Journal of Environmental Protection, 2011, 2, 1113-1117
doi:10.4236/jep.2011.28129 Published Online October 2011 (
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. JEP
Surveying of Pesticides Commonly on the Markets
of Iran in 2009
Rouhullah Dehghani¹, Seyed Gholamabbas Moosavi², Hadi Esalmi1*, Malihe Mohammadi1,
Zahra Jalali1, Nargess Zamini1
1Department of Environment Health, Kashan Medical Sciences University, Kashan, Iran; 2Department of General Health of Kashan
Medical Sciences University, Kashan Medical Sciences University, Kashan, Iran.
Email: *
Received July 11th, 2011; revised August 15th, 2011; accepted September 23rd, 2011.
Considering the potential pesticide side effects on environment, their short and long term untoward effects on living
creatures, their excessive usage for producing more agricultural products, and also their application to destroy pests of
any sort, the present study was carried out to investigate the used amount of common pesticides in Iran markets. A
questionnaire was d esigned. Referring to pesticide selling shops and plants preserva tions organizations in Tehran and
Isfahan, the sufficient data was collected and then categorized regarding the app lications and the total amoun t of used
pesticides in a year. The results demonstrated that there were 60 sorts of used pesticides in Iran. They included Or-
ganochlorine (10%), Organophosphorus (28.4%), Pyrethroids derivatives (10%), Carbamate derivatives (10%), and
others (41.6%). The common est pesticid e used in a yea r was O rgano phosph o rus and th e least on e was Organoch lorin e.
The obtained da ta pointed out that th e most common pe sticide was Organo phosphorus. G iven that Organop hosphorine
compounds are poisonous in living creatures and cause short and long term side effects. It is recommended that re-
sponsible authorities provide the necessary information for the aimed groups in terms of the allowable using amount of
pesticides, the protection strategies and the pesticides hazards on users.
Keywords: Pesticide, Organophosphorus, Organochlorine, Carbamate, Pyrethroids, Market, Iran
1. Introduction
The increasing population necessitates more agricultural
products and foodstuffs that consequently need more
pesticide usage to destroy any pests [1,2]. The pesticide
compounds include Organophosphorus, Organochlorine,
Carbamate and Pyrethroid derivatives [3]. They have
some side effects on living creatures; e.g. Organophos-
phorus inhibits cholinesterase activity and it makes CNS
functional disturbances. Organochlorine accumulates in
living creature bodies and also in food chain. Carbamate
derivatives cause genetic mutations and CNS functional
disturbanc es [4 ] .
These pesticides are used widely to improve agricul-
tural production and also to prevent arthropod-borne d is-
eases. But they are used improperly due to the lake of
appropriate knowledge about their applications and un-
toward effects. The excessive usage is harmful to eco-
system and they contaminate soil, surface and under-
ground water resources [5,6]. The relevant fulfilled re-
searches have shown that each year 2.5 million tons of
pesticides are used in agriculture sector in the world.
50% of them penetrate to soil, water and other sources
and also to the bodies of living creatures [7]. Relevant
poisoning in many countries, especially in developing
countries is considered the second causes of mortalities
after infectious diseases [8,9].
Pesticides cause untoward effects on man in two ways.
Firstly, they have direct effects on the health of persons
who use them; and secondly, their remnants accumulate
in foodstuffs which also produce side effects on man [10].
The side effects include short term ones like abdominal
cramps, vertigo, headaches, diplopia, nausea, ocular dis-
turbances and dermatopathies. Long term adverse effects
include increased likelihood of respiratory failures, re-
calling disturbance, depression, nervous defects, prostate
cancer, leukemia and infertility. These problems are con-
sidered the major health problems in the world [10-12].
The various investigations conducted on farmers in
terms of their health status demonstrated that pesticides
may increase the likelihood of Parkinson d isease [13,14].
