Materials Science s a nd Applications, 2011, 2, 1688-1696
doi:10.4236/msa.2011.211225 Published Online November 2011 (
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. MSA
Structural and Optical Properties of Li+: PVP &
Ag+: PVP Polymer Films
Kothapalle Sivaiah*, Koramala Naveen Kumar, V. Naresh, Srinivasa Buddhudu
Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati, India.
Email: *
Received September 6th, 2011; revised October 18th, 2011; accepted October 31st, 2011.
PVP polymers containing Li+ or Ag+ Ions have been synthesized in good stability and transparency by using the solu-
tion casting method. Their structural, optical, thermal and electrical properties have been investigated from the meas-
urement of XRD, FTIR, SEM, EDAX, optical absorption spectra, TG-DTA profiles and impedance spectral features in
order to evaluate their potentialities for their use in electrochemical display device applications.
Keywords: PVP Polymer Films-Characterization
1. Introduction
Conducting polymers are nowadays considered to be
more important in the development several applications
involved polymer devices [1]. Among the many polymers,
the polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) has good film-forming and
adhesive behavior on many solid substrates and its for-
med films exhibit good optical quality (high transmission
in visible range), and mechanical strength (easy process-
ing) required for applications. The amorphous structure
of PVP also provides a low scattering loss, which makes
it as an ideal polymer for composite materials for different
applications. PVP is easily soluble in water, so it is pre-
ferred to avoid phase separation in the reactions [2-4]. In
literature, alkali ions containing polymers are reported to
be more promising possessing potential applications [5,6].
PVP polymers have been found to be different in their
functionalities from other polymeric systems, such as the
PEO, PPO, PVDF, PANI, etc [7]. Like the Li+ ion, Ag+ ion
has also drawn more attention because of its possessing
potential uses in electronics, optical filters, conducting
adhesives, and in the development of catalysts [8-11]. Kee-
ping in view, the significant importance demonstrated by
dopant Li+ or Ag+ ions in polymer films, in the present
work, we have undertaken a couple of polymer films of
Li+: PVP and Ag+: PVP alongside the host PVP polymer
films, in order to understand their structural, optical and
dielectric properties.
2. Experimental Studies
PVP (PolyVinylPyrrolidone) (C6H9ON)n, chemical with a
molecular weight [MW] of 1,300,000) and also two other
salts of LiNO3 and AgNO3 salts were purchased from
M/S Sigma-Aldrich Company, Hyderabad.
PVP was dissolved in a small beaker of 50 cc contain-
ing double distilled water and it was then thoroughly
mixed by using a magnetic stirrer in a warmer condition
for homogeneous mixing. Later, this solution was cast
into polymer films in flat based Petri dishes under a slow
evaporation method. Thus clearer and highly transparent
host PVP film was successfully obtained. Lithium Nitrate
(LiNO3) and Silver Nitrate (AgNO3) salts were sepa-
rately dissolved in beakers containing double distilled
water, PVP was mixed in double distilled water in an-
other beaker. In 1:9 ratio; i.e., solutions in 1 part of
LiNO3 or AgNO3, 9 parts of PVP solutions were thor-
oughly mixed using a magnetic stirrer. All the polymer
films were found to be 6 cm in diameter and from such
big sized films; required sizes of films were appropri-
ately cut for carrying out the measurements.
Figure 1(a) shows the Borosilicate containers with the
solutions of the 1). Host PVP, 2). Li+: PVP and 3). Ag+:
PVP and in Figure 1(b), those solutions in polymer films
are shown. Silver particles exhibit yellowish brown color
in aqueous solution due to excitation of surface plasmon
vibrations in silver particles [12,13]. The absorption
spectra of the host PVP, Li+: PVP and Ag+: PVP were
carried out at the room temperature on a JASCO UV-VIS
-NIR spectrophotometer (Model V-570) in the wave-leng-
th range from 250 nm to 750 nm. The X-ray diffraction
studies of these films were performed by means of SEIFERT
Structural and Optical Properties of Li+: PVP & Ag+: PVP Polymer Films1689
Figure 1. (a) Host PVP, Li+: PVP and Ag+: PVP polymer
solutions; (b) Host PVP, Li+: PVP and Ag+: PVP polymer
3003TT X-ray diffractometer in the 2θ range of 5˚ - 80˚.
