Vol.3, No.9, 750-767 (2011) Natural Science
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. OPEN ACCESS
K-Ar age, geochemical, and Sr-Pb Isotopic
compositions of keban magmatics, elaziğ, Eastern
Anatolia, Turkey
Sevcan Kürüm
Engineering Faculty, Department of Geology, University of Fırat, Elazig, Turkey; skurum@firat.edu.tr
Received 9 August 2011; revised 11 September 2011; accepted 27 September 2011.
Keban magmatics consist of plutonic rocks of
acidic and intermediate compositions with diffe-
rent phases. They are the equivalent of surface
rocks. In the current study on plutonic rocks,
general petrographic features, disequilibrium
textures such as skeletal formation in minerals,
poikilitic texture, oscillatory zoning, and mineral
fragmentation, and growth states are observed.
Besides these microscopic properties, the exi-
stence of rounded mafic enclaves of various
sizes, petrographic syn-plutonic dykes, and
field data support the idea that mafic and felsic
magmas are mixed. Keban magmatics have
I-type, metaluminous-peraluminous characteri-
stics. Diorites and quartz diorites have low-K
tholeiitic features, whereas tonalites have low-K
calc-alkaline features. Compared with diorites,
tonalites are richer in terms of LREE (Rock/
Chondrite); Rb, Sr, and Ba (LILE); and Hf, Zr, Th,
and U (HFSE) elements. LILE enrichment, which
signals the crustal contamination of mantle-ori-
ginated magmas, is particularly observable in
tonalites. In both rock groups, the negative ano-
maly of Nb is a sign of similarity of pluton to the
subduction zone magma series. Based on the
K-Ar geochronology dating of amphibole mi-
nerals, the ages of these rocks are found to be
75.65 ± 1.5 and 59.77 ± 1.2 Ma in tonalites and
84.76 ± 1.8 and 84.35 ± 1.7 Ma in diorite and
quartz diorites. The 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratios in
tonalites are 0.705405 and 0.706053, whereas
these ratios are 0.704828 and 0.704754 in diori-
tic rocks. Pb isotope ratios are similar in both
rock types.
Keywords: Keban Magmatics, K-Ar Age; Pb-Sr
Isotopes; Geochemistry
Within the Southeastern Anatolia orogenic belt and
the Neotethys convergent system developed during the
tectonomagmatic evolution of the southern Neotethys,
Keban magmatics form the easternmost branch of the
Göksun-Afşin, Doğanşehir, and Baskil granitoids [1-8]
(Figure 1). These granitoids of the Cretaceous age [3,6]
have intrusive contact relationships [3-7,11-13] with
platform carbonates (Malatya-Keban metamorphic), op-
hiolites (Göksun, İspendere, Kömürhan, Guleman), meta-
morphic rocks related to ophiolites (Berit) [6,7,14], and
ensimatic island-arc units present in the orogenic belt
(Elazığ-Yüksekova) [3,4,6,7,11,12,15].
The objective of the current paper is to present the
field relations, petrography, geochemical and isotopic
(Sr-Pb) composition, and K-Ar hornblende ages of Ke-
ban magmatics. The study contributes in determining the
location of these rocks within Cretaceous plutonic rocks
spread throughout southeast Anatolia and in establishing
geodynamic evolution in future regional studies.
Thin section sample preparation and crushing and
grinding to obtain whole-rock powders were performed
at the laboratories of the Department of Geological En-
gineering, Firat University, Elaziğ, Turkey.
Whole-rock chemical analyses have been performed
at the ACME laboratories and at the ACT-labs by ICP-
AES (major and some trace elements) and ICP-MS
(some trace and rare earth elements, REE) in Canada;
Mineral separates for K-Ar analyses were extracted by
conventional procedures including grinding, sieving and
heavy liquid separation. K-Ar age determination of mi-
neral separates consisting of amphibole ± biotite and
pure amphibole has been performed at the K-Ar Geo-
chronology Laboratory, Geological Survey of Israel,
Jerusalem, Israel. For K determination, two aliquots of
ca. 0.25 g were taken from a sample and dissolved using
S. Kürüm / Natural Science 3 (2011) 750-767
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. OPEN ACCESS
Figure 1. Simplified map of the Cretaceous units of the area between Göksum (Kahramanmaras) and Kovancilar (Elazig)
(from [9,10]).
