International Journal of Geosciences, 2011, 2, 394-397
doi:10.4236/ijg.2011.24042 Published Online November 2011 (
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. IJG
Application of Geographic Information System (GIS)
in Mapping Groundwater Quality in Uyo, Nigeria
Magnus Uzoma Igboekwe*, Akaninyene Okon Akankpo
Department of P hysi cs , Michael Okpara University of Agriculture,Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria
E-mail: *
Received June 2, 2011; revised August 17, 2011; accepted September 24, 2011
In recent years there has been serious concern on the deteriorating groundwater quality due to the activities
of man. Geographic Information System (GIS), a high performance computer based tool is playing a critical
role in water resource management and pollution study. In this work, the GIS software was used to analyze
the effects of various data layers (topographic slope, groundwater table variation, soil porosity and land use
activities) on the distribution of groundwater pollution in the Nigerian city of Uyo. Spatial variability map of
different groundwater quality parameters were generated using interpolation operation in the software. A
good correlation exists between some of the pollution indicators (total dissolved solids, TDS and conducti-
vity, CN, 0.8; chloride and TDS, 0.17 as well as TDS and sulphate, 0.23). The results of spatial variability
maps of different groundwater quality parameters indicate an increase in the percentages of pollution levels
during the last five years. Cross operation was also used to explain the effects of various data layers viz. to-
pographic slope, groundwater slope, depth to groundwater layer and land use activities on the distribution of
groundwater pollution.
Keywords: Groundwater, Pollution, Water Quality, GIS, Uyo Urban
1. Introduction
Of all the natural resources, water permeates perhaps
most deeply into all aspects of life. Water is no doubt
one of the most essential needs of human beings, for
drinking and other domestic purposes. Its presence or
lack of it determines to a great extent the nature of the
natural environment in which life and majority of our
economic activities depend on [1].
Water is a landscape element and as a chemically ac-
tive mobile substance, it is always on contionous move
through the surface and subsurface of the earth. Ground-
water constitutes over 90% of the world’s readily avail-
able freshwater resources with the remaining 10% in
lakes, reservoirs, rivers and wetlands [2]. Though ground-
water is generally of good quality, quality problems do
occur. More serious than natural pollution is contamina-
tion from the activities of man.
Groundwater is inherently succeptible to contamina-
tion from anthropogenic activities and remediation is
very expensive and sometimes not practical. Frequently
handling of polluting substances on the ground surface
involve interventions with water quality, in view of the
fact that water is an excellent solvent, chemically active,
and always on the move according to the laws control-
ling the hydrodynamics of the water cycle. Once caught
by the moving groundwater, pollutants therefore tend to
move along with groundwater, unless chemical reactions
along the groundwater pathways influence the mobility
of the pollutant.
Geographic Information System (GIS), a high per-
formance computer based tool is playing a critical role in
water resource management and pollution study. GIS
represents a technological advancement in terms of over-
lay mapping techniques. It is a latest tool available to store,
retrieve and analyse different types of data for manage-
ment of water resources. It facilitates systematic hand-
ling of data to generate information in a devised format.
GIS has advantages over traditional methods used in
groundwater studies. They include effective storage and
analysis system for spatial and temporal database, graphical
presentation, visual impacts and spatial distribution of
graphical outputs on water guality changes, pollution load
and relationship with sources.
The integrated land and water information system (IL-
WIS 2.2) is a low cost PC—based GIS software that in-
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. IJG
tegrates conventional GIS techniques, digital image proc-
essing and raster based spatial modeling. As a GIS pack-
age, ILWIS allows a user to input, manage, analyze and
present geographic data.
It can also generate information from the data on spa-
tial and temporal patterns and processes it on the earth
surface. It is used in land evaluation, environmental ma-
nagement, and natural risks assessment [3].
In Uyo Urban the Akwa Ibom State capital, ground-
water remains the most readily available source of water
to the residents. Groundwater quality assumes much greater
emphasis in such situation , as quality of existing ground-
water resources cannot be allowed to deteriorate further.
This study focuses on mapping groundwater pollution
with respect to certain significant groundwater quality
parameters. It also assesses the variations of these pa-
rameters over a period of five years, using Geographic
Information System (GIS).