Surveying of Pesticides Commonly on the Markets of Iran in 2009
WHO estimate that 3 million of farmers suffer from se-
vere poisoning caused by pesticides is in developing
countries. 18000 of them die and 21% of foodstuffs have
pesticide contamination [7]. There are 2000 - 3000 hos-
pital admissions each year in USA due to acute pesticide
poisoning which 50% children. Another study revealed
that 10% - 20% of farmers who worked in fields suffered
from poisoning [15]. In a study fulfilled by Aghilinejad
et al (2008), regarding the influence of pesticides on the
health of farmers in 5 provinces of Iran demonstrated
that 50% of farmers were illiterate and they had been
working for 16 - 28 years. Moreover, the data showed
that Organophosphorus usage was higher (95%) in Raf-
sanjan and Savojbolagh than in other parts of Iran. 68%
of studies farmers used no protection devices and only
5% were aware of the information poin ted on the labe l of
pesticide containers. 55% of farmers discarded the con-
tainers in environment with no special care [16].
With taking into account the potential hazards caused
by Pesticides and the excessive usage, the current study
was fulfilled to investigate the total amount of used pes-
ticides in Iran in 2009. The obtained results can be used
by health care providers, agriculture organizations, and
those involved in applying the pesticide so that they will
provide appropr iate regulations for th e safe usage of pes-
2. Materials and Methods
This was a descriptive study to investigate the common
pesticides sold in Iran markets. Firstly, a questionnaire
was designed and in included some parameters like the
sort of pesticides sold in Iran markets, the total used
amount and their applications. The necessary information
was obtained with referring to the centers selling pesti-
cides and also to plants preservation organization in Te-
hran and Isfahan. Secondly, the pesticides were evalu-
ated and categorized concerning their ingredients, their
use base on agriculture, public health and animal farm,
their applications and the total used amount. The ques-
tionnaire was completed and the data was categorized.
Quantity of any groups pesticide sold out, were calcu-
lated. After that tables were plotted and results were
shown in those.
3. Results
Totally, 48 pesticides selling shops and 2 plants preser-
vation organizations were questioned. The investigations
showed that there were 60 sorts of pesticides in various
agriculture and health sectors. They included organo-
phosphorus (28.45), organochlorine (10%), Pyrethroids
(10%), Carbamat(10%) and other derivatives(41.6%)
(Table 1). Out of total amount of used Pesticides in a
year, 43.65 Insecticides, 12.9% Acaricides, 17.7% Her-
bicides, 12.9% Fungicides, 1.6% Molluscicides and
11.1% Rode nt i c i des w ere us ed.
The total amount of used pesticides in liq uid from in a
year was 206135 liters out of which59.435 was Organo-
phosphorus, 0.11% Organochlorine, 22.45% Pyrethroid,
1.26% crbamat derivatives and 16.75% other compounds.
The total amont of used solid pesticides was 19390 kg
out of which 18.1% were Organophosphorus, 1.4% Or-
ganochlorine, 9.28% Pyrethroid, 7.48% Cabamate de-
rivative’s and 63.74% 0ther sorts. Totally, the highest
amount of used pesticides belonged to Organophospho-
rus and the least one to Organochlorine (Table 2).
Out of total amount of used pesticides regarding to the
range of hazards, there were highly (9.3%), moderately
(58.5%) and lowly (32.2%) hazardous pesticides. The
total amount of used pesticides based on Kilograms,
there were 19.2% highly, 27.9% moderately and 52.9%
lowly hazardous ones (Table 3).
4. Discussion
The obtained data revealed that the most common used
pesticide was Organophosphorus. In the study conducted
by Bradman et al., (2011) on children inhibitanted near
the fields where they world exposure to Organophos-
phorus pesticides demonstrated that the children con-
sumed foodstuffs containing pesticides. Therefore, in
order to prevent the sid e effects related to pesticides, it is
recommended that the persons exposing to foodstuffs
contaminated with pesticides wash them thoroug hly with
Table 1. The prevalence distribution of common pesticides sold in Iran markets based on their sorts and applications.
Pesticide groups Applications
Organophosphorus Insecticide Acaricide Herbicide Fungicide MolluscicideRodenticide Sum (Percent)
Organochlorine 5 1 1 - - - 6 (10)
Pyrethroids 14 2 1 1 - - 17 (28.4)
Carbamate 5 1 - - - - 6 (10)
Other derivatives 2 - - 4 - - 6 (10)
Organophosphorus 1 4 9 3 1 7 25 (41.6)
Total 27 8 11 7 1 7 60 (100)
opyright © 2011 SciRes. JEP
Surveying of Pesticides Commonly on the Markets of Iran in 20091115
Table 2. The prevalence distribution of sold pesticides in Iran markets according to the used amount per a year.