lithium metaborate (LiBO2). Potassium concentrations
were measured on ICP-AES (Perkin Elmer OPTIMA
3300) along with repeated determinations of three of the
international standards SO-3, BE-N, BHVO-1, SCo-1,
NIM-L, NIM-G. The 1 uncertainty for the K concentra-
tion of duplicates was less than 3%. The argon analysis
for K-Ar determination was performed using the stan-
dard isotope dilution procedures routinely used in the
geochronological laboratory at the GSI [16,17]. About
0.03 g sample was loaded into the glass arm of a metal
extraction line and heated overnight at 120˚C. Argon was
extracted in a molybdenum crucible using RF induction
heating. Gases were scrubbed through liquid nitro gen
and Zr Al getters. Argon was measured on a VG MM-
1200 mass spectrometer. Measured intensities were cor-
rected for linear extrapolation of the 40Ar peak and then
iAr/39Ar ratios (i = other isotopes). Argon was measured
in duplicates and uncertainties are reported at the 1
Sr and Pb isotopic analyses were performed at the
Mineralogical Institute of Heidelberg University, Ger-
The study area is situated in the Southeast Anatolia
Orogenic Belt. This belt was formed by the collision of
the Afro-Arabian and Eurasian plates following the oce-
anic closure of the south Tethyan in the Cretaceous-
Miocene era [6,7]. This orogenic belt, which stretches
from east to west, consists of three different zones [6,12,
18] and is divided into two nap zones: lower and upper
[12]. The lower nap zone is made up of ophiolitic units,
and the upper nap zone consists of Malatya Keban meta-
morphic massives [6,12,19]. The granitoids in Maraş,
Malatya, and Elazığ regions, which formed during the
evolution of southern Neotethys, have intrusive contact
relationships with metamorphic massives (Malatya-Ke-
ban metamorphites), ensimatic island-arc units (Elazığ
magmatic rocks/Yüksekova complex), ophiolitic rocks
(Göksun, İspendere, Kömürhan, Guleman), and meta-
morphic rock units related to ophiolites (Berit) [7,8,10].
Malatya-Keban metamorphic massives and ophiolitic
units were tectonically placed prior to the intrusions
formed in the late Cretaceous period [3,13,20].
The geological units in the study area begin with the
Keban metamorphic rocks from the Paleozoic-Mesozoic
age. Keban metamorphic rocks are composed of marble,
schist, and phyllites [21,22]; they crop out along the
south-north direction in the western parts of the study
area (Figure 2). One of the researcher [21] suggested
that these rocks of carbonate and pelitic origin have low
P-T conditions and that they underwent metamorphism
during the Jurassic-lower Cretaceous era. The other re-
searchers [23,24] pointed out that the metamorphism of
the Malatya-Keban platform limestones is related to tec-
tonism and asserted that these tectonic events caused by
subduction still emerged on the edge of an active conti-
nent during the Senonian era. Thus, he concluded that
metamorphism of limestones and tectonism is contem-
poraneous. Conversely, some researchers [2,4] proposed
that the P and T conditions that caused the metamor-
phism of the Keban metamorphics are related to the
northerly subduction of the oceanic crust located south of
the Keban unit in the upper Cretaceous rocks and to the
formation of the Elazığ magmatic rocks formed above
this subduction zone. Contact metamorphism (skarniti-
zation) is observed along intrusive contacts between me-
tamorphic and plutonic rocks [24,25]. Palaeocene-Oligo-
cene sedimentary rocks unconformably overlaid all the
metamorphics, ophiolites, intrusive, and volcano-sedi-
mentary rocks in the study area.
S. Kürüm / Natural Science 3 (2011) 750-767
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Figure 2. Geological map of the Keban magmatic rocks (taken from [4]) and location map of the study area. M: Malatya; E: Elazig;
K: Keban; Erz: Erzincan; DSFZ: Dead Sea Fault Zone; EAFZ: East Anatolian Fault Zone; NAFZ: North Anatolian Fault Zone.
S. Kürüm / Natural Science 3 (2011) 750-767
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The thrust fault between the Keban metamorphics and
the Keban pluton forms the main tectonic structure in the
study area (Figure 2).
Late Cretaceous-Palaeocene Keban magmatic rocks
were mapped as tonalite, diorite/quartz diorite, and ba-
salt/andesite (Figure 2). Nevertheless, among these rocks,
only tonalite and diorite/quartz diorites were examined
within the context of this study. Diorites are generally
medium grained, hard, black, and less widespread than
tonalities, which are medium to coarse grained with in-
tensive alteration resulting in soft topographies. The to-
nalities contain syn-plutonic mafic dykes and mafic mi-
crogranular enclaves of various sizes and shapes, indi-
cating the contemporaneous existence of mafic and felsic
magmas [26,27]. Tonalites also contain aplitic dykes.
