Vol.1, No.3, 106-111 (2011)
opyright © 2011 SciRes. Openly accessible at http://www.scirp.org/journal/OJAS/
Open Journal of Animal Sciences
Utilization of sun-dried maize offal with blood meal in
diets for broiler chickens
Olukayode A. Makinde*, Emmanuel B. Sonaiya
Department of Animal Sciences, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria;
*Corresponding Author: olukayodemakinde@yahoo.com
Received 9 August 2011; revised 15 September 2011; accepted 28 September 2011.
Sun-dried blend of maize offal and blood
(SDMBM) was analyzed and its effect on the per-
formance of broiler chickens (Anak-2000 strain)
evaluated. Fresh blood prevented from coagu-
lation, mixed with maize offal, was sun-dried,
ground, mixed again with blood and ground into
a meal after drying again. The crude protein, fat,
fibre, ash, ADF and gross energy contents of
SDMBM were, 362.0, 45.5, 31.8, 69.3, 52.3 g/kg
DM and 4.245 kcal/g, respectively. It was ade-
quate in all essential amino acids for growing
broiler chickens except methionine. Eighty 14-
day-old commercial broiler chicks were ran-
domly allocated to four dietary treatments (fed
ad libitum; four replicates each) consisting the
control diet (0 g SDMBM/kg diet), which con-
tained fishmeal, groundnut cake and soybean
meal, and three other diets (50, 100 and 150 g
SDMBM/kg diet). In a feeding trial, the st arter (14
to 35 d) and finisher (35 to 49 d) dietary treat-
ments did not have significant impact (P > 0.05)
on body weight gain, efficiency of feed conver-
sion, mortality and final body weights. The con-
trol diet was inferior (P < 0.05) to 50, 100 and 150
g SDMBM/kg diets for feed cost per unit weight
gain in the starter phase, 100 g SDMBM/kg diet
in the finisher phase, and 100 and 150 g SDMBM/
kg diet s for the whole period (14 to 49 d). Ov erall,
the 100 and 150 g superior (P < 0.05) to the con-
trol diet in cost of production per unit weight
gain and all the SDMBM diets greater than con-
trol in economic benefit per unit weight gain.
Results suggest that dietary SDMBM up to 150
g/kg diet has a positive effect on broiler per-
formance and can totally replace more expen-
sive fishmeal.
Keywords: A lternative Feedstuff; Blood Meal;
Fishmeal Replacement; Maize Offal
In Nigeria, as in most other developing countries in
the tropics, the transformation and use of agricultural
by-products in livestock diets may have become more
imperative due to increasing prices of grains (especially
maize and oil seeds) globally and environmental pollu-
tion issues. However, many agricultural crop by-pro-
ducts in the tropics are fibrous (Abdelsamie et al. 1983;
Longe and Fagbenro -Byron 1990) and this limits utiliza-
tion in poultry production (Onifade 1993; Bolarinwa
1998). Nevertheless, the focus of current research is on
fibre nutrition because of the issue of removal of antibi-
otics from feed and diversion of grains for ethanol and
biodiesel production (Leeson 2008; Farrell 2008). The
attraction is the suggested prebiotic attribute of fibrous
feedstuffs (Sundu et al. 2006) and need to reduce feed
costs by utilizing alternatives to maize as source of feed
energy (Leeson 2008). An example of such alternatives
is maize offal or maize bran.
Maize offal is a by-product of maize milling processes,
second to wheat offal as the most preferred and utilized
conventionally in livestock feeds in Nigeria (Babatunde
et al. 2002). Maize offal contains about 110 to 120 g/kg
crude protein and 80 to 90 g /kg crude fibr e (Onifad e and
Babatunde 1998; Makinde 2006). The relatively low
crude fibre content compared to other by-products could
be an advantage in fibre nutrition whereas the low pro-
tein content appears to be a limitation.
Cattle blood is an abattoir by-product that directly af-
fects the environment in Nigeria. Most of the blood from
a considerable number of slaughter-cattle is wasted, not
efficiently utilized, and pollutes the environment on a
daily basis (A deniji 1995; Mak inde 2006). Paradoxically,
blood meal, obtainable from cattle blood after drying,
contains 80% - 90% crude protein high in the essential
amino acids, especially lysine (NRC 1994). Nevertheless,
blood is very difficult to dry and is a good medium for
O. A. Makinde et al. / Open Journal of Animal Sciences 1 (2011) 106-111
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. Openly accessible at http://www.scirp.org/journal/OJAS/
microbial spoilage due to its high moisture content (Don-
koh et al. 1999). Drying of blood requires high cost
equipment coupled with facilities for central blood col-
lection, which may be unaffordable and/or not applicable
because the abattoir structure in Nigeria exists as small-
scattered units. Moreover, previous work with blood
involving sun drying in the development of alternative
feedstuffs for poultry reported a long drying time of
about three days (Adeniji 1995; Donkoh et al. 2002;
Odunsi et al. 2004). However, previous studies by
Sonaiya (1988) suggested the use of crop by-product
materials as absorbents for blood in order to increase the
surface area for quicker sun drying.