2. The Study Area
Uyo is situated between latitude 5˚01” North of Equator
and longitude 7˚56' East of the meridian. Figure 1 shows
the location map of the study area. The sub-equatorial cli-
mate region is influenced by warm humid air masses from
the Atlantic Ocean and slightly by the hot day air masses
called harmattan. The area enjoys the influence of mari-
time all the year round. Rainy season occurs between
March and October with a short dry season from No-
vember to February. The area has mean annual rain- fall
of 2484 mm and a mean yearly temperature of 27˚C. It
has relative humi di ty range of 70% - 80%.
Figure 1. Locations of wells on the map of Uyo urban.
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. IJG
The study area is located within the lowland coastal
plain region of Nigeria. It has, on the average, a flat ter-
rain of 61 meters above mean sea level (amsl), except in
the Northern sides where 50 meters deep Ikpa river val-
ley breaks the monotony. A close study of the area indi-
cates that 90% of the town slopes to the South while the
remaining portion slopes towards the Ikpa valley [4]. The
virtually flat nature of the town has adversely affected
the drainage of the town and its physical development.
The stabilized ground surface has greatly increased the
rate of rainfall infiltration into the ground. In some loca-
tions, wells are sited near waste dumps with little or no
consideration to the possibility of the groundwater con-
tamination through seepage.
The aluvial deposits of the late tertiary age from ho-
mogenous rock structures and sandstones, shales and clay
have resulted in a physiographic region underlined by
coastal plain sand. The resultan t ferralitic soils are rich in
free iron but low mineral reserves. The specific ferralitic
soil type is brownish, porous, acidic, highly leached and
relatively infertile [4].
Geologically, Uyo belongs to the area classified as
coastal plain sands known as the Benin formation [5].
The Benin formation is the upper most unit of the Niger
Delta complex and overlies the Agbada formation. The
coastal plain sands are made of alternating sequences of
gravels and sands of different grain sizes, silt, clay and
alluvium. According to Edet and Okereke [6], Benin
formation comprises of sediments whose age is from
tertiary to recent. The Benin formation consists of fine-
medium coarse grained sands which are sometimes
poorly sorted [5].
3. Methodology
Groundwater quality data were collected from the Qua-
lity Control Laboratory of the Akwa Ibom State Water
Company. Water quality data for 8 locations spread across
Uyo urban were used. A total of nine parameters were
used, for a period of five years (2005-2009), to analyze
the yearly variations.
The map of the area was registered into the ILWIS 2.2
software via the steps of scanning, import, creation of
coordinate system and geo-referencing. The next step
was the digitization of the various spatial features i.e.
well location, soil sampling sites, land use activity, spot
height and contour lines. Contour lines and spot height
information were used to prepare the digital elevation
model (DEM) of the study area, which was further clas-
sified by slicing operation. Piezometic map and digital
elevation model was used to prepare the depth to water
layer. Then all these maps were integrated into the soft-
ware for further analysis and presentation of resu lts.
4. Results and Discussion
The chemical quality data used for the study were con-
ductivity, sulphate, chloride, total solids, total dissolved
solids, and suspended solids. Most of the wastes gene-
rated from this area is disposed on land which percolate
through the so il strata and reach es the groundwater level,
thereby affecting the soil and groundwater quality of the
area. The physico-chemical characteristics of the area are
shown in Table 1, which reveals that the area has a high
TDS content. It is highly polluting i n nature and affects the
ecological balance of the surrounding environment. The
correlation matrix operation in the software was used to
assess the relationship between some pollution indicators.
The result obtained from correlation matrix operation is
given in Table 2, which clearly indicates that a positive
correlation coefficient exists between the pollution indi-
cators (TDS and CN, 0.8; chloride and TDS, 0.17 as well
as TDS and sulphate, 0.23). This implies that there is a
direct proportionality between these parameters. The cor-
relation results are related to seasonal variation, perme-
ability of the aquiferous layers, groundwater table varia-
tion as well as depth of shallow wells [6].
Table 1. Physico-chemical characte ristics of groundw ater in
the study area.
S/NoParameter Minimum MaximumAverage
1 Colour in units 1200.0 2060 1581.667
2 Conductivity(s/cm) 3500.0 4590 3956.667
3 Sulphate (mg/L) 180.5 285 247.167
4 Chloride (mg/L) 250.0 320 285.000
5 Potassium (mg/L) 0.1 7 5.300
6 Iron (mg/L) 0.1 11 7.233
7 Total solids (mg/L) 2050.0 4000 3025.000
8 Total dissolved
solids (mg/L) 1019.0 3000 2009.500
9 Total suspended
solids (mg/L) 295.0 790 461.667
Table 2. Correlation coefficient between some parameters.
