Vol.3, No.12, 732-736 (2011)
opyright © 2011 SciRes. Openly accessible at http://www.scirp.org/journal/HEALTH/
Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in context with the
paradigmmonth of birth and longevity
Elyiahu Stoupel1,2*, Abdonas Tamoshiunas3, Richardas Radishauskas3, Gailute Bernotiene3,
Evgeny Abramson4, Peter Israelevich5
1Division of Cardiology, Rabin Medical Center, Petah Tiqwa, Israel;
2Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel; *Corresponding Author: stoupel@inter.net.il
3Institute of Cardiology, Lithuanian University of Medical Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania;
4Managing Information Center, Rabin Medical Center, Petah Tiqwa, Israel;
5Department of Geophysics & Planetary Science, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.
Received 9 September 2011; revised 4 November 2011; accepted 16 November 2011.
Time and environmental physical activity are
involved in timing of many medical events. In a
recent study published by the National Acad-
emy of Science, US A it was sh o wn that mon th of
birth is related to longevity. The aim of this
study was to check the month of birth distribu-
tion in a great group of AMI patients of both
gender, one of the great killers in the developed
countries, to check the mentioned paradigm of
month of birth and longevity. Methods & Pa-
tients: Patients admitted to Cardiology Depart-
ment s of a tertiary University Hospital in Kaunas,
Lithuania w ith AMI at years 1990-2010 (n-22047)
were studied. Month of birth of these patients,
total and both gender were checked. Monthly,
quarterly and trimester comparison were done.
Statistical differences established using t-Stu-
dent test and distribution by percents of the
yearly months of birth. Results: It was a sig-
nificant difference in the month of birth of the
studied AMI population. January and first quar-
ter and trimester born patients w ere more often
in the studied AMI patients group. The higher
morbidity by Cardiovascular diseases can be a
significant ingredient in the structure of popula-
tion longevity. Possible mechanisms explaining
our findings are discussed. Conclusion: In the
AMI population people born in January, first
quarter or trimester of the year are dominating
in both gender groups. The results of this study
can be an additional confirmation of the para-
digm about links between month of birth and
Keywords: Acute Myocardial Infarction; Month;
Birth; Men; Women; Solar; Geomagnetic; Cosmi c
Ray; Activity; Nutrition
For a long time the yearly circle of the Earths dynam-
ics is divided in 12 parts of 30˚ named months. The first
calendars are assumed to appear at 4241 BC [1-3].
In the ancient world some figures or animals were
connected with time of the year, close to the Zodiac
symbols classification. Specific yearly parting were done
in Rome by Julius Caesar, Augustus and others, with
Gregorian (Vatican), Christian Orthodox and Muslim
and Jewish modification in their calendars. A yearly
calendar exist in China and a number of Buddhist Cul-
tures connected with some animals.
For a long time the individual human fate and it’s
specificities were linked with the month of birth, or Zo-
diac sign (close to monthly separation) at the time of
birth, a part of Astrology. Despite wide skepticism by
many thinkers about such connection, many periodicals
are regularly publishing Astrological data and predic-
S. Hawking and “black hole” assumption as a physical
beginning of time [4], the recent works showing the ori-
gin of Cosmic Ray (highest known form of energy in the
Universe ) with a close to our Galactic black hole radia-
tion (2007) [5,6] space for time understanding. A special
part of knowledgeChronobiology is studying the
timebiology, health interrelationship [7-9].
In the year 2001, the Academy of Science of the USA.
published a study in the Annals of the Academy about
links between month of birth and longevity (inverse for
each Hemisphere) [10].
Cardiovascular disease is one of the big killers in the
developed countries (Industrial World) [11-13]. Some
inequalities can exist in the monthly number of births
E. Stoupel et al. / Health 3 (2011) 732-736
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. Openly accessible at http:// www.scirp.org/journal/HEALTH/
The aim of this study was to check if some monthly
distribution exist in month of birth in patients suffering
Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) total and each gen-
ders as an additional pretext for the paradigm of month
of birth and longevity.
23070 patients with AMI, admitted in the cardiology
departments of tertiary hospital, Lithuanian University
of Medical Sciences clinical base in Kaunas, Lithuania
at years 1990-2010 were studied. The AMI diagnosis
was made in accord to Guidelines using clinical, elec-
trocardiography, echocardiography and laboratory tests
[11-13]. At he beginning of the study it was established
that 1023 patients registration data not included month
of birth. These patients were excluded from the study
and we remained with 22,047 patients, 13,415 male
(60.84%) and 8632 female (39.16%).The monthly, quar-
ter and trimester of birth of the AMI patients were com-
pared and statistically significant differences between
these time intervals established. Significance of 95% and
higher between the compared parameters was accepted
as significant. For comparison with concomitant space
physical activity monthly data from centers in the USA,
Russia, Finland was used [15-19].
Table 1 presents the AMI according to their month of
birth. We can clearly see the differences of the monthly
distribution with bulging beginning of the year. Born in
January were the most frequent in total and each gender
calculation. The average for male patients was 1117 ±
193.89; median 1107.5, for January 1584. Difference
(467) more than two SD (387,78) above the average.
The same for female patients: January born-914. Aver-
age for all 12 months 719.3 ± 78.49; median-710. Dif-
ference between January and average of all 12 month
194.7, more than two SD (157.8) higher as the average.
Figure 1 presents the data separately for each gender.
Here also the form of distribution remain as for the total
group of patients.
Figure 2 presents the monthly birth distribution for
five age groups: up to 55; 55 - 69; 70 - 84 and 85 and
older. We can see that the analogical picture of monthly
distribution seen in the previous table and picture 1 is
repeated in all age groups.
Born in the first quarter, or trimester were more as in
the following four or three parts of the year. (P < 0.0001).
