigation measures in all sec-
tors in different scenarios (fuel switch, energy effi-
ciency, reforestation, animal feed change, crop ch-
ange etc.);
Estimation of cost associated with GHG reductions in
different sectors on national targets;
Development of national annual mitigation targets;
Development of mitigation scenarios and its co-
GHG emissions are directly linked to economic pros-
perity of the nation and long term development goal of
the country. Based on this development goal and eco-
nomic prosperity of the nations, accurate GHG projec-
tions can be done, which requires consideration of na-
tional plan on energy security, land use policy and refor-
estation programs. The country should formulate its en-
ergy policy, land use policy and use of forest policy
compatible with national GHG mitigation strategy.
5.3. Potential Area for Mitigation
Based on energy consumption in 2008/2009, carbon emis-
sion on different sectors are evaluated and shown in Fi gure
2, however, in this calculation emission from traditional
fuels and electricity is assumed to be zero. But even if we
have sustainable use of forest and net carbon emission is
zero, there can be unnecessary loss of useful energy and
high indoor air pollution due to the use of conventional en-
ergy conversion technology. The use of efficient energy
conversion technology might save tremendous amount of
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. LCE
Conceptual Framework of Low Carbon Strategy for Nepal 235
Figure 2. GHG emissions from different energy consuming
sectors in Nepal.
energy as well as improve indoor air pollution reducing
health risk, especially of women and children who are
gene rally exposed to the pollutants for longer time. Saving
energy is equivalent to reducing GHG emissions. Some
potential areas of mitigation are discussed below.
5.3.1. Residential Sector
Energy consumption in residential sector is about 89% of
total national energ y consumption of which 97% is tradi-
tional fuel (basically biomass). Almost all traditional fuel
in residential sector is used for cooking food, space heat-
ing and so on. The use of cooking stoves or energy con-
version technology practice in Nepal is generally open
hearth cooking stoves having efficiency of around 5% -
7% which is very modest. This implies that lots of energy
is lost in the surroundings and at the same time emitting
higher amounts of pollutants. If the less efficient stoves
are replaced by improved cooking stoves and gasifiers
having efficiency more than 15%, half of the fuel can be
saved. The target to achieve 15% - 20% efficiency on
gasifiers and improved stoves is not an ambitious target
and can be achieved easily. By having efficient cooking
methods, about 175,000 TJ energy can be saved annually
(figure for 2008/2009), which further lead to huge
amount of carbon emission reduction. This in turn re-
duces pressure on forest and ecosystem. This carbon re-
duction potential can be benefited from carbon trading
mechanism like CDM.
The share of LPG, kerosene and electricity is about
2.5% of the total energy consumption in residential sector,
out of which 0.9% is contributed by LPG, 0.6% is con-
tributed by kerosene and 1% is contributed by electricity.
The potential to substitute LPG and kerosene by bio-
gas is evident, which also can be benefited from carbon
trading mechanism. Moreover, those fossil based fuels
can also be replaced by electricity (hydroelectricity) if
country has abundant electricity generation. The current
market price per unit of energy from LPG and electricity
is almost the same. Therefore, there is an enormous po-
tential to shift fuel types in residential sector which will
certainly reduce dependency on imported fuels and save
foreign currency while reducing emissions. Energy effi-
cient measures in use of electricity can reduce use of
electricity consumption. These measures are efficient
light (CFL), efficient electrical appliances etc.
5.3.2. Transportation Sector
The transport sector has nearly half (49%, 409101.6 Tons)
of GHG emission share in total national GHG emission.
The reason of the large share of emission from the trans-
port sector is due to the use of fossil fuels in this sector.