Makinde and Sonaiya (2007, 2010) have reported a
simple processing procedure, nutrient composition and
optimum mixing ratios for crop by-products with blood
including maize offal. The procedure resulted in quicker
sun drying of blood (<4 h), enhancement of the crude
protein content of maize offal by the blood mixed and a
way to contribute towards reduction of environmental
pollution from abattoirs.
However, nutritional information on the utilization of
such a sun-dried maize offal blood meal (SDMBM) by
broiler chickens was unavailable. Consequently, the ob-
jective was to provide da ta on the utilisation of SDMBM
by broiler chickens when fed diets with in creasing quan-
tities of SDMBM.
2.1. Preparation of SDBM and Nutrient
Sun-dried maize offal blood meal was prepared and
analysed for nutrient composition according to the pro-
cedures previously described by Makinde and Sonaiya
(2007, 2010). Briefly, maize offal (source, Eagle Flour
Mills, Ibadan, Nigeria) was hand-mixed (1:1 w/w) with
fresh blood (prevented from coagulating for at least 6
hours by mixing with 18 g common salt/litre blood) col-
lected from several slaughtered cattle at a commercial
abattoir. This mixture was sun-dried for between 3 to 4 h,
ground, mixed again with blood (5:4 w/w) and ground
into a meal after drying again.
Nutrient composition (proximate composition and acid
detergent fibre (ADF) inclusive of residual ash) of maize
offal and SDMBM were determined using standard pro-
cedures of AOAC (1990). Gross energy was determined
by oxygen bomb calorimeter (Gallenkamp Ballistic Bomb
Calorimeter, Cambridge Instrument Co. Ltd, England).
Meal samples were prepared and analysed for mineral
concentrations following the methods described by Fick
et al. (1979). Amino acid composition of SDMBM was
determined following acid hydrolysis using a Techni-
con® Sequential Multisample Amino Acid Analyzer
(TSM-1, model DNA 0209, Swords Co., Dublin , Ireland;
reproducibility, ±3%) at the Zoology Department, Uni-
versity of Jos, Jos, Nigeria. Between 30-50mg of the
defatted sample was weighed into glass ampoule. Seven
millilitres of 6 N HCl was added and oxygen was ex-
pelled by passing nitrogen into the ampoule (this was to
avoid or reduce possible oxidation of sulphur amino
acids during hydrolysis). The glass ampoule was then
sealed with bunsen burner flame and put in an oven pre-
set at 105˚C + 5˚C for 22 hours.
2.2. Experimental Procedure and
Management of Birds
The experiment was in two phases, starter and finisher
phases. Eighty 14-day-old commercial broiler chicks
(Anak-2000 strain) were randomly allocated to one of
four dietary treatments (Table 1) in a completely ran-
domized block design. Each treatment was replicated
four times with five birds per replicate. The dietary treat-
ments consisted of the control diet, which contained
fishmeal (starter diet only), groundnut cak e and soybean
meal as the main protein sources, and three other diets,
which contained varying levels of SDMBM at 50, 100,
and 150 g/kg diet. Two control diets were formulated,
one for the starter phase containing no SDMBM but
fishmeal at 30 g/kg diet, and the other for the finisher
phase with no fishmeal or any other animal protein source.
The test diets for the starter phase were formulated to be
isocaloric and isonitrogenous containing 3000 kcal
ME/kg and 22% crude protein (PTF 1992), and the fin-
isher phase formula ted to contain 2950 kcal ME /kg and
18% crude protein (PTF 1992). The starter diet was fed
for 3 weeks, and the finisher diet for 2 weeks. The birds
were confined in 20 floor pens (each measuring 1.52 m2)
which provided a floor space of 0.3 m2 per bird. The
pens were in a poultry house constructed from wood and
wire gauze, with asbestos roof and concrete floor. Pens
were covered with wood shavings for bedding. Plastic
water drinkers and suspended metallic conical feeders
were used to provide drink and feed, respectively, and
were cleaned daily.
Birds were fed ad libitum with free access to water.