Most of the enclaves found in tonalites are round and
elliptical in shape, and their size may reach up to 50 cm.
Volcanic rocks in the Keban magmatic province, which
covers a large area, are basaltic and andesitic in compo-
sition [4], dark in color, fragile, and contain frequent
Mineralogical studies reveal that Keban magmatics are
diorite, quartz diorite, tonalite, and granodiorite in com-
position. Geochemical data indicate a composition of
tonalites, quartz diorites, and diorites. In the geoche-
mical nomenclature diagram [28] (Figure 3), two sam-
ples are quartz diorite (SK-23 and SK-24), four are dio-
rite (SK-2,-3,-5, and SK-25), and the rest are tonalite in
Medium- to fine-grained diorites and quartz diorites
have different granular and poikilitic textures, and are
mainly made up of plagioclase and amphibole. In some
cases, amphiboles are more dominant than plagioclases.
In addition to the main mineral phases, quartz (more
dominant in quartz diorite), biotite, pyroxene (as relict),
opaque minerals, and secondary minerals such as chlo-
rite, calcite, and epidote are usually observed. Plagio-
clase generally shows polysynthetic twinning and oscil-
latory zoning in dioritic rocks. Amphibole generally
shows different-sized green pleochroism subhedral and
skeletal in structure. The presence of relic pyroxene in
some amphibole crystals indicates that these amphiboles
are formed by uralitization.
Tonalites and granodiorites are hypidiomorphic, gra-
nular textured, and composed of plagioclases, quartz,
biotite, amphibole, K-feldspar, zircon, apatite, and opa-
que minerals (magnetite). Plagioclase, which forms the
main felsic mineral, shows albite twinning (An15-25) and
zoning. Crystals with overgrowth texture display a sieve
texture in some cases. Anhedral quartz varies in size and
shows wavy extinction. Minor biotite is generally opaci-
fied along the edges, whereas K-feldspar turns to clay.
Zircon forms an accessory phase and is generally found
with biotite, chlorite, and some quartz, whereas apatite
occurs in quartz and plagioclase.
Reaction textures in amphiboles, transformation of
amphiboles into biotites, zoning, and sieve textures in
plagioclases indicate disequilibrium crystallization in
some diorites and tonalites.
The enclaves and syn-plutonic dykes in the tonalities
are dark and fine grained. Although the mineralogical
composition of these enclaves and the syn-plutonic dykes
resembles that of the host-rock, change in the mineral
proportions and variation of grain sizes of the plagio-
clases (seriate texture) are important differences. How-
ever, twinning and oscillatory zoning are observed in the
plagioclase phenocrysts of these rocks. Such disequilib-
rium textures observed in phenocrysts are important in
determining open system processes such as magma mix-
ing [29].
K-Ar analysis was conducted on four amphibole se-
parates extracted from fresh rock samples of Keban in-
trusive rocks. The results are presented in Table 1. All
four samples (SK-23,-25,-27, and SK-29) solely consist
of amphibole grains. Grain size fractions (+212 micron)
of the rock samples were extracted. K/Ar ages of 84.8 ±
1.8 and 84.4 ± 1.7 Ma for diorite and quartz diorite sam-
ples and 75.7 ± 1.5 and 59.8 ± 1.2 Ma for tonalite sam-
ples were obtained. The ages obtained are in accordance
with those reported for Baskil granitoids [3,6,30] and
Göksun-Afşin granitoids [7,8].
6.1. Major and Trace Element
Tables 2 and 3 present the results of whole rock che-
mical analyses of the samples taken from diorites, quartz
diorites, and tonalities of the Keban magmatics. Based
on the alkali-silica (Figure 4(a)), AFM (Figure 4(b))
[31], and K2O-silica [32,33] diagrams (Figure 4(c)), the
rocks have low-K sub-alkaline characteristics. However,
whereas the tonalities show calc-alkaline properties, the
diorites and quartz diorites are tholeiitic in character.
Examination of the Shand index (Al2O3/(CaO + Na2O +
K2O) versus Al2O3/(Na2O + K2O) [34] reveals that both
diorites and quartz diorites are located in the metalu-
minous and peraluminous regions (Figure 4(d)), whereas
the tonalites are located solely in the peraluminous region.
