Vol.2, No.4, 432-434
opyright © 2011 SciRes. Openly accessible at http://www.scirp.org/journal/AS/
(2011) Agricultural Sciences
Effect of leaf and bark aqueous extract of Anogeissus
latifolia on growth performance of Vigna unguiculata
Jahangeer A. Bhat, Munesh Kumar*, Bhupendra Singh
Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, Hemwati Nandan Bahuguna Garhwal University, Uttarakhand, India;
*Corresponding Aut hor: muneshmzu@yahoo.com
Received 6 September 2011; revised 17 October 2011; accepted 27 October 2011.
The present study was carried out to assess the
effect of leaf and bark aqueous extract of Ano-
geissus latifolia tree on Vigna unguiculata tradi-
tional crop to understand the suitability of tree-
crop combination in agricultural fields. Different
concentra tions of le af (1%, 3% and 5 % ) and bark
(1%, 3% and 5%) aqueous extract of A. latifolia
were used to study radicle and plumule growth
of V. unguiculata. The leaf and bark aqueous
extract have shown minimum allelopathic effect
on V. unguiculata and suppressed/stimulated
radicle and plumule growth under different con-
centrations. The wide distribution of A. latifolia
in a sub-tropical region of Garhwal Himalaya,
provides good fodder fuel wood and timber to
the villagers. Therefore introducing Anogeissus
latifolia in agricultural field and maintaining the
existed trees at boundaries of agricultural fields
can be useful to the villagers requirements and
wherever the possible allopathic effect exit can
be minimized by lopping the branches of trees
and use of naturally flecked off bark for fuel
wood purposes.
Keywords: Aqueous Extract; Bark; Leaf; Radicle
and Plumule; Growth
Allelopathy is a biological phenomenon by which an
organism produces one or more chemicals that influence
the growth, survival and reproduction of nearby species.
These chemicals are known as allelochemicals and can
have beneficial (positive allelopathy) or detrimental (ne-
gative allelopathy) effects on the target species.
Anogeissus latifolia Wall ex Bedd., belongs to the
family combretaceae [1]. This is a tree of tropical and
subtropical climatic regions; it grows throughout the
sub- Himalayan tract up to an altitude of 1200 m above
mean sea level (masl) in central India and a large part of
the Indian Peninsula hills at an elevation of about 1200
m [2,3]. It grows with the association of moist Shiwalik
Sal forests, dry Shiwalik Sal forests, southern dry mixed
deciduous forests, dry peninsular Sal forests and north-
ern dry mixed deciduous for ests [4]. It is one of the most
useful trees in India. Its leaves contain large amounts of
tannin which is used in India. The trees are the source of
Indian gum which is also known as ghatti gum, and is
used for calico printing. The leaves are fed by Antheraea
paphia moth which produces the tassar silk used for
commercial importance. Chemically leaves, bark and
heartwood yield quinic and shikmik acids; leaves con-
tain gallotannin (90% - 95% of the tannins). The young
leaves and shoots contain 50% tannins (dry basis). The
bark contains 12% - 18% tannins. Heartwood contains
gallic acid, ellagic acid, its derivatives, quercetinand-
myricetin. The gum is mainly th e calcium salt of a com-
plex, high molecular weight polysaccharic acid (ghattic
Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp (cowpea) is cultivated
over more than nine million hectares in tropical area, in
the Mediteranean basin and in the United States [5].
Worldwide, it is estimated that 37 million tones are an-
nually produced [6]. Cowpea is a source of high quality
protein which contained adequate levels of most essen-
tial amino acids for children and all essential amino ac-
ids for adults. The digestibility of cowpea is higher than
the other common legumes [7].
In the sub-tropical region of Garhwal Himalaya, A.
latifolia is growing in the forest areas and closed to ag-
ricultural fields, because most of the agriculture land is
closed to forest area and people are using this tree for
various daily needs as a multipurpose tree. The closeness
of this tree in agriculture fields, shed their leaves espe-
cially in deciduous period and lead to deposi- tion of leaf
litter and naturally flecked off bark in agri- culture land.
