American Journal of Plant Sciences, 2011, 2, 561-568
doi:10.4236/ajps.2011.24067 Published Online October 2011 (
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. AJPS
The Cost-Benefit Analysis for Bananas Diversity
Production in China Foc. Zones
Linbing Xu, Bingzhi Huang*, Yuanli Wu, Yonghong Huang, Tao Dong
Banana Research Center, Fruit Research Institute, Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Guangzhou, China.
Email: *
Received December 24th, 2010; revised March 10th, 2011; accepted July 11th, 2011.
Over 50 years ago, banana export plantations in Panama were ruined by Fusarium wilt race 1 (Foc. R1) since the
popular cultiva r Gros Michel is susceptible to Foc. R1 [1]. Fortunately, the resistant cultivar Ca vendish replaced Gros
Michel as the world biggest commercial fruit after ten years research and development. Due to its good economic
profit, banana industry develops very fast recently in China. Unfortunately, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical
race 4 (TR4) brought disaster to Cavendish plantation since 1996. Most of traditional banana planting zones of
Guangdong and Hainan provinces were infected by Foc. TR4 to the end of 2009. In order to fight against Foc. TR4,
here we tried to investigate the cost-ben efit and disease resistance of six b anana cultivars (Cavendish Baxijia o, Dajiao,
Guangfen No. 1, Fenzha No. 1, Gongjiao, Haigo ngjiao) planted in China Foc. Zones. Comparisons were conducted on
their economic characteristics, cost, benefit, as well as the advantage and disadvantage and their application in rota-
tion. Generally, supposing the investment of $ 4400/ha, the banana plantation attains a good economic profit as $
2200/ha. Rotation of these cultivars can maintain the biodiversity as well as improve the sustainable development of
banana industry.
Keywords: Banana, Diversity, Foc. TR 4 Zone, Cost-Benefit, Disease Resistance
1. Introduction
Banana is the biggest tropical fruit in China, which cov-
ers an area of 350,224 ha, production of 9,006,450 tones
fruit in 2009 [2], promoting employment of over 2 mil-
lion people. The good economic profit of banana cultiva-
tion has stimulated the rapid development of banana
production in recent years. However, since 1996, the
outbreak of Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp.
cubense “tropical” race 4) (Foc. TR4) spread quickly in
the main production areas of Cavendish [3]. According to
incomplete statistics, an areas of 200,000 hectares in
Guangdong and Hainan provinces have been affected.
The land suitable for banana planting was gradually re-
duced and the banana industry is facing the fate as Pa-
nama’s banana industry did 50 years ago [1]. More than
30 varieties were evaluated for resistance to Foc. in
Guangdong province, south China [4]. In this paper,
commercial banana plantations with an area of 10 ha
were investigated in Guangdong and Hainan during
2008-2009. Economic characteristics, production costs
and efficiency of cultivars such as: Baxijiao (AAA
Cavendish), Dajiao (ABB P. Kapuk), Guangfen No. 1
(ABB P. Awak), Fenzha No. 1 (ABB P. Awak), Gong-
jiao (AA P. Mas), Haigongjiao (AA P. Lampung) were
analysed. We compared their advantages in production,
suitable planting areas as well as marketing potential.
The existing problems for further development of banana
production is discussed. The commodity value chains
were proposed to promote the sustainable development
of banana industry.
2. Economic Characteristics of Banana
Cultivars in China
Biological characteristics and economic characteristics of
banana cultivars are very important for farmers. The in-
vestigation conducted in the commercial plantations in
Guangdong and Hainan provinces focus on the items as
planting density, bunch mass, harvest rate, yield, life
cycle, ratoon cycle, susceptibility of Foc. Race 1 (R1) &
TR4. Comparisons are shown in Table 1.
2.1. Cultivars and the Evaluation
Baxijiao is the most popular banana cultivar in China
hich account for 50% the area under banana, with w
The Cost-Benefit Analysis for Bananas Diversity Production in China Foc. Zones
Table 1. Economic characteristics of main banana cultivars in China.
Cultivars Density
Rate (%) Yield (kg/ha)Life cycle
Ratoon harvest
Rate (%)
Ratoon cycle
(d) Foc. susceptible
Cavendish Baxijiao 2010 21.8 92.5 40531.5 316 85.9 235
Resistant to R1 high suscept.