Newcastle disease vaccine (NDV), infectious bursal dis-
ease vaccine (IBDV), coccidiostat (Embazin-Forte®: Sul-
faquinoxaline-Diaveridine-Vitamin K complex), antibi-
otic (Keproceryl®: water-soluble mix of the antibiotics-
oxytetracycline, erythromycin, and streptomycin with fat-
and water-soluble vitamins), and a B-vitamin complex
solution (Biovit®) as antistress were used to maintain
chicks in good health. The coccidiostat, antibiotic, and
B-vitamins drug were administered via the drinking water.
All five chickens in each pen were weighed individu-
O. A. Makinde et al. / Open Journal of Animal Sciences 1 (2011) 106-111
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. http://www. scirp.org/journal/OJAS/Openly accessible at
Table 1. Gross and nutrient composition of experimental broiler starter and finisher diets.
SDMBM¹ (g/kg diet)
Starter Finisher
Ingredients 0 50 100 150 0 50 100 150
Maize 589.4 580.5 600 541.5 614.2 610.5 610 607.9
Soya bean meal 160 127 28 32 158 120 100 96
Groundnut cake 145 203 237 228 70 85 73.5 48
Fishmeal 30 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
SDMBM 0 50 100 150 0 50 100 150
Wheat offal 40.6 4.5 0 0 122.8 99.5 81.5 63.1
Bone meal 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27
Premix3 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5
Salt 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5
Lysine 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5
Methionine 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5
Calculated composition³
ME in kcal/kg 3000.52 3000.22 3000.7 8 3000.98 2950.2 2950.47 2950. 29 2950.1
%CP 22.19 22.03 22.2 22.06 18.02 18.35 18.35 18.38
%CF 3.32 3.48 3.45 3.76 3.65 3.71 3.82 3.95
%Ca 1.26 1.08 1.07 1.07 1.07 1.06 1.06 1.06
%P 0.96 0.75 0.67 0.68 0.79 0.75 0.73 0.72
%Lysine 1.15 1.09 1 1.09 0.97 1.03 0.98 1.02
%Methionine 0.48 0.45 0.45 0.46 0.42 0.42 0.42 0.42
Cost of diet (N/kg) 60.79 55.73 51.58 50.21 54.06 53.4 53.33 53.72
¹SDMBM = sun-dried maize offal blood meal. ²Provides per kg of diet: Vitamin A, 12,500 IU; Vitamin D, 2,500 IU; Vitamin E, 40 mg; Vitamin K, 2 mg; Vita-
min B1, 3 mg; Vitamin B2, 5.5 mg; Niacin 55 mg; Calcium pantothenate, 11.5 mg; Vitamin B 6, 5mg; Vitamin B 12, 0.025 mg; Choline chloride, 500 mg; Folic
acid, 1 mg; Biotin, 0.08 mg; Manganese, 120 mg; Iron, 1 00 mg; Zinc, 80 mg; Copper, 8.5 mg; Iodine, 1.5 mg; Cobalt, 0.3 mg; Selenium, 0.12 mg; Anti-oxidant,
120 mg. ³ME = metabolizable energy; CP = crude protein; C F = crude fibre; Ca = calcium; P = phosphorous (total).
ally at the beginning of the experiment, then weekly, and
at the end of the experiment. Feed consumption per pen
was recorded weekly after the total feed given per week
was corrected for feed left over. Average daily gain
(ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), feed conver-
sion ratio (FCR), were calculated from the data obtained.
Records of mortality were kept and all dead chickens
examined post-mortem by veterinarians. At the end of
the experiment, three birds were selected randomly from
each pen, starved of feed for 24 hours to empty their
crops, killed by cutting the jugular vein, exsaguinated,
defeathered and eviscerated. Carcass yield calculated as
dressed weight per unit live weight excluded all the or-
gans, head, feathers, neck and shanks. Economics of
production were evaluated in terms of feed cost/kg feed,
feed cost/kg gain, cost of production/kg gain, and bene-
fit/kg gai n.
2.3. Statistical Analysis
Data were analyzed as completely randomized block
design using the General Linear Means procedure of
SAS (2000) for analysis of variance (ANOVA). The ef-
fects of the four dietary treatments (0, 50, 100, and 150 g
SDMBM/kg diet) were tested on broiler performance at
both starter and finisher phases, and overall. The four
replicates per treatment were considered as blocks in
order to increase the sensitivity of the experiment by
reducing the residual error. Differences between means
O. A. Makinde et al. / Open Journal of Animal Sciences 1 (2011) 106-111
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were resolved by Duncan’s multiple range test of the
SAS statistical package. Statistical significance was es-
tablished when probability was less than 0.05 level of
It was observed that when maize offal was hand-
mixed with blood it soon became viscous or thick and
then rubbery. Therefore, the mixture needed to be mixed
quickly and sun-dried very soon after. This attrib ute will
be important in the scaling up of the procedure regarding
the design of a mechanical mixer for small-, medium- or
large-scale application. In addition, there will be need
for suitable ovens that could be applied in the wet season
when sunshine hours are critically reduced.