Literature revealed that no studies have been reported so
far on the effect of leaf and bark of A. latifolia on any
agriculture crops in this sub-tropical region of Garhwal
J. A. Bhat et al. / Agricultural Sciences 2 (2011) 432-434
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. Openly accessible at http://www.scirp.org/journal/AS/
Himalaya. Therefore, the attempt was made with the
objective to find out the effect of leaf and bark aqueous
extract of A. latifolia on radicle and plumule growth of V.
The samples of mature leaves and naturally flecked
off bark were collected from middle age growing trees
from natural condition and brought to the experimental
laboratory of Department of Forestry and Natural Re-
sources, HNB Garhwal University, Srinagar Garhwal
(30˚13'N latitude and 78˚48'E longitude) at an elevation
of 550 m above sea level. The collected samples were
Sun dried for 10 days/or required till complete moisture
loss from the samples and ground to a fine powder sepa-
rately in a mechanical grinder. The powder was passed
through 1.5 mm mesh and weighed to 1 g, 3 g and 5 g
(leaf and bark) and transferred to well labelled conical
flask and 100 ml of double distilled water was added to
each flask. The dilution extracts were filtered through
Whatman No. 1 filter paper to get aqueous extracts of
1%, 3%, and 5% solutions and the flasks were left for 48
hours at room temperature (25˚C ± 2˚C). The effects of
aqueous extract (leaf and bark) on radicle and plumule
growth of Vigna unguiculata was tested by placing 20
seeds in Petri dishes (15 cm diameter) with three repli-
cates for each concentration. The seeds were germinated
on filter paper soaked in the aqueous leaf and bark ex-
tract of different concentrations at 25˚C ± 2˚C in labora-
tory, while distilled water was used for co ntrol treatment.
Moisture in the Petri dishes was maintained by adding
aqueous extracts or distilled water as required.
The results of present study showed that the highest
radicle length (9.61 ± 0.98 cm) of Vigna unguiculata in
leaf aqueous extract was in 5% concentration followed
by 3% (8.11 ± 1.25 cm) and 1% (7.21 ± 0.41 cm). The
radicle length increased with increasing concentration of
leaf aqueous extract (Table 1), which was comparatively
higher than the control (5.71 ± 0.65). Similarly the plu-
mule growth of V. unguiculata in the leaf aqueous ex-
tract reduced with increasing concentration. The highest
length of plumule was 8.55 ± 1.43 cm (1%), followed by
7.77 ± 3.67 cm (3%) and 7.16 ± 0.73 cm (5%). The
plumule growth compared to control was higher in 1%
leaf aqueous extract and lower in 3% and 5% leaf aque-
ous extract
In bark aqueous extract radicle growth reduced with
increasing aqueous concentration as 6.05 ± 0.94 cm
(1%), 5.59 ± 0.39 cm (3%) and 4.56 ± 1.14 cm (5%).
However, the results of plumule length was reverse than
the radicle length in bark aqueous extract, which in-
creased with increasing aqueous concentration as 7.19 ±
0.54, 7.51 ± 1.56 and 9.18 ± 0.40 cm for 1%, 3% and 5%
respectively (Table 1).
The reduction percentages of radicle and plumule
lengths were estimated in the leaf and bark aqueous ex-
tract compared with control. The radicle length in all the
concentrations of leaf and 1% concentrations of bark
was stimulated however 3% and 5% of aqueous extract
of bark suppressed its growth (Figure 1). Similarly 5%
concentration of bark and 1% concentration of leaf
stimulated plumule growth and other concentrations of
leaf and bark suppressed it (Figure 1).