Dajiao 1590 17.5 98.5 27408 405 97 275 Hi. resistant
Guangfen No. 1 1650 26.0 71.7 30759. 472.5 — Hi. suscept. R1 & TR4
Fenzha No. 1 2000 13.2 96.8 25551 403 100 263 Hi. resistant to TR4, resistant to
Gongjiao 2475 11.0 91 24766.5 303 85 233
Resistant to R1 Suscept. to TR
Haigongjiao 3030 7.67 96.7 22473 257 100 165 Resistant to R1 & TR4
*The life cycle means the average time from plantlet planting to harvest. The ratoon cycle means the average time from first crop harvested to ratoon harvested.
higher-yield, better quality, larger market and stable
purchase price. However, it is very susceptible to Foc.
TR4. Dajiao is widely adapted tolerant, disease resistant
and wind resistance. But it tastes sour, and is only sold in
Guangdong and the Hong Kong market with low price.
Guangfen No. 1 was screened by Huang Bingzhi, Scien-
tist of Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences in
the 1990s. It is variety with high-yield and better quality.
But it is also susceptible to fursarium wilt. Fenzha No. 1
(MUSA ABB Fenjiao) (Guangfen No. 2) came from hy-
bridization of MUSA ABB Fenjiao X MUSA BBw
Balbisiana, crossed by Li Fengnian, scientist of Guang-
dong Academy of Agricultural Sciences in the 1990s.
The hybrid is resistant to fungus diseases (Foc. Sigatoka,
Freckle, BBTV, CMV. etc.), with good quality fruit and
shorter life cycle compare to Guangfen No. 1. But the
yield is low. Gongjiao keeps the best quality and highest
price of bananas, but is low-yielding and susceptible to
Foc. TR4. Haigongjiao was introduced from Southeast
Asia, fruit cracking in autumn and winter, with a shorter
life cycle. The shelf life. It is resistant to Foc. TR4 [5].
2.2. Planting Density, Bunch Mass, Yield, Plant
Crop and Ratoon Harvest Rate
Planting density was investigated on the Pearl River
Delta and Hainan Island. The planting density of Baxi-
jiao is ranged from 1650 - 2550/ha. Dajiao is only
planted commercially in Pearl River Delta; Guangfen No.
1’s planting density is 1500 - 1800/ha. Fenzha No. 1’s
planting density was 1800 - 2175/ha. Gongjiao’s planting
density was 2100 - 3450/ha. Haigongjiao’s planting den-
sity range 2700 - 3600/ha. Ratoon suckers were retained
mainly as the mother plant’s density. About 10% - 40%
twin suckers were retained to replace Foc. and virus dis-
eases infected (BBTV, CMV) damaged plants.
Bunch mass is related to the cultivar and season, less
during December to May, more during June to November.
Ratoon would weight about 30% - 50% more than plant
crop. The bunch mass in Table 1 is the average of plant
crop and ratoon. Among Dajiao, Dongguan Dajiao yield-
ing more than Panyu Dajiao. Guangfen No.1 is which the
best one among Fengjiaos. Which about 10% more than
other Fenjiao. Fengzha No. 1 yield of 10 kg/bunch during
winter-spring, and 20 kg/bunch in summer-autumn.
Gongjiao yield is 5 - 16 kg/bunch. Haigongjiao yield is 4
- 14 kg/bunch.
The harvest rates of the plant crop and the ratoon are
related to the former crop and soil type. If a few plants
are infected by Foc. TR4 in Baxijiao and Gongjiao plan-
tation, they may not remain an ratoon crop. Incase the
incidences of Foc. is more than 10% that the plantation
can not be ratooned, since the ratoon harvest rates may
be as low as 40%. Guangfen No. 1 can only be planted in
the land free of cultivation of Cavendish and Fenjiao,
when the incidences of Foc. are more than 10% of the
Fenjiao plantation that can not be ratooned. Fenzha No. 1
and Haigongjiao can be ratooned.
The mortality of Foc. TR4, CMV, BBTV in Baxijiao
normally is bout 3% - 60%. Twin suckers can increase
the number of harvested bunches. Foc. TR4 spread in
basalt laterite soil are slower than in sa Guangfen ndy
loam. Ratoons depend on soil types. Dajiao generally can
be harvested 100%; No. 1 can be generally harvested
around 60% if there is no special disinfection and pre-
vention of treatment. Fenzha No. 1 and Haigongjiao on
the 1st harvest rates can generally be more than 95%,
through the appropriate remaining twin suckers can be
harvested more than 100%. Gongjiao is more resistant to
Foc. TR4 than Cavendish, particular in Laterite.
Yield is the number of plants multiplied by bunch
mass, and the harvest rate. The production of Guangfen
No. 1, Braxijiao, Gongjiao may decrease 10% - 30%
because of harvest rate. While Guangfen No. 1 is har-
vested only one crop, Baxijiao, Gongjiao can be harvest
two crops. Fenzha No. 1, Haigongjiao can be ratooned.