The chemical composition of maize offal, SDMBM,
and vat-dried blood meal are shown in Tab le 2. In com-
parison with maize offal and vat-dried blood meal,
SDMBM was drier as indicated by the moisture content
(76 vs. 96.7 and 80 g moisture/kg, respectively). Ac-
cording to Rozis (1997), a moisture content of between
100 to 120 g moisture/kg is satisfactory for most agri-
cultural products. The gross energy contents of SDMBM
and maize offal were comparable; whereas crude protein
was three times higher and crude fibre three times lower
for SDMBM. This indicates that mixing blood to maize
offal improved its nutrient quality and potential useful-
ness in livestock feeding especially monogastrics. Fur-
ther, the amino acid composition of SDMBM compared
with NRC (1994) amino acid requirements for broiler
chickens (0 to 8 weeks of age) shows that it is adequate
in all essential amino acids except methionine (4.0 vs.
5.0 g/kg). Moreover, SDMBM had very marginal con-
tent of mineral elements when compared with vat-dried
blood meal. However, the use of synthetic methionine
sources, mineral element supplements and premixes,
conventionally used in diets, should overcome these
Data showing the effect of dietary SDMBM on the
growth performance of the broiler chickens at the starter
phase (days 14 to 35), finisher phase (days 35 to 49), and
overall (days 14 to 49) is shown in Tab le 3 . In both the
starter and finisher phases, average final body weights
(AFBW), average daily body weight gain (ADG), and
feed conversion ratio (FCR) varied between diets but
were not significantly different (P > 0.05), as well as for
average final body weight (AFBW), feed conversion
ratio (FCR) and carcass yield in the whole period (days
14 to 49). These results suggest that the SDMBM diets
were not inferior to the control diet with fishmeal. This
appears to attest to the quality o f SDMBM as possessing
additive attributes of blood as a high quality protein. A
significant (P < 0.05) depression in average daily feed
intake (ADFI) was obtained for the 100 g SDMBM/kg
diet compared with the control in the starter phase (Ta-
ble 3). This was probably due to the inexplicable poor
growth of one of the birds in one replicate pen observed
the penultimate week of the starter period, which after
culling eventually died same week. However, post-
mortem autopsies indicated no specific causes for deaths
Table 2. Chemical composition of maize offal, sun-dried maize
offal blood meal, and vat-dried blood meal¹.
Maize SDMBM2 Vat dried3
Composition (g/kg DM) offal blood meal
Dry Matter 903.3 924.0 920
Gross ener gy, kcal/g 4.273 4.245 5.21
Crude protein 111. 6 334.0 771.0
Arginine NA 14.3 33.4
Histidine NA 10.4 50.6
Isoleucine NA 10.7 9.1
Leucine NA 30.7 109.9
Lysine NA 11.0 70.4
Methionine NA 4.0 9.9
Phenylalanine NA 14.2 53.4
Threonine NA 8.3 40.5
Valine NA 11.7 70.5
Alanine NA 10.1 NA
Aspartic acid NA 23.3 NA
Cystine NA 5.7 NA
Glutamic acid NA 26.0 NA
Glycine NA 11.0 45.9
Proline NA 8.8 NA
Serine NA 6.8 31.4
Tyrosine NA 1.0 20.7
Tryptophan NA NA NA
Crude fibre 87.6 31.8 5.5
ADF4 285.0 52.3 18.0
Ether extract 65.0 45.5 16.0
NFE 596.0 511.8 NA
Ash 42.7 69.3 NA
Ca, mg/kg NA 0.08 3700.0
P, mg/kg NA 4.4 2700.0
Mg, mg/kg NA 37.0 1100.0
Fe, mg/kg NA 6.8 1,922.0
Mn, mg/kg NA 0.79 6.0
Cu, mg/kg NA 3.19 11.0
Zn, mg/kg NA 0.01 38.0
¹Values are means of duplicate samples; NA = Not analysed. 2SDMBM =
sun-dried maize offal blood meal (Makinde and Sonaiya 2010). 3
obtained from from NRC (1994) and NRC (1998). 4ADF = neutral detergent
ibre. f
O. A. Makinde et al. / Open Journal of Animal Sciences 1 (2011) 106-111
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. http://www. scirp.org/journal/OJAS/
Ta b le 3 . Live performance (14 to 35, 35 to 49, and 14 to 49 d) of broiler chickens fed diets with graded levels of sun-dried maize
offal blood meal.