Therefore, this sector should be given highest priority
in view of future action plan of carbon mitigation strat-
egy. Moreover, the detail and accurate GHG inventory
of transport sector is required to formulate the carbon
mitigation plan. The mitigation target in this sector can
play a decisive role on how and what kind of measures
can be taken to achieve the goal. Increased use of bio-
diesel and bioethanol in diesel and petrol fuel respec-
tively, phasing out of vehicles that are not complying
the emissions standards, promoting electric vehicles and
mass transit systems, improving road networks and
identifying the vehicle acceptance limit based on road
networks and traffic management, could be useful
measures for reducing carbon emissions from transport
sectors. If the above measures are applied, approximately
15% - 20% reduction can be possible.
5.3.3. Industrial Sector
Industrial sector has second largest carbon contribution
(25%, 206494.9 Tons) in national carbon emission which
is also due to the large share of fossil fuels in its total
energy consumption. Improving energy efficiency in
industrial sectors (basically on boilers, furnaces, lighting
and electric motors etc.) can reduce huge amount of car-
bon emission but the detail investigation of associated
economic cost per unit of emission reduction should be
identified in order to formulate an action plan of carbon
mitigation strategy. Besides the sectors discussed above,
energy related GHG emission reduction potential in non
energy sector (agriculture and forestry) is also possible.
5.3.4. Forestry Sector
The potential to store carbon in the Nepalese forest bio-
mass is shown in Table 7 [4]. It shows that there is great
potential for storage of CO2 in the forest biomass. If for-
est growth rate is positive then the growing biomass
could easily offset CO2 emissions from other sectors. The
amount of CO2 offset will depend on the magnitude of
growth rate of the forest and the amount of CO2 emitted.
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. LCE
Conceptual Framework of Low Carbon Strategy for Nepal
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. LCE
Table 7. Forest areas and carbon stored in various development regions of Nepal [4].
Forest area (in million/ha) Above-ground biomass (in million/tonnes) Carbon (in million/tonnes)
SN Development regions 1986 1994 1986 1994 1986 1994
1 Far western 0.991 0.687 128.0 161.1 64.0 80.55
2 Mid western 1.641 1.192 229.0 219.4 114.5 109.7
3 Western 0.900 0.734 81.0 143.5 40.5 71.75
4 Central 1.063 0.919 109.0 183.3 54.5 91.65
5 Eastern 0.923 0.736 81.0 165.7 40.5 82.85
Total 5.518 4.268 628.0 873.0 314.0 436.5
from other sectors. This can be calculated only if proper
GHG inventory is available. For a developing country
like Nepal, the forestry sector alone can offset the GHG
emissions from the entire sectors. Emission reductions
due to avoided deforestation is considered to be a very
costeffective future climate change policy [2]. The pro-
gram, REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation
and Forest Degradation) in developing countries are tar-
geted to reduce deforestation, and to provide important
opportunity for developing countries to contribute sig-
nificantly in emission reduction efforts under the interna-
tional climate regime. In addition, many accompanying
benefits, including environmental service from reducing
deforestati on, could be expec t ed.
5.3.5. Agric ul t ura l Sec t or
The agricultural sector emits carbon dioxide due to land
use change (mainly deforestation for new agriculture
areas), and fossil fuel usage for irrigation and agro proc-
essing. While agriculture emits only small amounts of
CO2, it has a large capacity to store carbon in plant mate-
rial and soils. Implementing certain best management
practices in agriculture, such as, conservation tillage,
nutrient management, rotational grazing and improved
forage management, use of cropping rotations and cover
crops, can increase the potential for greater CO2 storage
[12]. The GHG emissions from this sector can be mini-
mized by the promotion of several sustainable agricul-
tural practices includ ing crop cycling , no tillag e cropping ,
organic farming, and occasional drainage of flooded rice
field Nepal being an agricultural country, this sector not
only has a huge potential of reducing GHG emission but
also has a great potential to serve as carbon sink in the
form of agricultural biomass in the soil. This needs lots
of awareness and education in addition to the research on
how agricultural system of Nepal can be made sustain-
able and yet cost effective.