The FT-IR spectra of host PVP and Li+: PVP and Ag+:
PVP polymer films were rerecorded on EO-SXB IR spec-
trometer in the range of 4000 cm–1 - 500 cm–1. The mor-
phologies of the polymer films were examined on a
ZEISS EVO MA15 Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM).
The samples were gold coated using a sputter coater po-
laron SC 7610 system. The elemental analysis of these
synthesized polymer films were carried out on an EDAX
(INCA pentaFETx3) that is an attachment to the SEM
system. Thermo gravimetric (TG) and Differential ther-
mal analysis (DTA) simultaneous profiles were obtained
for the as synthesized sample in N2 atmosphere at a
heating rate of 10˚C/min on Netzsch STA 409 Simulta-
neous Thermal Analyzer. The impedance measurements
were carried out on computer controlled Phase Sensitive
Multimeter (PSM 1140) in the frequency and tempera-
ture ranges of 1 Hz - 1 MHz and 303 - 373 K respec-
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Absorption Spectra Analysis
Figure 2(a), (b) & (c) show the UV-Visible absorption
spectra of PVP, Li+: PVP and Ag+: PVP polymer films.
This is in good agreement with the size distribution
measurement of pure-PVP and Li+ PVP aggregates [14].
PVP is a hydrophobic polymer which has an affinity to-
wards the Ag+ ion silver in the formation of covalent
bond between pyridyl groups and silver ion. In Figure 2
(c), there are two absorption bands at 297 nm and another
at 437 nm and the band at 297 nm has been labeled to the
NO3 ligand of the Ag cation and the other one at 437 nm
is attributed to the surface plasma resonance phenomena
of free electrons in the conduction bands of Ag particles
and absorption profiles are in accordance with the reports
already made in literature for Ag+ doped in other types
materials [15,16].
3.2. XRD Analysis
The XRD patterns of the host PVP, Li+: PVP and Ag+:
PVP polymer films are shown in Figures 3(a), (b) & (c).
The XRD pattern (Figure 3(a)) of PVP has revealed a
couple of broad bands located at 2θ = 11˚ and 22˚ re-
spectively those could clearly indicate the amorphous
nature of the host PVP [17]. However, the Li+: PVP and
Ag+: PVP have exhibited a two-phased structural pattern,
as shown in Figures 3(b) & (c) confirming both the amor-
Figure 2. Absorption spectra of (a) Host PVP; (b) Li+: PVP
and (c) Ag+: PVP polymer films.
Figure 3. XRD patterns of (a) Host PVP; (b) Li+: PVP and
(c) Ag+: PVP polymer films.
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. MSA
Structural and Optical Properties of Li+: PVP & Ag+: PVP Polymer Films
phous nature in the hexagonal and face-centered cubic
(fcc) phase of lithium and silver [18].
3.3. FTI R Ana l ysis
Figures 4(a), (b) & (c) show the FTIR spectra of the host
PVP, Li+: PVP and Ag+: PVP polymer films. From the
host PVP polymer film (curve (a)), the band relating to
the pyrrolidone C=O group is located at 1698 cm1. The
vibrational band at 1698 cm–1 corresponds to C=O
stretching of PVP polymer film, C-H asymmetric stretch-
ing of CH2 absorption band located at 2987cm–1. In the
case of the host PVP and it found at 2992 cm–1, 2994
cm–1, and 3001 cm–1 in the Li+: PVP and Ag+: PVP
polymer films. The bands at 931 cm–1, 1260 cm–1 and
1427 cm–1 are attributed to C-C stretching vibration, C-N
stretching vibration and C-H bending vibration of host
PVP respectively. Based on its absorption spectra, it is
noticed that the AgNO3 in the matrix studied becomes
reduced and thus the absorption band is assigned to NO3,
as shown in curve (c), which disappears, and the C=O
peak 1698 cm1 appears due to a littler broadening [19,
20]. The peaks at 739 cm–1, 2009 cm–1 and 2920 cm–1
correspond to LiNO3 and AgNO3 and a new peak at 1127
cm–1 in the complex formed PVP. The appearance of new
peaks along with changes in existing peaks in IR spectra
is a direct indication of the complexation of PVP with Li+
and Ag+ ions [21].
4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000500
Wavenumber (cm-1)
Transmittance (% T)
100 (b)
100 (a)
Figure 4. FTIR spectra of (a) Host PVP; (b) Li+: PVP and (c)
Ag+: PVP polymer films.
