Journal of Software Engineering and Applications, 2011, 4, 666-671
doi:10.4 23 6/jse a .20 11 .4 12 07 8 Pu blishe d Onli ne December 2011 (
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Developing Systems by Using Object Oriented
Database Practical Study on ISO 9001:2000 System
Kamel Khouald i1, Thoria Alghamdi2
1Management Information Systems Department, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia;2Information Systems Depart-
ment, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
Email: {kamel_khoualdi, thalghamdi}
Received Oct ober 15th, 2011; revised November 20th, 2011; accep ted November 3 0th, 2011.
Object oriented database OODB is the third generation of databases. It was a natural result of limitations on rela-
tional database and increasing requirements of software, and business needs. This paper presents the method to apply
OODB on ISO 9001:2000 System. It focuses in analysis and design phase by using Unified Modeling Language UML,
and how can represent this type of database. This paper provides comprehensive information about applying OODB on
Keywords: ISO 9001:2000, Object Oriented Database, Relational Database, UML
1. Introduction
In today’s world, applications become more complex and
require high performance. These requirements are diffi-
cult to manage in traditional Relational Database Man-
agement System RDBMS so organizations of all sizes
are attempting to employ database technology to meet
these challenges [1]. Object Oriented Database OODB is
new model of database; it is created to avoid the limita-
tions encountered in the past models. The mechanism of
OODB depends on object concept, in this concept data is
stored in the database as object, each object has its state
and behavior, the state is defined by the value of its
properties, and behavior is defined by the method that
operates on the state of the object [2]. Object oriented
technique supports three concepts which represent the
source of OODB power, these concepts are: Inheritance
Classes can inherit the attributes and behaviors of other
classes. They represent a hierarchy structure. Inheritance
develops complex software by creating new objects and
allowing it to hold new features in addition to all old
features [3]. Polymorphism it allows sharing specifica-
tion of the operation with other objects, these objects can
further extend this operatio n t o provide behaviors that are
unique to those objects [4]. Encapsulation the manipula-
tion of an object is possible only through its defined ex-
ternal interface; the instance variables and methods are
2. ODBMS Advantages
OODBMS uses Object to represent data. It can represent
real world and complex relationships, and it can repre-
sent a hierarchical structure. It is also able to develop
syste ms fa ste r tha n RDB MS by usin g inher ita nce. Obj ect
structure supports Encapsulation, concurrency, and ad hoc
query [1]. Also, it can store more data like images, video,
audio, animations and mixed media, and accessing data
can be faster because objects can be retrieved directly by
following pointers. It use one UML diagram and support
inverse relationships [5]. It supports an Object Identifier
OID that is automatically generated by the system. This
mechanism guarantees uniqueness to each object, an OID
cannot be modified by the application, and this way eli-
minates the need for user defined keys in the OODB
model. In OODB model, developer can add any rules by
writing codes in one or more functions [6]. OODB de-
creases the gap between programming in Object Oriented
Language and accessing data from database.
3. Class Diagram
ISO 9001:2000 System database was designed by using
object data type to represent each component in the ma-
nual system such as employee, unit, document, TQM ma-
nual, meeting, training file, auditing and corrective action.
Developing Systems by Using Object Oriented Database Practical Study on ISO 9001:2000 System667
The employee class inherits all the primary data from the
person class and it contains a data of account type. The
employee class and unit class have an association rela-
tionship, where one or more employees belong to one
unit, and one unit is managed by one employee. The em-
ployee class and the co mmittee class have an association
relationship, where one employee has zero or more com-
mittees. Figure 1 shows relationship between the em-
ployee class and other classes. In Code.1 the first SQL
sentence shows the implementation of employee Class
and the second sentence s hows the implementatio n of em-
ployee table where each row in the table is object of an
employee type.
UNDER person_typ
j_name VARCHAR2(30),
j_degree VARCHARE2(30),
salary INTEGER,
education_level VARCHAR2(30),
h_date DATE,
l_data DATE,
unit REF unit_typ,
account account_type,
committee REF committee_typ);
SQL > CREATE TABLE employee_tab of employee typ
Also, the database contains document as a parent class;
the document can be internal document if it was issued
inside organization or external document if not, internal
documents include decisions, forms, check lists, reports,
and TQM manual documents. The document class and
the unit class have an association relationship, where
each document belongs to a specific unit. The document-
class and the employee class have an association relation-
ship, where each document was written or approved by
one employee. Figure 2 shows the document class and
its relationship.
Figure 1. Relationships between employee class and other classes.
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Developing Systems by Using Object Oriented Database Practical Study on ISO 9001:2000 System 668
Figure 2. Document class and its relationship.
Ddate DATE,
title VARCHAR2(50),
type VARCHAR2(15),
unit REF unit_typ,
SQL > CREAT OR REPLACE TYPE internaldoc_typ
UNDER document_typ
(Employ_name REF employee_typ) NOT FINAL;
SQL > CREATE TABLE internaldoc_tab of internal typ
In Code.2 the first SQL sentence shows the imple-
mentation of document class. We set the type of content
as BFILE. By using this type we can store the extension
of the file in the database and store the file (DOC, PTT,
PDF) in separated folder. The NOT FINAL sentence re-
fers to the ability to inherit all data and function from this
class. The second SQL sentence shows the implementa-
tion of internal document as a child class. It has only one
data it pointes to Employee object. We use this because
the internal document should be written by an employ-
The TQM manual was represented as a class contains
unlimited number of parts, and each part contains unlim-
ited number of chapters, and each chapter contains unli-
mited number of subjects, and each subject refers to spe-
cial topic, so we use the aggregation relationship between
the TQM manual and the part class, and so on. We use the
association relationship between the chapter class and the
topic class instead of aggregation because the topic class
should be associate to other classes such as corrective
and request classes, and by using association relationship
it will be easy to make any type of corrective action in
TQM manual, and general manager can reject any TQM
manual document without lose it. Figure 3 shows the
TQM manual c l ass.
The Database of this system was designed depends on
view which is looking to ISO system as a set of actions
related with special documents. Each action needs spe-
cific information like the date, the responsible employee,
the title and the status. For example: the meeting is an
action generates documents of decision type, the auditing
is an action generates chick list and report, documenta-
tion request is an action need special form and generates
TQM manual document, corrective action is an action
need special form and in some case it generates a new
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Developing Systems by Using Object Oriented Database Practical Study on ISO 9001:2000 System669
TQM manual document, and so on. Depends on this view
the database was designed to be contain action class as
parent class and the meeting class, the request class, and
the auditing class as a children classes. The corrective ac-
tion class and the documentation request class are chil-
dren of the request class, because they need an applica-
tion. Figure 4 shows the class diagram for ISO 9004:
2000 System.
Figure 3. The TQM manual cla ss.
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Developing Systems by Using Object Oriented Database Practical Study on ISO 9001:2000 System 670
Figure 4. IS0 9001:2000 System marked as cl ass diagram.
4. Conclusions
Our objective in this thesis is to develop a database for
ISO 9001:2000 System by using Object Oriented Ap-
proach. We studied the actual manual ISO 9001:2000
System, and depend on the system’s requirements and
components, we generated class diagrams by using UML.
In particular, the Object Oriented Database can represent
and handle the complex data in a high performance and
can develop the systems faster with little code. We can
also note that modeling database of ISO system in OODB
looks simple and easy to develop and maintenance.
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Developing Systems by Using Object Oriented Database Practical Study on ISO 9001:2000 System671
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