I-2148.667 ± 305.16; II-1891.667 ± 108.007; III-1739.33
± 70.87; IV-1569.33 ± 71.009 average monthly by quar-
ter of the year and I-2084.75 ± 280.04; II-1824.25
±128.08; III-1602.75 ± 88.4by trimester.
Table 1. Monthly births of AMI patients, total and in 4 age
groups Kaunas, Lithuania, 1990-2010.
Month of BirthUp to 5555 - 6970 - 84 85 and more TotalPercent
January 4651141764128249811,3
February 40181960211219348,8
March 4258516399920149,1
April 4277895809718938,6
May 43988456810819999,1
June 4057965008217838,1
July 3907925548518218,3
August 3767644837116947,7
September 3567215537317037,7
October 31069449610116017,3
November 3046154957414886,7
December 3066645529716197,3
Total 460495306786112722047100,0
Figure 1. Monthly births of AMI patients (n-22047), Kaunas, Lithuania, 1990-2010.
E. Stoupel et al. / Health 3 (2011) 732-736
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. Openly accessible at http:// www.scirp.org/journal/HEALTH/
Figure 2. Monthly births of AMI patients both gender (n-22047), Kaunas, Lithuania,
55 - 6970 - 84
Figure 3. Monthly births of AMI patients (n-22047) in four age groups, Kaunas, Lithunia,
This is our second attempt to check the monthly birth
distribution of patients with acute cardiac events. The
first was made on Israeli patients undergoing Percuta-
neous Coronary Intervention (PCI) for AMI. The study
had some limitations:
Until 1950 people arriving to Israel (Palestine until
1948) were registered as born on January 1st. Of our
4732 patients 1154 were excluded from the study as born
at January 1st. This was replaced by the average of
births on January 2 - 31. Principally the result was simi-
lar-born in the first quartertrimester were more, with
special prominence in March [20].
In this study, in different geographic location, but in
the Northern hemisphere, we get similar results.
What can be the explanation of the results?
1) It’s assumed that predisposition to cardiovascular
disease is in one quarter related to genetic factors [21,22],
one quarter to factors affecting the fetus at pregnancy
and a halfon environmental and day-to-day risk fac-
tors linked with lifestyle, working conditions, stress,
nutrition [23], accompanying pathologies (Lipid profile,
Diabetes mellitus, Renal failure, Hypothyroidism, etc.)
[23]. Newborn weight is also connected with environ-
mental physical conditions at the time of conception. So,
birth weight was inverse correlated with Carotid artery
intima thickness in middle age British men and woman
2) Newborn weight and length are also connected with
environmental physical conditions at the time of concep-
tion [24,25] are also signs predicting obesity, hyper-
tension and coronary problems in the future and serving
E. Stoupel et al. / Health 3 (2011) 732-736
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. Openly accessible at http:// www.scirp.org/journal/HEALTH/
as risk factors for coronary artery disease in middle age
3) Such physical factors like Time, Solar, Geomag-
netic, Cosmic Ray (Neutron) activity are connected with
timing of distribution such pathologies like Down Syn-
drome [26], Congenital Heart Disease [27,28] some
forms of congenital failures [29], Cystic fibrosis [30] etc.
4) Solar and Geomagnetic fields are inverse related
and serving natural shields against Cosmic Ray (highest
known energies) (Neutron activity at the Earth surface in
imp/min counted) damaging effects on our Planet, but at
very high levels SA and GMA are also connected with
many human pathologies [30-35].
5) In a study about monthly number of newborns (n-
286.963) in the same as this study area it was not found
significant relationship between month of birth and
newborns number, that would explain major shifts in the
population according to month of birth and possibility to
be affected by a popular disease [36]. No significant
relationship in the number of monthly newborns and
yearly months 1 - 12 was found (r = –0.0039, p = 0.7, for
male, n = 148089; r = 0.03997, p = 0.699 for female, n =
138,830; 96 months data).
6) It’s shown that Cosmic Ray activity is inverse re-
lated to the SA 11-year cycle, but, relatively, not strong
variation from month to month [34,36,37].
The sun itself-a source of wave and corpuscular ef-
fects on the Earth is significantly changing monthly, and
not only yearly. The distance of the Sun is maximal at
July 4, minimal at January 3rd. Difference more than
5,000,000 km. Space corpuscular activity can change
human enzymes activitya key mechanism in many
bioeffective structure synthesis in human body, including
mechanisms involved in Atherothrombosis risk and dy-
namics [38-40].
7) In addition to the reported in PNAS data about
month of birth (10) and longevity opposite results in the
two hemispheres of our Planet, it was published by a
group of experimental and laboratory scientists that
similar observations are made in rats [41,42].
Their findings the authors connect with differences in
Melatonin synthesis in rats at different months of the
year. Some role of the Geomagnetic and Solar cycle ef-
fects are also presumed.
The differences in Solar light intensity and Melatonin
production dependence by dark-light interplay can ex-
plain the differences in the hemispheres. Some observa-
tion are made on Serotonin (Melatonin precursor) car-
diovascular effects [43].
But this demands additional studies for explaining the
observed month of birthAMI interrelationship and
possible influence on human longevity
1) Acute Myocardial Infarction patients are unequal
distributed by month of birth. In the Northern Hemi-
sphere they show a significant maximal January, first
quarter and trimester prevalence in comparison with fol-
lowing months quarters and trimesters of the year.
This was seen in patients of both gender.
2) The findings in the AMI cohort can be a supporting
fragment for the paradigm birth month and longevity.
3) Genetic, social and environmental factors can be
involved in the predisposition for coronary atherothrom-
bosis in persons born at the beginning of the year in the
Northern Hemisphere.
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