3.4. SEM and EDAX Analysis
SEM Micrographs of the host PVP, Li+: PVP and Ag+:
PVP polymer films are shown in Figures 5 (a), (b) & (c).
The surface deposited polymer films are clearly seen at
high magnification in the micrographs. Figure 5(a)
shows the smooth surface morphology is closely related
to the amorphous nature. Figure 5(b) shows an irregular
particle appearance owing to the polymer film formation.
The smooth morphology is closely related to the amor-
phous nature of the polymer electrolyte films. Figure 5(c)
shows the SEM micrographs of the silver particles are
spherical shaped, well distributed without aggregation in
solution with an average size of about 3 μm. Both the
polymer films of EDS spectrum denotes a signal ob-
served from the silver ions [22]. To verify the chemicals
in the material, an EDAX profile has also been recorded
as shown in Figures 5(d), (e) & (f). However, the EDAX
of the matrix to confirm the presence of C, O and Ag
ions in the prepared films [23].
3.5. TG-DTA Analysis
Figures 6(a), (b) & (c) show the TG-DTA curves of host
PVP, Li+: PVP and Ag+: PVP Polymer Films. The TGA
thermograms of Figures 6(a), (b) & (c) show the weight
loss as a function of the temperature for the host PVP,
Li+: PVP and Ag+: PVP precursor with a heating rate of
10°C/min in the temperature range from 40˚C to 600˚C.
It is clear that the initial weight loss from the TG curve is
12% from the temperature of 40˚C to103˚C, due to the
elimination of water, carbon dioxide and nitrogen diox-
ide. In the DTA curve, two exothermic peaks are ob-
served at 433˚C (sharp) and 570˚C (strong), respectively
demonstrating the combustion of organic residuals in the
matrix studied these strong exothermic peak at 433˚C in
the DTA curve corresponds to the decomposition tem-
perature of PVP is well above the heating temperature
employed in the present work. No weight loss is ob-
served above 550˚C, which indicates the completion of
the decomposition process of PVP at this temperature.
Correspondingly the weight loss in TG line is 18% be-
tween the temperatures from 470˚C to 600˚C [24].
DTA curves in Figures 6(b) show five exothermic
peaks at 78˚C, 111˚C, 380˚C, 431˚C and 527˚C, respec-
tively and three endothermic peaks at 90˚C, 397˚C &
484˚C, respectively. Figures 6(b) shows the sharp and
strong exothermic peaks at 380˚C - 527˚C confirming the
combustion of organic residuals. A strong exothermic
peak at 380˚C, 431˚C in the DTA curve corresponds to
the decomposition temperature of PVP is well above the
heating temperature employed in the present work. Fig-
ures 6(c) shows the (DTA) exothermic peak at 81˚C,
216˚C, 440˚C, and 531˚C war caused by the agglomera- e
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. MSA
Structural and Optical Properties of Li+: PVP & Ag+: PVP Polymer Films
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. MSA
(a) (d)
(b) (e)
(c) (f)
Figure 5. SEM Images and EDAX of ((a) & (d)) Host PVP, ((b) & (e)) Li+: PVP and ((c) & (f)) Ag+: PVP polymer films.
tion of silver particles and this strong exothermic peaks
at 430˚C and 531˚C in the DTA curve corresponds to the
decomposition temperature of PVP is well above the heat-
ing temperature employed in the present work respec-
tively [25]. This shows that the thermal stability of the
polymer is improved due to the presence of Ag as filler.
Structural and Optical Properties of Li+: PVP & Ag+: PVP Polymer Films
100 200 300 400500 600
100 (a)
Derv .Weig h t (%)
Weight (%)
Temperature (oC)
Temperature (˚C)
100 200 300 400 500 600
100 (b)
Temperature (0c)
Weight (%)
Derv.Weight (%)
Temperatu re (˚C)
100 200 300 400 500 600
100 TG
Weight (%)
Derv.Weight (%)
Temperature (˚C)
Figure 6. TG-DTA measurement of (a) Host PVP; (b) Li+:
PVP and (c) Ag+: PVP polymer films.
3.6. Dielectric Constant Analysis
Figures 7(a), (b) and (c) show the dielectric constant of
the host PVP, Li+: PVP and Ag+: PVP polymer films at
Figure 7. Dielectri c Constant of (a) Host PVP; (b) Li+: PVP
and (c) Ag+: PVP polymer films.
different temperatures as a function of frequencies by an
Impedance Analyzer. The dielectric constant is inversely
proportional to the frequency. This is a normal dielectric
behavior that the dielectric constant decreases with an
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. MSA
Structural and Optical Properties of Li+: PVP & Ag+: PVP Polymer Films1693
increase in frequency. This can be understood on the ba-
sis that the mechanism of polarization [26].
