Open Journal of Statistics
Vol.3 No.6(2013), Article ID:41541,3 pages DOI:10.4236/ojs.2013.36052

Characterization of Power-Function Distribution through Expectation*

Milind Bhanuprasad Bhatt

Department of Statistics, Sardar Patel University, Anand, India


Copyright © 2013 Milind Bhanuprasad Bhatt. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. In accordance of the Creative Commons Attribution License all Copyrights © 2013 are reserved for SCIRP and the owner of the intellectual property Milind Bhanuprasad Bhatt. All Copyright © 2013 are guarded by law and by SCIRP as a guardian.

Received October 12, 2013; revised November 12, 2013; accepted November 19, 2013

Keywords: Characterization; Power Function Distribution


For the characterization of the power function distribution, one needs any arbitrary non constant function only in place of independence of suitable function of order statistics, linear relation of conditional expectation, recurrence relations between expectations of function of order statistics, distributional properties of exponential distribution, record valves, lower record statistics, product of order statistics and Lorenz curve, etc. available in the literature. The goal of this research is not to give a different path-breaking approach for the characterization of power function distribution through the expectation of non constant function of random variable and provide a method to characterize the power function distribution as remark. Examples are given for the illustrative purpose.

1. Introduction

Several characterizations of power function distribution have been made notably by Fisz [1], Basu [2], Govindarajulu [3] and Dallas [4] using independence of suitable function of order statistics and distributional properties of transformation of exponential variable.

Other attempts were made for the characterization of exponential and related distributions assuming linear relation of conditional expectation by Beg [5], characterization based on record valves by Nagraja [6], characterization of some types of distributions using recurrence relations between expectations of function of order statistics by Alli [7], characterization results on exponential and related distributions by Tavangar [8], and characterization continuous distributions through lower record statistics by Faizan [9] included the characterization of power function distribution.

Direct characterization for power function distribution has been given in Arslan [10] who used the product of order statistics [contraction is a particular case of product of order statistics which has interesting applications such as in economic modeling and reliability see Alamatsaz [11], Kotz [12] and Alzaid [13]] where as Moothathu [14] used Lorenz curve. [Graph of fraction of total income owned by lowest pth fraction of the population is Lorenz curve of distribution of income [15].

This research note provides the characterization based on identity of distribution and equality of expectation of function of random variable for power-function distribution with the probability density function (p.d.f.)


where are known constants, is positive absolutely continuous function and is everywhere differentiable function. Since derivative of being positive and since range is truncated by

from right.

The aim of the present research note is to give the new characterization through the expectation of function for the power function distribution. Examples are given for the illustrative purpose.

2. Characterization

Theorem 2.1 Let X be a random variable with distribution function F. Assume that F is continuous on the interval, where. Let and be two distinct differentiable and integrable functions of on the interval where and moreover be non constant. Then is the p.d.f. of power function distribution defined in (1.1) if and only if


Proof Given defined in (1.1), if is such that where is differentiable function then


Differentiating (2.2) with respect to on both sides and replacing for and simplifying one gets


which establishes necessity of (2.1). Conversely given (2.1), let be such that


Since the following identity holds:


Differentiating integrand of (2.5) and tacking

as one factor one gets (2.5) as


where is function of derived in (2.3). From (2.4) and (2.6) by uniqueness theorem


Since is decreasing function with

and since, integrating (2.7) on both sides one gets


Substituting in (2.7), reduces to

defined in (1.1), which establishes sufficiency of (2.1).

Note: Author does not claim the relations between f and g in the preceding analysis.

Remark 2.1 Using derived in (2.3), given in (1.1) can be determined by


and p.d.f. is given by


where is increasing function in the interval for with such that it satisfies

3. Illustrative Examples

Example 1 Using method described in the remark characterization of power function distribution through survival function quantile; is illustrated.

Example 2 The p.d.f. defined in (1.1) can be characterized through non constant functions of such as

by using

and defining given in (2.9) and using as appeared in (2.11) for (2.10).

4. Conclusion

To characterize the p.d.f. defined in (1.1), one needs any arbitrary non constant function of which should be differentiable and integrable only.


  1. M. Fisz, “Characterization of Some Probability Distribution,” Skand. Aktuarietidskr, Vol. 41, No. 1-2, 1958, pp. 65-67.
  2. A. P. Basu, “On Characterizing the Exponential Distribution by Order Statistics,” Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics, Vol. 17, No. 1, 1965, pp. 93-96.
  3. Z. Govindarajulu, “Characterization of Exponential and Power Distribution,” Skand. Aktuarietidskr, Vol. 41, 1966, pp. 132-136.
  4. A. C. Dallas, “Characterization Pareto and Power Distribution,” The Annals of Mathematical Statistics, Part A, Vol. 28, No. 1, 1976, pp. 491-497.
  5. M. L. Beg and S. N. U. A. Kirmani, “On a Characterization of Exponential and Related Distributions,” The Australian Journal of Statistics, Vol. 16, No. 3, 1974, pp. 163-166.
  6. H. N. Nagaraja, “On a Characterization Based on Record Valves,” The Australian Journal of Statistics, Vol. 19, No. 1, pp. 70-73.
  7. M. A. Ali and A. H. Khan, “Characterization of Some Types of Distributions,” Information and Management Sciences, Vol. 9, No. 2, 1998, pp. 1-9.
  8. M. Tavangar and M. Asadi, “Some New Characterization Results on Exponential and Related Distributions,” Bulletin of the Iranian Mathematical Society, Vol. 36, No. 1, 2010, pp. 257-272.
  9. M. Faizan and M. I. Khan, “A Characterization of Continuous Distributions through Lower Record Statistics,” Forum, Vol. 4, 2011, pp. 39-43.
  10. G. Arslan, “Characterization Based on Product of Order Statistics,” math.ST., 2011. arXiv 1110.2879v
  11. M. H. Alamatsaz, “An Integer-Valued PTH-Order Autoregressive Structure,” (INAR(p)) Process,” Journal of Applied Probability, Vol. 27, No. 2, 1990, pp. 314-324.
  12. S. Kotz and F.W. Steutel, “Note on a Characterization of Exponential Distributions,” Statistics & Probability Letters, Vol. 6, No. 3, 1988, pp. 201-203.
  13. A. A. Alzaid and M. A. Al-Osh, “An Integer-Valued PTH-Order Autoregressive Structure,” (INAR(p)) Process,” Journal of Applied Probability, Vol. 27, No. 2, 1990, pp. 314-324.
  14. T. S. K. Moothathu, “Characterization of Power Function Distribution through Property of Lorenz Curve,” Sankhy, Journal of Statistics, Series B, Vol. 48, Pt. 2, 1986, pp. 262-265.
  15. M. G. Kendall and A. Stuart, “The Advanced Theory of Statistics,” C. Griffin, London, 1958.


*This work is supported by UGC Major Research Project No: F.No. 42-39/2013(SR), dated 12-3-2013.