Used amount per a year by like solid Used amount per a year by like liquid
row Pesticide groups kg Percent liter Percent
1 Organophosphorus 270 1.4 225 0.11
2 Organochlorine 3510 18.1 122500 59.43
3 Pyrethroid 1800 9.28 46280 22.45
4 Carbamat 1450 7.48 2600 1.26
5 Other derivatives 12360 63.74 34530 16.75
sum 19390 100 206135 100
Table 3. The prevalence distribution of used pesticides regarding EPA classification regarding their hazards.
Used amount per a year by like solid Used amount per a year by like liquid
Danger groups kg Percent liter Percent
I 3720 19.2 19175 6.3
II 5410 27.9 120630 58.5
III 1026 52.9 66330 32.2
sufficient water before eating [17]. In a study fulfill by
Aghilinegad et al (2008), it was revealed that the most
common used pesticide in Rafsanjan and Savojbolagh
was Organophosphorus (95%) [16]. Another investiga-
tion performed by Mahmoodi et al (2006) on admitted
patients to a hospital in Khoramabadi, Iran, showed that
77.1% and 22.9% of poisoning cases owed to Organo-
phosphorus and Organochlorine; respectively [18]. Hence
the findings were compatible with ours which showed
the main cause of poisoning belonged to Organophos-
phorus. It seems that Organophosphorus be used mostly
due to its wide efficacy and low price in compared with
other compounds [19]. Organophosphorus inhibits cho-
linesterase activity and cause CNS dysfunctions which
are life threatening. The highest mortalities due to pesti-
cides belonged to Or ganophosphorus pestic ides [1].
The present study demonstrated that the used amount
of Pyrethroid and Carbamate derivatives was lesser than
the amount of other compounds due to their high price,
the lack of awareness about their applications and the
pest resistance, in spite of the fact that they have lesser
harmful impact on environment and man in compares
with other compounds. In current study, the least pesti-
cide usage belonged to Organochlorine, because the us-
age belonged to was resistance in various species. As
mentioned before, one of the most important obstacles in
pesticide application is resistance phenomenon.
One of the most important pests in environmental
health is Cockroaches. In the study conducted by Ladoni
(1993) in Iran, the resistance level in German Cock-
roache strains existed in 5 different hospitals to several
pesticides like Pyrethroid derivatives; e.g. Permethrin
was investigated. The researchers found that some spe-
cies were resistant to Permethrin and Cypermethrin [20].
Limooi et al, studied the resistance level in German
Cockroache strains to Pyrethroid derivatives and DDT,
and the highest resistance levels belonged to Permethrin ,
Cypermethrin and Cyfluthrin; respectively. Also, Ger-
man cockroaches had resistance to DDT [21]. Another
research conducted concerning the resistance level in
American cockroaches to several pesticides in Kashan
hospital revealed that these Cockroaches had resistance
to Pyrethroids, Permethrin and Cyfluthrin [22].
Therefore, considering long time resistance to pesti-
cides, we should care about the efficacy of pesticides in
each species and should carry out specific tests to deter-
mine the appropriate pesticide in order to prevent the
excessive usage. Given that the relevant poisoning to
pesticide in developing countries is 13 times higher than
that existed in dev eloped countries; i.e. 85% of produced
pesticides are used in developing countries [10]. It is
imperative that definite regulations be implemented re-
garding the pesticide applications and also placing farm-
ers under an obligation to follow this regulation for pre-
venting poisoning. Another strategy for decreasing pesti-
cides excessive usage is integrated pest management
(IPM) [23].
5. Conclussions
Considering the excessive pesticides usage, the responsi-
ble authorities should supervise the used amount of pes-
ticides. Moreover, continuous education program s shoul d
be held for pesticides producers and farmers. It is neces-
sary to broad cast special and technical advertisements in
mass media in order to increase the public knowledge
concerning the pesticides on toward effects. Hence it is
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. JEP
Surveying of Pesticides Commonly on the Markets of Iran in 2009
recommended that the complete educational series be
provided for farmers in four sections: A- terms o f how to
apply pesticides. B- to manage the short and long term
adverse effects .C- to use personal masks while applying
pesticides in the fields. D- To discard the pesticides con-
tainers carefully. Also the responsible authorities should
provide proper information about pesticides for someone
involved in app lying those.
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