The Aluminum Saturation Index (ASI = Al2O3/(CaO +
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Table 1. Data for K-Ar Age determinations in the amphibols of the intruzif rocks.
Sample Rock Size
Age ± 1σ
cc STP/
K †
36 Ar
cc STP/
*40K/36Ar *40Ar/36Ar
SK-23 Q.diorite +212 84.76 ± 1.8 6.06E07 0.18 39.84 3.10E09 43089 491
SK-25 Diorite +212 84.35 ± 1.7 5.36E07 0.16 71.75 7.14E10 166092 1046
SK-27 Tonalite +212 75.65 ± 1.5 1.47E06 0.49 75.70 1.59E09 227668 1216
SK-29 Tonalite +212 59.77 ± 1.2 1.60E06 0.68 80.75 1.29E09 389714 1534
Table 2. Whole-rock major element (wt%) and trace element (ppm) chemical analysis results of the intruzif rocks.
Diorite/Quartz diorite Tonalite
Sample SK-2 SK-3 SK-4 SK-5 SK-23 SK-25 SK-1SK-6 SK-7SK-8SK-9SK-10 SK-11 SK-12 SK-27 SK-28SK-29
SiO2 45.33 46.82 47.83 42.28 51.85 47.26 69.91 69.82 72.3173.12 70.1669.90 69.97 69.40 71.75 71.81 72.86
Al2O3 17.29 19.02 19.50 18.92 18.33 19.64 13.68 14.7113.75 13.6215.05 14.7714.81 14.95 14.03 14.1513.80
Fe2O3 13.06 13.28 11.82 16.77 8.27 9.53 3.763.953.392.393.403.903.95 3.23 3.47 3.452.46
MgO 7.30 5.18 5.00 6.53 5.40 6.75 0.981.231.15 0.47 0.88 1.17 1.13 1.20 0.89 0.92 0.55
CaO 12.23 10.94 11.56 12.43 11.84 13.65 4.334.61 4.01 2.713.97 4.00 4.27 4.21 3.80 3.87 3.17
Na2O 2.05 2.33 1.98 1.51 2.01 1.44 4.033.81 3.29 4.05 4.10 4.09 4.02 3.93 3.89 3.61 4.02
K2O 0.15 0.14 0.11 0.08 0.31 0.11 0.500.91 1.12 1.61 0.99 0.67 0.23 0.22 0.69 1.190.84
TiO2 0.79 0.82 0.80 1.00 0.49 0.50 0.320.41 0.30 0.210.300.410.35 0.34 0.31 0.30 0.22
P2O5 0.07 0.11 0.09 0.09 0.04 0.04 0.05 0.07 0.090.09 0.09 0.05 0.05 0.03
MnO 0.22 0.22 0.18 0.24 0.15 0.14 0.04 0.11 0.10 0.04 0.05 0.05 0.08 0.03
LOI 1.55 0.94 0.98 0.75 1.4 1.1 2.150.690.84 1.25 1.151.551.54 2.11 0.9 0.4 1.8
ASI 0.88 1.04 1.05 0.99 0.95 0.95 1.15 1.19 1.21 1.26 1.30 1.20 1.16 1.23
Total 100.00 99.83 99.85 100.60 100.11 100.18 99.81 100.30100.3099.52 100.20100.60100.40 99.73 99.86 99.8799.82
Ni 20 <20 <20 <20 5.9 12.7 <20<20 <20 <20 <20 <20 <20 <20 10.0 10.210.3
Co 37.0 35.0 33.0 52.0 29.0 38.8 5.07.0 5.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 5.0 6.0 5.4 5.5 3.3
V 424 351 463 556 221 303 5771 57 25 41 60 59 54 67 68 47
Cu 20.0 40.0 120.0 120.0 23.5 39.1 10.0130.0<10<1010.0<10<10 <10 3.3 3.9 2.7
Pb <5 <5 <5 <5 0.3 0.6 <55 <5 7 <5 <5 <5 <5 0.6 1.8 1.1
Zn 80 70 70 70 16 9 3040 50 <3040 30 <30 <30 12 27 7
Bi <0.4 <0.4 <0.4 <0.4 <0.1 <0.1 <0.41 <0.4<0.4<0.4<0.4<0.4 <0.4 <0.1 0.1 <0.1
Sn <1 <1 <1 <1 <1 <1 <1<1 <1 <1 <1 <1 <1 <1 <1 <1 <1
W <1 <1 <1 <1 0.9 0.3 <1<1 <1 <1 <1 <1 <1 <1 2.8 3.3 3.0
Mo <2 <2 <2 <2 3.5 1.5 <2<2 <2 <2 <2 <2 <2 <2 15.8 16.816.8