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. AJPS
The Cost-Benefit Analysis for Bananas Diversity Production in China Foc. Zones563
2.3. Life Cycle and Ratoon Cycle
The life cycle and ratoon cycle of Braxijiao are 316 days
and 235 days respectively. Dajiao is 405 days and 275
days, respectively. Guangfen No. 1 is 472.5 days. Fenzha
No. 1 is 403 days and 263 days respectively. Gongjiao
are 303 days and 233 days respectively. Haigongjiao are
257 days and 165 days respectively.
2.4. The Susceptibility of Foc.
The susceptibility of Foc. is defined as highly susceptible,
susceptible, mildly susceptible, moderate resistant, resis-
tant and highly resistance. Baxijiao, Gongjiao and
Guangfen No. 1, are highly susceptible to Foc. TR4.
Guangfen No. 1 is highly susceptible to Foc. R1. Hai-
gongjiao and Dajiao are high resistance to Foc. TR4 &
R1. Fenzha No. 1 is high resistance to Foc. TR4 and re-
sistant to Foc. R1, while the infected plants can remain
sucker or replanting, the use of biological agents such as
Bacillus subtilis also allows plants to restore or ratoon.
3. Cost Structure and Analysis of Banana
Generally the production and management cost include:
land rent, plantation building, plough, buildings and
other infrastructure facilities, irrigation system installa-
tion, seeds, tools, bagging, support poles (fir or bamboo),
fertilizer, pesticides, energy cost, wages, temporary
worker’s wages, management cadres wages and other
incidental expenses etc. Comparative costs are listed in
the following Table 2.
3.1. Rent, Build Plantation and Other
Infrastructure Investment
Along with economical development, rent of land is also
increasing. Moreover the investment also enlarge with
the level of production, i.e. infrastructure (work sheds,
irrigation and drainage systems, and water source). The
spreading of Foc., made many banana plantations be-
come nomadic, moving every 2 - 3 years. So the invest-
ment of infrastructure is quite big. Land rent of Baxijiao
planta- tion is $ 1320 - 2860/ha/year. Open up wasteland,
the preparation of soil in addition, the furrow, the simple
water conservation irrigation, $ 880 - 1760/ha/crop, as-
sessed as two years. Gongjiao’s plantation is the same
situation. Wasteland is used for Dajiao plantation, the
cost is less. Guangfen No. 1’s rent per year and a half.
The construction costs of $ 1057.5/ha/crop. If former
crop is leek for many years, rents of up to $ 4400/ha/crop.
The cost of rent amounted to $ 6600/ha/crop. The Foc.
incidence of Guangfen No. 1 is relatively low in which
planted in leek and sugar cane field for years. The har-
vest rate goes as high as 80% - 95%. Fenzha No. 1 and
Haigongjiao can take advantage of abandoned banana
plantation, the rent is cheaper. Fenzha No. 1 takes ap-
proximately 13 month to harvest. So the rent is higher.
Since these two cultivars can ratoon a few years, other
investment-sharing down. The ratoon costs are $ 2875.4/
ha/crop and $ 2391.4/ha/crop respectively. Ratoon costs
goes down to $ 1760/ha/crop, and $ 1320/ha/crop respec-
3.2. Seedling
Baxijiao seedling cost $ 0.1 - 0.24/plantlet in different
sizeapproximately cost $ 345.4/ha. Dajiao suckers are
used which cost $ 6.6/ha. Guangfen No. 1 can only use
disease-free tissue culture plantlets, $ 0.24 - 0.46/plantlet
respectively, approximately cost $ 594/ ha. Fenzha No.
1’s tissue culture seedling costs $ 0.29 - 0.44/plantlet,
approximately cost 695.2/ha. Gongjiao cost $ 0.22/plantlet,
approximately cost $ 576.4/ha. Haigongjiao cost $ 0.22 -
0.26/plantlet in different size respectively, approximately
cost $ 733.4/ha.
Table 2. The new banana varieties and ratoon production c osts ($/ha).