3.7. Dielectric Loss Analysis
Figures 8(a), (b) & (c) show the dielectric loss tangent
Figure 8. Dielectric Losses of (a) Host PVP; (b) Li+: PVP
and (c) Ag+: PVP polymer films.
of the host PVP, Li+: PVP and Ag+: PVP polymer films
at different temperatures as a function of frequencies by
an Impedance Analyzer. This is a normal dielectric be-
havior of dielectric loss decreasing with an increase in
frequency and it is understood on the basis of the mecha-
nism of polarization [27].
3.8. Cole-Cole Plots
The typical impedance plots (Z vs. Z) for the host PVP,
Li+: PVP and Ag+: PVP polymer films at different tem-
peratures are shown in Figures 9(a), (b) & (c) showing a
high frequency semicircle and a low frequency spikes for
Li+: PVP and Ag+: PVP polymer films doped polymer
films. The plot consists of a low frequency spike, which
is due to the effect of the blocking electrodes. The semi-
circles can be represented by a parallel combination of a
capacitor, which are due to the immobile polymer chains
and resistance, due to the mobile ions inside the polymer
matrix. The bulk resistances for Li+: PVP and Ag+: PVP
polymer films have been calculated from the low fre-
quency spikes intercept of the spikes on the real axis [28].
The bulk resistance Rb decreases with an increase at dif-
ferent temperatures. Conductivity of the solid polymer
electrolyte has been calculated from the measured bulk
resistance. From Figures 9(a), (b) & (c), it is observed
that the conductivity values of the completed systems do
not show any abrupt jump with the temperature change,
indicating that these polymer films exhibit a completely
amorphous structure [29]. The increase in conductivity
with temperature may be due to decrease in viscosity and
hence increases the chain flexibility [30]. The increment
of temperature causes the increase in conductivity due to
the increased free volume and their respective ionic and
segmental mobility.
The activation energies were calculated from logσ Vs
1000/T (Figures 10(a), (b) & (c)) plots using the fol-
lowing Arrhenious equation.
0exp a
where σo is a constant, Ea is the activation energy, k is the
Boltzmann constant and T is the absolute temperature.
The slop gives the activation energy of the polymer films.
The calculated activation energies of these polymers
films are 3.8022 (Host PVP), 2.0678 (Li+: PVP) and
2.9834 (Ag+: PVP) respectively.
4. Conclusions
In summary, it could be concluded that transparent PVP,
Li+: PVP and Ag+: PVP polymer films have successfully
been synthesized in analyzing their structural, optical,
thermal and electrical properties from the measurement
of their XRD, FTIR, SEM images, EDAX, Absorption,
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. MSA
Structural and Optical Properties of Li+: PVP & Ag+: PVP Polymer Films
Figure 9 . Cole-C ole plots of (a) Host PVP; ( b) Li+: PVP; (c)
Ag+: PVP polymer films.
2.7 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5
Host PVP Polymer Film
log dc Scm-1
1000/T K-1
2.9 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5
1000/ T K-1
log dc Scm-1
Li+:PVP (10:90)
log dc Scm-1
1000/T K-1
Ag+:PVP (10 :90 )
Figure 10. Arrhenius plots of (a) Host P VP; (b) Li+: PVP; (c)
Ag+: PVP polymer films.
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. MSA
Structural and Optical Properties of Li+: PVP & Ag+: PVP Polymer Films1695
TG-DTA and Impedance Spectral profiles. The dielectric
properties (dielectric constant (
), tan
) of these films
are showing a decreasing trend an increase in the fre-
quency because of the occurrence of space charge po-
larization at the electrode-electrolyte interface. The im-
pedance plots reveal that ionic conductivities of the ref-
erence PVP (1.57 × 10–4 S/cm), Li+: PVP (8.55 × 10–3
S/cm) and Ag+: PVP (1.03 × 10–3 S/cm) polymer films
were calculated from bulk resistance, which varies with
temperature. On comparison of results it is noticed that
Li+: PVP polymer film has shown an enhancement in
conductivity besides its mechanical strength and there-
fore Li+: PVP electrolytes could be found to be more
suitable for their potential applications in the progress of
battery materials and ionic devices.
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