Starte r (14 to35 d) Finisher (35 to 4 9 d) Overall (14 to 49 d)
Levels of SDMBM¹ (g/kg diet) Levels of SDMBM (g/kg diet) Levels of SDMBM (g/kg diet)
Parameters 0 50 100 150 SE² 0 50 100150SE0 50 100 150SE
AIB (g/bird)3 227.25 212.35 221 210.55-948.18936.54858.6941.7- 227.25 212.35 221 210.55-
AFBW (g/bird)4 948.18 936.54 858.6 941.79.101639.161715.241549.71667.317.501639.16 1715.24 1549.7 1667.317.50
ADG (g/bird)5 34.33 34.49 30.36 34.820.3049.3655.6249.3651.831.3040.34ab 42.94a 37.96b 41.62ab 0.55
ADFI (g/bird)6 81.20a 76.98ab 72.47b 76.55ab 0.58 163.80a163.45a139.86b154.11a1.44 110.82a 111.57a 99.43b 107.56a0.86
FCR7 2.37 2.25 2.4 2.21 0.023.322.952.882.980.082.75 2.61 2.64 2.590.03
Carcass yield (%) - - - - -- - - - - 62.01 65.54 64.16 63.710.41
Mortality (number) 1 0 1 0 -0 0 0 0 - 1 0 1 0 -
FC/kg (N)8 60.79 55.73 51.58 50.21-54.0653.453.3353.72- 57.43 54.57 52.46 51.97-
FC/kg gain (N) 143.88a 125.6b 123.89b 111.08b1.90 179.75a157.69ab 157.18b160ab 2.70 157.83a 142.49ab 138.40b 134.42b1.7
CP/kg gain9 (N) - - - - -- - - - - 341.83a 326.49ab 322.40b 318.42b1.7
Benefit/kg10gain (N) - - - - -- - - - - 58.17b 73.03a 77.60a 81.56a1.7
abMeans on the same row with the same superscripts are not significantly different (P > 0.05). 1SDMBM = sun-dried maize offal blood meal. 2SE= standard
error of means. 3AIB = average initial body weight. 4AFBW = average final bod y weigh t. 5ADG = av erage d aily gain. 6ADFI = averag e dai ly feed in tak e. 7FCR
= feed conversion ratio (g feed/g gain). 8FC = feed cost (N = Naira). 9CP = cost of production/kg gain(N) = FC/kg gain + Total common costs for 49 days
(brooded chicks; drugs; equipment; wood shavings; transportation; poultry house repair and maintainnance; labour and miscellaneous-10% of total common
costs). 10Benefit/kg gain (N) = price of broiler/kg (N) when study was conduct ed (N400.00) mi nus cost of production/kg gain (N); 1 US$ = N150.
that can be attributable to the diet. The depression in
feed consumption for the 100 g SDMBM/kg dietary
treatment in the finisher phase is obscured to this study.
It is possible that the birds in the pen where mortality
occurred had unidentified sub-clinical level infection,
which depressed feed intake. The same reason could be
advanced for the feed consumption that was significantly
(P < 0.05) depressed and the least ADG overall for the
100 g SDMBM/kg diet compared with other diets.
Openly accessible at
Economically, the SDMBM diets were generally su-
perior to the control for all growth periods in terms of
feed cost per kg (FC/kg), feed cost per kg live weight
gain (FC/kg gain), cost of production per kg live weight
gain (CP/kg gain), and profit or benefit per bird. The 150
g SDMBM/kg dietary treatment had the highest profit
compared with the control, which was least (P < 0.05).
Khawaja et al. (2007) and Don koh et al. (2003) ob tained
similar results on superior economic benefits for blood
meal and a blend of blood and ground maize cob in broil-
ers, respectively.
The findings under the conditions of this study show
that there are no adverse effects on growth performance
by incorporating SDMBM, a simple suitable alternative
protein source to fishmeal, up to 150 g SDMBM/kg in
the starter and finisher diets of broiler chickens. Further
investigations are needed concerning a scaling up of the
production process and possible effects of mechanical
drying on nutritional qu ality of SDMBM.
Raw Materials Research and Development Council (RMRDC),
Abuja, Nigeria provided funding for the research reported in this arti-
cle. Mr J. O. S. Adeyeye and the workers at the Araromi Abattoir,
Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria are also appreciated for their cooperation
and assistance.
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