Cultivars Land rent Infrastructure Seeds Tool bag poleFeritilizerChemical & WaterLabor cost Other Total
Baxijiao 2230 1103 345.4 960 3275.8 585.2 1463 253 10215.5
Baxijiao ratoon 1650 440 0 581.7 3128.8 622.4 1358.5 253 8034.4
Dajiao 1100 330 290.4 111.5 671.8 76.2 733.3 66 3379.2
Dajiao ratoon 1100 330 0 111.5 671.8 76.2 733.3 66 3088.8
Guangfen 1 3313.2 1057.5 590 1082.8 3379.9 906.4 1540 227.3 12097.1
Fenza 1 2213 663.5 695.2 1087 3439.4 507 1369.5 170.5 10149.5
Fenza 1 ratoon 1324 436 0 435.6 2012.4 429.6 1100 148.5 5886.1
Gongjiao 2263 1373.6 576.4 742.5 3076.6 571 1271.6 292.6 10167.3
Gongjiao ratoon 1463 480.3 0 586.7 1920.5 492.2 1070.7 190.7 6204
Haigongjiao 1719.2 673.3 733 827.9 3029.8 345 1273.4 159.5 8761.3
Haigongjiao ratoon 990 330 0 513.3 1577.2 256.1 843.3 88 4597.8
*Guangfen 1 can not ratoon crop for Foc. race 1 demage.
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. AJPS
The Cost-Benefit Analysis for Bananas Diversity Production in China Foc. Zones
3.3. Tools, Bagging and Banana Pole
The new tools cost $ 22 - 44/ha/crop for the Baxijiao
plantations with 2 - 3 years. The disposable bunch bags
cost $ 264 - 396/ha/crop. The banana pole (fir or bamboo)
cost $ 0.15 - 0.74/plant which can be used 1 - 3 years, a
total of $ 960/ha/crop, ratoon is $ 581.7/ha/crop. Dajiao’s
tools cost $ 11/ha/crop. The bunch covers with black film
bag that cost $ 44 - 66/ha/crop. $ 22/ha/crop for banana
pole (in most cases without pole), a total of $ 110.9/ha/
crop, and the ratoon are the same. Guangfen No. 1 do not
need bagged. It’s higher yield in summer and autumn.
Pole surport is necessary after flowering. Some plants are
dead before harvest, so that a total of $ 1082.8/ha/crop.
Fenzha No. 1 does not require bagging, but pole is
needed after flowered during summer and autumn be-
cause of high yields. In winter, no pole is need because
of lower yield, a total cost $ 1087.2/ha/crop, ratoon $
435.6/ha/crop. Gongjiao is slender, some time need pole.
The bags cost $ 198/ha/crop, a total of $ 634.3/ha/crop,
ratoon $ 585.2/ha/crop. Haigongjiao’s new tool cost $ 22
- 33/ha for 2 - 3 years, bagging $ 231/ha/crop, pole $
110/ha/crop, a total cost $ 827.9/ha/crop, ratoon $
3.4. Fertilizer, Pesticides and Water Cost
The cost of fertilizer for Baxijiao is general $ 0.88 - $
1.76/plant. Total fertilizer is $ 1770 - 3537/ha/crop. The
cost of irrigation and drainage depend on geography and
climate, the energy of pump for irrigation and drain- age
costs $ 0.04 - 0.29/plant. Pesticide and fungicide costs
are $ 0.08 - 0.21/plant in humid regions. The total cost is
$ 585.2/ha. Ratoon costs are reduced to $ 527/ha. Dajiao
usually require less fertilizer, the fertilizer from former
crops was used, and the cost is $ 0.29 - 0.37/plant. Pesti-
cide and power cost $ 0.044/plant, $ 0.03/plant re- spec-
tively, integrated $ 784/ha. The cost of fertilizer for
Guangfen No. 1 is $ 1.03 - 2.35/plant, organic fertilizer,
microbial fertilizer cost $ 0.88 - 1.62/plant. Foc. inci-
denced plants would stop fertilizer. Pesticide and power
cost $ 0.074/plant, $ 0.12/plant respectively, integrated $
4285.6/ha. Fenzha No. 1 cost of fertilizers is $ 0.74 -
2.06/plant, pesticides $ 0.74/plant, integrated $ 3944.6/ha.
Ratoon’s fertilizer and pesticides are significantly re-
duced to $ 2442/ha. Gongjiao cost of fertilizer $ 0.74 -
1.76/plant, mainly organic fertilizer and microbial fertil-
izer. Pesticide cost $ 0.074/plant, power cost $ 0.06/plant,
integrated $ 3647.6/ha. Gongjiao’s ratoon cycle is short,
only cost $ 2411.2/ha. Haigongjiao cost of fertilizer is $
0.44 - 1.03/plant. Pesticide and power cost $ 0.74/plant
and $ 0.06/plant respectively, integrated $ 3385.8/ha, the
ratoon cycle is shorter, only $ 1832.6/ha.