6. Expected Structure of the National
Carbon Mitigation Strategy
To envision a low carbon society along with noticeable
economic development, growing use of commercial fuels
and lessening use of biomass sources are imperative fac-
tors. Since Nepal does not have any other energy resources
(except hydropower) its efforts should be concentrated on
harnessing hydro power resources, enhancing use of re-
newable energy sources and improving energy efficiency
of the existing system. Here a proposed carbon mitigation
strategy frame is presented in Table 8 as a reference for
the formulation of nat ional carbon mi tigati on strat egy .
7. Conclusions
A review of GHG emission sources and their mitigation
potential in various sectors has been done. On the basis
of the experiences from around the world it can be con-
cluded that Nepal has ample opportunities not only to
reduce GHG emissions from its existing amount but also
to serve as carbon sink. Based on the practice and suc-
cess stories from elsewhere, Nepal can devise its own
strategy to mitigate greenhouse gases. The tentative
strategy has also been proposed. However, in order to
have concrete strategy the detail GHG emission inven-
tory and development vision of Nepal are crucial. With-
out a proper database of the GHG emission of the coun-
try and the development vision the usefulness and suc-
cess of the strategy in terms of cost effectiveness and
sustainability cannot be evaluated. Thus, further works
on estimating GHG emissions from various sector using
contemporary tools and techniques along with the pro-
jection of long term development goals of the country is
highly recommended.
8. Acknowledgements
The Alternative Energy Promoti on Canter, M inistry of En-
Conceptual Framework of Low Carbon Strategy for Nepal 237
Table 8. Expected structure of the national carbon mitigation strategy.
Policy instruments Framework Actions
Develop national energy policy Set energy mix target
Fuel diversification strategy
Promote indigenous energy resources
Fuel switch from coal, diesel, LPG to electricity and other
Research and development to promote cleaner ene rgy
Develop energy efficiency policy Device efficiency standardization
Fees, Taxes and subsidies to stimulate
efficient technology
Energy and environment audits
Research and development to set national efficiency stan-
dards and penalties
Sustainable transport policy
Promotion of biofuels
Promoting electric vehicles
Better traffic management
Mass based transit system
Research and development on biofuels and electric vehicles
Enforcement of tr affic regulations
Improve road networks and prepare bus and route tim etables
Shift from private to public transport (bus, train, tram)
Reduced carbon policy
Emission trading
Tax system-environmental tax, greener
tax system
Set carbon footprints
Project based on carbon trading mechanism
Tax incentives for less or no GHG emission
Life cycle analysis to display carbon emission-footprints
Waste management Reduce, reuse, recycle Minimize waste disposal, recycle waste
Encourage composting, anaerob ic d ige sti on
Harness methane from landfill
Land use and land use change Sustainable agriculture Promote agroforestry
Promotion of organic farm i ng
Promotion of integrated farming
Reduced deforestation and degra-
dation of forest (REDD)
Community forest user gr oups
Market based mechanism to reward for-
est conservation
Stringent measures to curb deforestation
Afforestation program, Sustainable use of forest
Set annual growth targets, Ma i nta in standar d data b ank
Severe punishment
Low carbon and sustainable socie-
ties Teaching and learning about low carbon
and sustainable societies
Course plan in every educational l e ve l
Collaborating with groups and individuals working with these
vironment, Government of Nepal is acknowledged for
the financial support of this project.
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GHG Green House Gas
ppmv Parts per million volume
UNFCCC Un i t e d Na t i o n s Fr a m e w o r k C o n v e nt i onon
Climate Change
UNCED United Nations Conference on
Environment and Development
SD Sustainable Development
CDM Clean Development Mechanism
CFL Compact Fluorescent Lamp
LUCF Land use change and forestry
LPG Liquid Petroleum Gas
LCS Low Carbon Society
GDP Gross Domestic Product
CO2 Carbon Dioxide
CH4 Methane
N2O Nitrous Oxide
HFCs Hydrofluorocarbons
PFCs Perfluorocarbons
SF6 Sulphur Hexafluoride
CO Carbon Monoxide
NMVOCs Non-Methane Volatile Organic
TJ Tera Joule
M Million
GJ Giga Joule
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