Most published work has revealed that foliage
leachates are a potent source of toxic metabolites and
their toxic effects are species specific [8-10]. But our
study reveals that leaf aqueous extract stimulate the
growth of radicle compared to control, with increase in
the percentage of aqueous extract concentration, the
radicle growth increased however the bark extract showed
decrease in growth of plumule with increased in the
aqueous extract concentration of solution. The plumule
Table 1. Radicle and plumule growth of V. unguiculata in
aqueous extract of A. latifolia.
Concentration Radicle (cm) Plumule (cm)
Control 5.71 ± 0.65 7.81 ± 1.11
Leaf 1% 7.21 ± 0.41 8.55 ± 1.43
Leaf 3% 8.11 ± 1 .25 7.77 ± 3.67
Leaf 5% 9.61 ± 0.98 7.16 ± 0.73
Bark 1% 6.05 ± 0. 94 7.19 ± 0.54
Bark 3% 5.59 ± 0. 39 7.51 ± 1.56
Bark 5% 4.56 ± 1. 14 9.18 ± 0.40
Figure 1. Reduction/stimulation percentage of radicle and plu-
mule growth over control (L—Leaf and B—bark).
J. A. Bhat et al. / Agricultural Sciences 2 (2011) 432-434
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. http://www.scirp.org/journal/AS/
[4] Champion, H.G. and Seth, S.K. (1968) A revised survey
of the forest types of India. Manager of Publications,
Delhi, 1968.
growth increased by the bark extracts as the increase in
concentration of solution the growth of plumule in-
creased. Overall the effect of bark and leaf aqueous ex-
tract showed minimum inhibitory effect to the growth of
radicle and plumule of Vigna un g ui c ul ata.
[5] Guigaz, M. (2002) Memento de l’agronume. Eds de
CIRAD-CRET Ministère des affaires étrangères, Paris,
[6] Langyintuo, A.S., Lowenbrg-Deboer, J., Faye, M., Lam-
bert, D., Ibro, G., Moussa, B., Kergna, A., Kushwaha, S.,
Musa, S. and Ntoukam, G. (2003) Cowpea supply and
demand in West and Central Africa. Field Crops Re-
search, 82, 215-231.
The study concludes that both leaf and bark extract
have minimum allelopathic effect on Vigna unguiculata
which suppressed/stimulate both radicle and plumule
growth. Although, keeping in view the multipurpose
value of Anogeissus latifolia tree for the requirement of
villagers, the tree should be preferred in agricultural
fields. The branches of the tree can be used as fodder
and the bark for fuel wood to reduce the alleopathic ef-
fect to V. unguiculata and other a gri cu ltural crops.
[7] Alessandra, R., Karina, S., Patricia, S., Marcelo, S.N.,
Gilberto, B.D., Sergio, T.F. and Cristiana, P. (2004)
Biological evaluation of a protein isolate from cowpea
(Vigna unguiculata) seeds. Food Chemistry, 87, 491-499.
[8] May, F.E. & Ash, J.E. (1990) An assessment of the al-
lelopathic potential of Eucalyptus. Australia Journal Bo-
tany, 38, 245-254.
[9] Bhatt, B.P., Chauhan, D.S. & Todaria, N.P. (1993) Phy-
totoxic effects of tree crops on germination and radicle
extension of some food crops. Tropical Science, 33,
[1] Luna, R.K. (2005) Plantation trees. International Book
Distributor, Dehradun. [10] Todaria, N.P., Singh, B. & Dhanai, C.S. (2005) Allelo-
pathic effects of tree leachate on germination and seed-
ling growth of field crops. Allelopathy Journal, 15, 285-
[2] Rodger, A. (1913) Note on dhaura of bakli (Anogeissus
latifolia wall.). Bulletin, Calcutta Superintendent Govern-
ment Printing, Calcutta, 21, 15.
[3] Troup, R.S. (1921) The silviculture of Indian trees. Clar-
endon Press, Oxford, 1-3.
Openly accessible at