3.5. Labor Cost
Due to the healthy development of economic benefit of
the banana industry in recent years; the wages of Indus-
trial workers increase year by year. The labor costs in-
creased accordingly. Labor costs including: the wage of
fixed workers, temporary workers and managers. The
fixed wage of banana workers costs $ 132.35 - 191.18/
month, a post culture 1.0 - 1.33/ha of land, plus man-
ager’s salaries $ 132.35/1.0 - 1.33 ha/year. Converted
into a payment linked to output for contract workers: $
0.0353 - 0.0441/kg of banana and manager: $ 0.0147/kg
of banana, temporary worker’s wage is according to sea-
son, region and the different types of work about $ 4.41 -
8.82 per day, temporary worker work from planting to
harvest (bunch transport) in each post costs about $
117.6/crop. Dajiao are mostly planted by locally, labor
costs of local farmer is about $ 1764.7 for 2 ha, rarely
requested temporary workers. The worker wage for
Guagfen No. 1 costs $ 132.35 - 191.18/month for 1.33 ha.
Manager wage is $ 132.35/year for 1.3 ha, also in the
Fenzha No. 1 reference to Baxijiao. The fixed wages of
worker for Fenjzha No. 1 are $ 132.35 - 191.18/person/
month for post of 1 - 1.33 ha, plus $ 132.35/ha/year of
manager’s salaries. Converted into a payment linked to
output for contract worker: $ 0.0382 - 0.0441/kg of ba-
nana and manager $ 0.0147/kg of banana, each post costs
about $ 44.12 for temporary worker. Fixed wage of
worker for Gongjiao is $ 132.35 - 191.18/person/month
for post of 1 - 1.33 ha, plus $ 132.35/ha/year of man-
ager’s salaries. Converted into a payment linked to out-
put for contracted worker: $ 0.0588 - 0.0882/kg of ba-
nana and manager $ 0.0294/kg of banana, each post costs
about $ 44.12 for temporary worker. Fixed wage of
worker for Haigongjiao is $ 132.35 - 191.18/person/month
for post of 1 - 1.33 ha, plus $ 132.35/ha/year of man-
ager’s salaries. Converted into a payment linked to out-
put, contracted worker: $ 0.0588 - 0.0882/kg of banana
and manager $ 0.0294/kg of banana, each post costs
about $ 44.12 for temporary worker.
3.6. Other
Other costs include: Referral fee for rent land, public
relations meals, security fees, transportation, communi-
cations, medical expenses, festivals fees. Dajiao and
Haigongjiao is the use of local old plantation, other ex-
penses are less. Guangfen No. 1 is planted in plant crop,
with longer growing cycle cost higher. Baxijiao, Fenzha
No. 1, Gongjiao basically are same.
3.7. Total Cost
Baxijiao plant crop costs $ 10234.4/ha, ratoon cost is $
8034.4/ha that reduce to build plantation, seeds, banana
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. AJPS
The Cost-Benefit Analysis for Bananas Diversity Production in China Foc. Zones565
pole, fertilizer, labor and other costs. Dajiao plant crop
costs $ 3379.2/ha. Ratoon costs $ 3088.8/ha, save the
seed only. Guanfen No. 1 costs $ 12095.6/ha. Fenzha No.
1, plant crop costs $ 10144.2/ha. Ratoon cycle is shorter,
no plantation build, banana pole, less fertilizer, labor
costs, so the cost dropped to $ 5885/ha. New Gongjiao
costs $ 10166.2/ha, ratoon cycle is shorter time, the cost
of plantation build, banana pole, fertilizer, labor are
lower, so the cost dropped to $ 6204/ha. New Haigong-
jiao costs $ 8760.4/ha, ratoon cycle is 3 - 5 months
shorter, plantation building, banana pole, fertilizer, labor
cost are cut down, the cost dropped to $ 4589/ha.
4. Cost Benefit Analysis
Farm’s surveys of various kinds of banana cultivars, the
average purchase price, calculated after deducting costs,
output and profits, and conversion out of annual profit as
Table 3.
4.1. Purchase Price
The purchase price refers to the collection price in farms,
including harvesting and transport to the packaging
house costs, excluding packing materials and labor costs,
in Guangdong province, the purchase price refers to the
gross mass of bunch prices, in Hainan, that is the net
weight prices. In some cases, Sometimes the price is
classified by the yield, the looking and season. This pa-
per calculated according to average price. Cavendish top
price is up to $ 0.824/kg, the lowest is $ 0.12/kg; Da-
jiao’s top price is up to $ 0.353/kg, lower price $
0.074/kg in July-early September. Guangfen No. 1’s top
price is up to $ 1.029/kg. Gongjiao and Haigongjiao are
soled in good prices in Hainan. Gongjiao price is up to $
1.853/kg. Haigongjiao’s top price is $ 1.559/kg. Lower is
$ 0.441/kg. The Price of Guangfen No. 1 in Pearl River
Delta is higher than Haigongjiao, because of the flavor
and market demand. If Guangfen No. 1 is soled Northern
China, the prices should rise.