S/NoIndicator Indicator Correlation
1 TDS CN 0.80
2 Chloride TDS 0.17
3 TDS Sulphate 0.23
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. IJG
Table 3. Groundwater quality results with respect to c ertain significant par ameter s.
S/no Groundwater quality Standard limit Percentage of concentration greater than the WHO limit
Parameter 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
1 TDS >500 mg/L 80% 88% 89.0% 90% 99.8%
2. CN >1400 s/cm 81% 85% 86.7% 90% 95.0%
3. Chloride >250 mg/L 47% 49% 51.0% 65% 70.0%
The interpolation operation was used to prepare the
spatial variability maps of different ground water quality
parameters, and then slicing operation was performed on
each spatial variability map on the basis of prescribed
standards given by WHO [7,8]. The results obtained
from spatial variability maps of different groundwater
parameters are given in Table 3. The results indicate an
increase in the percentages of p arameters higher than the
recommended WHO limit during the last five years.
The groundwater pollution status of an area is influ-
enced or controlled by some factors which include to-
pographic slope, groundwater table variation, soil poro-
sity, permeability of the aquiferous layers, the type and
quantity of waste and land use activities [1]. Cross opera-
tion was used to study the overall effects of all these data
layers on the distribution of groundwater pollution. The
results from cross operation indicate that the parameters in
the area tend to spread laterally to form a wider plume, since
the preavailing flow rate is low. The flow rate depends on
the surface terrain which is opproximately flat except for
some depression. Due to the flat surface, the po llutants flow
out at a slow rate and there is a greater chance for infiltra-
tion of pollutants into underground surface. The under-
ground plume also assumes a stable area and wide shape
due to regular waste disposal practices. This is so be-
cause there is an enlargement of the plume as pollutants
continue to be added at a point source. Besides, the depth
to groundwater layer is also an importa nt factor considered
in evaluating the groundwater pol lution st atus of an area.
5. Conclusions
The study has shown that Geographic Information Sys-
tem (GIS) software is very useful in the analysis of to-
pographic slope, groundwater table variation, soil poro-
sity and land use activities in the distribution of ground-
water pollution in the Nigerian city of Uyo.
It has been shown too that varoius human activities
generate wastes which have high organic and inorganic
contents which are directly or indirectly disposed on land
without any pretreatment, thereby affecting the ground-
water quality. The pollutants tend to spread more latera-
lly and at a slow flow rate because of the flat terrain of
the area. This gives a greater possib ility of infiltration of
polluted water into the underground surface or ground-
6. References
[1] A. O. Akankpo, G. T. Akpabio and I. O. Akpabio, “Phy-
sicochemistry and Biological Properties of Ground-Water
Samples from Boreholes Sited near Waste Dumps in Uyo,
Southwestern Nigeria,” Natural and Applied Sciences
Journal, Vol. 10, No. 2, 2009, pp. 156-165.
[2] C. C. Asonye, N. P. Okolie, E. E. Okenwa and U. G.
Iwuanyawu, “Some Physio-Chemical Characteristics and
Heavy Metal Profile of Nigeria Rivers, Streams and
Wetlands,” African Journal of Biotechnology, Vol. 6, No.
5, 2007, pp. 617-624.
[3] A. N. Amadi and P. I. Olasehinde, “Application of Re-
mote Sensing Techniques in Hydrogeological Mapping of
parts of Bosso Area, Minna, North-Central Nigeria,” In-
ternational Journal of the Physical Sciences, Vol. 5, No.
9, 2010, pp. 1465-1474.
[4] A. O. Akankpo and M. U. Igboekwe, “Monitoring Ground-
Water Contamination Using Surface Electrical Resistivity
and Geochemical Methods,” Journal of Water Resource
and Protection, Vol. 3, No. 5, 2011, pp. 318-324.
[5] A. N. Ugbaja and A. E. Edet, “Groundwater Pollution
near Shallow Waste Dumps in Southern Calabar, South-
Eastern Nigeria,” Global Journal of Geological Sciences,
Vol. 2, No. 2, 2004, pp. 199-206.
[6] A. E. Edet and C. S. Okereke, “Delineation of Shallow
Groundwater Aquifers in the Coastal Plain Sand of Cala-
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[7] WHO, International Drinking Water Standards, 3rd Edi-
tion, WHO, Geneva, 2007.
[8] WHO, Background Document for Development of WHO
Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality, 3rd Edition, Ge-
neva, 2004.