4.2. First Crop Output
First crop output is the purchase price multiplied the
yield. Cavendish Baxijiao is $ 14708.8/ha/crop; Dajiao is
$ 4622.9/ha/crop; Guangfen No. 1 is $ 20824.1/ha/crop;
Fenzha No. 1 is $ 15798.2/ha/crop; Gongjiao is $ 18168.3
/ha/crop; Haigongjiao is $ 14502.6/ha/crop.
4.3. First Crop Profit
First crop profit is output value of the plant crop’s minus
the production costs. Table 3 showed that the plant crop
profits are generally not high. Cavendish Baxijiao is $
4493.3/ha/crop; Dajiao is $ 1243.7/ha/crop; Guangfen
No. 1 is $ 8325.1/ha/crop; Fenzha No. 1 $ 5648.7/ha/crop;
Gongjiao is $ 8001.0/ha/crop; Haigongjiao is $ 5741.3/
ha/crop. Guangfen No. 1 and Gongjiao are high risk sus-
ceptible to Foc. The investigated plantations were luckily
prevented and control, so that the better harvests were
4.4. First Crop Annual Profit
The first crop annual profit is the plant crop profit con-
verted plant crop’s cycle to 365-day’s value. Cavendish
Baxijiao is $ 5190.0/ha/crop; Dajiao is $ 1287.6/ha/crop;
Guangfen No. 1 is $ 6684.5/ha/crop; Fenzha No. 1 is $
5527.5/ha/crop; Gongjiao is $ 10319.3/ha/crop; Hai-
gongjiao is $ 9357.0/ha/crop. Guangfen No. 1 and Fen-
zha No. 1 the annual profit is not high because of longer
cycle. The shorter cycle one Haigongjiao and Gongjiao
are better efficiency.
4.5. Ratoon Output
The ratoon output is the output multiplied by the price.
Cavendish Baxijiao is $ 13659.4/ha/crop; Dajiao is $
4552.5/ha/crop; Fenzha No. 1 is $ 19375.2/ha/crop; Gong-
jiao is $ 16970.4/ha/crop; Haigongjiao is $ 14997.6/ha/
crop. Ratoon banana production generally affected by the
harvesting rate, bunch weight and purchase price.
4.6. Ratoon Profit
The ratoon profit is output value of the ratoon crop minus
the production costs. Due to lower production costs, the
ratoon profits generally higher than the plant crop, espe-
cially the cultivars that resistant to Foc. It would show
advantage after second ratoon except lower harvest rate.
Cavendish Baxijiao is $ 5625.0/ha/crop; Dajiao is $
Table 3. The cultivars of the income statement.
Cultivars Collecting price
Crop output
Crop profit
Annual profit
Ratoon output
Ratoon profi
Ratoon annual profit
Baxijiao 0.37 14708.8 4493.3 5190.0 13659.4 5625.0 8736.6
Dajiao 0.17 4622.9 1243.7 1287.6 4552.5 1463.7 1942.6
Guangfen No. 1 0.67 20824.1 8325.1 6684.5
Fengzha No. 1 0.64 15798.2 5648.7 5527.5 19375.2 1348.9 22078.5
Gongjiao 0.74 18168.3 8001.0 10319.3 16970.4 10766.4 20361.2
Haigongjiao 0.65 14502.6 5741.3 9357.0 14997.6 10399.8 27113.9
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. AJPS
The Cost-Benefit Analysis for Bananas Diversity Production in China Foc. Zones
1463.7/ha/crop; Fenzha No. 1 is $ 1348.9/ha/crop; Gong-
jiao is $ 10766.4/ha/crop; Haigongjiao is $ 10399.8/ha/
4.7. Ratoon Annual Profit
Ratoon annual profit is the ratoon crop profit converted
ratoon cycle to 365 days values. The Table 3 showed
that Fenzha No. 1, Gongjiao and Haigongjiao’s profit are
obviously higher because of short cycle. This means the
land is more productively than Cavendish Baxijiao.
Cavendish Baxijiao is $ 8736.6/ha/crop; Dajiao is $
1942.6/ha/crop; Fenzha No. 1 is $ 22078.5/ha/crop; Gong-
jiao is $ 20361.2/ha/crop; Haigongjiao is $ 27113.9/ha/
5. The Existing Problems in the Banana
5.1. Cavendish (AAA)
Cultivation risk of Cavendish is higher since the avail-
able Foc. TR4 resistant cultivars, named Kangku No. 5,
Yueyoukang No. 1 and Nongke No. 1 are poor in eco-
nomic characters, such as longer growth cycle (12 - 18
months), poor bunch shape less hand number, abnormal
fingers in first hand, choking, ratoon rihzome tends to
climb out to earth, and the poor cold tolerance [6]. There
is no better prevention and treatment of chemical and
biological agents to against blight, integrated control
technology research and development are slow; high-
quality banana production technologies is only applied in
part of the banana plantations in Hainan province. Tech-
nology promotion work needs to be strengthened; Siga-
toka become top disease in some production zone. Ba-
nana harvested in summer easy becomes green-watery-
rot phenomenon before ripening. Cold chain storage and
transport large cargo are damaged. This is the reason of
low price during summer time. No crop rotation was
studied for sustainable production in Cavendish planta-
5.2. Dajiao (ABB)
Cultivation risk of Dajiao is lower.
Advantages: Extensive management, low cost, resis-
tant to Foc. TR4 and fungi. Shortages: low level of com-
modity production, fruit taste sour during summer and
autumn. Panyu Dajiao tissue culture would easy degrada-
tion, lower hands dysplasia so that were rejected to sell.
The purchase price is generally lower than $ 0.10/kg,
there is no economic profit; not soled in the northern
5.3. Guangfen No. 1 (ABB)
Cultivation risk of Guangfen No. 1 is higher.
Advantages: higher purchase price and bunch weight.
Shortages: many off types in tissue culture plantlets,
there is no effective integrated control techniques against
Foc. No resistant varieties and biological agents, the har-
vest rate is low; economic instability. Fruit packaging,
transport technology are to be developed, northern mar-
ket still to be developed.
5.4. Fenzha No. 1 (ABB)
Cultivation risk of Fenzha No. 1 cultivation risk is lower.
Advantages: higher purchase price, resistant to Foc.
TR4, virus and fungi. Shortages: off type, twinned and
abnormal fingers, lower yield and local consumption.
Packaging transport technology and northern China mar-
ket are to be developed.
5.5. Gongjiao (AA)
Cultivation risk of Gongjiao is higher.
Advantages: Top price, shorter life cycle time. Short-
ages: Low-yielding, not resistant to cold and wind, sus-
ceptible to Foc. TR4, CMV, BBTV, integrated control
Foc. TR4 technology is not developed yet.
5.6. Haigongjiao (AA)
Cultivation risk of Haigongjiao is lower.
Advantages: higher purchase price, resistant to Foc.
TR4 and the shortest life cycle. Shortages: low-yield,
autumn and winter fruit cracking, dropping after ripened;
the flavor is slightly acidic, susceptible to CMV and
BBTV, chilling damage. Packaging, storage, transport
technology are not yet developed.
6. Perspective Plan and Suggestions to
Enhance the Economic Benefit of Banana
Diversity in Foc. TR4 Zones
6.1. Cavendish (AAA)
In order to maintain the annual harvest and good price,
Cavendish planting and suckering time should be ad-
justed to keep the harvest season mainly in winter to the
early next summer, supplemented by mid-fall, a small
amount of the supply in summer. Fruit is off-season dur-
ing January to June every year. With higher market de-
mand, the price is stability and good, so the incomes are
guaranteed. But June-September sometimes got higher
prices because of chilling and typhoon. The bunch
weight is the highest, so the revenue is good, but risk for
typhoon. Breeding to disease resistance should be en-
hanced in Cavendish as well as integrated control tech-
nology and high-quality banana production technology
should be improved. The resistant cultivars: Kangku No.
5, Nongke No. 1 etc. are planted in Foc. TR4 areas and
the benefits are more secure in Foc. TR4 areas. The cul-
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. AJPS
The Cost-Benefit Analysis for Bananas Diversity Production in China Foc. Zones567
tivation techniques R & D (cold resistance, bunch protec-
tion, fertilizer, irrigation, off-type, cropping systems etc.)
should be highlighted to screen the new clones to im-
prove disease resistance and early flowering. Research
should be developed on purification for seedlings, the
storage and transportation technology for rotten fruits in
summer, as well as rotation crops. In the future the input
of Cavendish plantations was as low as about $ 6600 -
11000/ha and the profits access to $ 4400 - 11000/ha.
6.2. Dajiao (ABB)
The promotion of the productive Dongguan Dajiao, as
well as Fendajiao (ABB) and other sweet plantains are
necessary. Highlight R & D for Dajiao bagging, fruit
thinning, fertilization and cropping systems. Developing
high-quality plantain production order studies, cropping
adjustment for harvest in good price, promote it as an
organic healthy food in northern market and Dajiao proc-
essing to adding value. Evaluating the good taste (sweet,
meat hard) Dajiao (AAB, ABB, BBB) these cultivars
play a cold, disease resistance, planting low-cost advan-
tages, can be grown in the northern part of South China.
So Dajiao can output $ 4400/ha, then got $ 2200/ha profit,
become a farmer an economic cultivation of cash crops.
6.3. Guangfen No. 1 (ABB)
The off-type tissue culture plants of Guangfen No. 1
should be eliminated during the greenhouse and 15
leaves plants. Guangfen No. 1 can be extended to virgin
land of central district in Guangdong, Guangxi, Fujian
provinces. In the case flowering in cold, bagging as the
bug emergence, spraying cold-resistant medicament to
reduce the formation of young fruit that were frostbitten
fruit deformity dysplasia. Enhance the Foc. Integrated
control techniques, such as from the plantation selections,
the fertilizer, water management, disease control, pack-
aging, leek rotation, cold chain logistics technology re-
search and development, protocol development promo
tion. As a high-quality, healthy food, Guangfen No. 1
should step up marketing in the northern China. So
Guangfen No. 1 can promote sustainable development,
invests $ 6600 - 13200/ha, incomes $ 4400 - 11000/ha of
6.4. Fenzha No. 1 (ABB)
The off-type tissue culture plants of Fenzha No. 1 were
eliminated in the greenhouse and large leaves 15 plants.
Thinning fingers to minimize abnormal fingers when cut
bud. In the case flowering in cold, bagging as the bug
emergence, spraying cold-resistant medicament to reduce
the formation of young finger that were frostbitten fruit
deformity dysplasia. Highlight R & D cultivation, pack-
aging, cold chain logistics technologies so that increasing
revenue. As a health food, Fenzha No. 1 should step up
marketing in the north to ensure sustainable production.
Suppose invest $ 5500 - 9900/ha incomes $ 4400 -
11000/ha profit, and can cropping 3 - 4 years. Yatsen
Fenjiao, the high yield fenjiao was screened from Fanzha
No. 1 by writers in Zhongshan city, Guangdong province
in 2009, which is more than 30 kg bunch mass, good
bunch shape, taste good and resistant to Fusarium wilt
race 1 & 4, Sigatoka, Fleckle and virus. The life cycle is
1 month longer than Fanzha No. 1. It will be released in
2010. Rosamonde Fenjiao was screened from Fanzha No.
1 by writers in Ledong County, Hainan province in 2009,
the Max bunch weight was 41 kg.
6.5. Gongjiao (AA)
Strengthen R D for Foc. TR4 integrated control,
quality cultivation, bunch protection, packaging, cold-
chain logistics, and the cultivation of technical schedule.
As Gongjiao is the best quality, high value banana, there
is big potential market can be planted in the new zone.
Suppose input $ 6160 - 10120/ha, incomes $ 6600 -
13200/ha of profits.
6.6. Haigongjiao (AA)
Strengthen R & D to obtain low or no fruit cracking,
taste slightly acidic, low-yield etc. Applies fertilizer in-
creases sweetness. Formulates the high quality Haigong-
jiao production order and promotes in the plantations.
The packing, the cold chain logistics technology should
be worked out. Promote the product in the north market.
Because of short life cycle, it can be planted in northern
territory. Suppose input $ 4400 - 8800/ha, incomes $
4400 - 11000/ha profits.
6.7. Rotation
Rotation crop celection should adapte according to local
conditions. The first crop for the virgin land could be
Cavendish, Gongjiao and Fenjiao for 1 - 3 years. In case
the plantation was infected by Foc. TR4, then it rotate to
Fenzha No. 1, Haigongjiao and disease-resistant Caven-
dish, and then rotate to other crops after 3 - 5 years. And
sweet corn, papaya, vegetables, sugar cane can be
planted since they do not need to carry on the furrow, the
preparation of soil, the deep plowing, the fixed facility
and special irrigation system. According to time limit of
the land, other crops rotate for 3 - 5 years, and then ba-
nanas can be planted again. So it can save the cost on
labor, trace element fertilizers, chemical, soil cultivation,
and reducing diseases and pest, becoming a virtuous cir-
cle. According to the author investigates the leek rotation
and the inter-species may delay plant disease to occur,
and decrease the Foc. TR4 incidence rate. The responsive
principle waits for further study to achieve the goal of
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. AJPS
The Cost-Benefit Analysis for Bananas Diversity Production in China Foc. Zones
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. AJPS
sustainable production of banana.
7. Acknowledgements
These studies were sponsored by the project of the key
technologies R & D for banana industry promotion and
Guangdong Modern agricultural technology system:
Lingnan fruit industry innovation and team building
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