As <5 <5 <5 <5 <0.5 <0.5 <5<5 <5 <5 <5 <5 <5 <5 <0.5 <0.5<0.5
Sb <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.1 <0.1 <0.5<0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 0.1 0.1 <01
Hg - - - - <0.01 <0.01 - - - - - - - - <0.01 <0.01<0.01
Rb <2 <2 <2 <2 4.0 <0.5 4.0 3.0 20.3 35.530.5
Cs <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.1 <0.1 <0.5<0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 0.3 0.8 0.5
Ba 26.0 34.0 29.0 18.0 89.9 23.7 120.0 213.0134.0255.0241.0151.090.0 73.0 169.6 174.5204.5
Sr 182.0 214.0 218.0 204.0 205.7 194.6 186.0 231.0147.0 152.0189.0 156.0266.0 213.0 199.4 214.5192.7
Tl <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.10.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 <0.1<0.1 <0.1 <0.1 0.1 <0.1
Ga 16.0 18.0 17.0 19.0 14.4 15.2 12.014.0 12.0 12.0 13.0 13.0 13.0 12.0 13.4 13.4 12.4
Ta <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 0.20.2 0.2 0.4 0.2 <0.10.2 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.3
Nb <1 <1 <1 <1 0.8 <0.5 3 3 2 4 2 1 2 2 2.6 3.0 3.8
Hf 0.9 1.0 0.8 0.8 1.0 0.8 3.03.4 2.5 2.9 2.4 6.0 3.0 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.0
Zr 23.0 23.0 21.0 17.0 30.4 15.6 109.0 143.090.0104.086.0226.0110.0 101.0 101.7 119.096.4
Y 18.0 28.0 18.0 21.0 13.7 13.3 17.017.0 17.011.0 15.0 21.0 16.0 17.0 17.2 15.1 15.2
Th 0.2 0.6 0.2 <0.1 0.7 <0.1 2.02.7 2.2 6.3 2.4 1.0 1.8 2.0 2.5 2.3 5.2
U 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.4 <0.1 0.90.8 1.1 1.9 1.1 0.5 0.8 0.9 1.1 0.9 1.4
Rb/Sr 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.00 0.050.09 0.17 0.29 0.10 0.06 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.17 0.16
P2O5 2.14 1.27 1.22 0.89 7.75 2.75 6.259.1 16.0 2.44 14.0 24.0 28.0
Ba/Nb 28.9 37.8 32.2 20.0 112.37 51.52 40.071.0 67.0 63.7120.5151.045.0 36.5 62.23 58.1753.81
La/Nb 14.0 34.0 25.0 13.0 2.8 2.8 2.73.0 3.9 3.6 3.8 5.9 3.5 3.1 2.6 2.6 3.0
Zr/Nb 28.7 28.7 23.3 18.9 38.0 39.0 36.347.7 45.0 26.0 43.0226.055.0 50.5 39.1 39.7 25.4
Nb/U 4.5 3.0 4.5 3.0 2.0 4.4 3.33.8 1.8 2.1 1.8 2.0 2.5 2.3 2.4 3.3 2.7
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Table 3. Whole-rock REE element (ppm) chemical analysis results of the intruzif rocks.
Diorite/Quartz diorite Tonalite
Sample SK-2 SK-3 SK-4 SK-5 SK-23 SK-25 SK-1SK-6SK-7 SK-8SK-9 SK-10 SK-11 SK-12 SK-27 SK-28 SK-29
La 1.4 3.4 2.5 1.32.2 1.3 6.9 6.2 6.8 7.9 11.3
Ce 4.5 8.8 5.9 4.35.6 3.8 15.917.114.624.914.2 13.614.012.5 14.6 15.821.5
Pr 0.92 1.57 1.00 0.940.84 0.65 1.77 1.842.34
Nd 5.7 8.9 5.5 5.94.7 3.2 7.8 7.5 7.3 7.6 9.0
Sm 2.1 3.0 1.8 2.21.4 1.2 2.0 2.1 1.9 1.7 1.7
Eu 0.85 0.93 0.72 0.900.57 0.46 0.650.770.610.490.680.780.680.69 0.59 0.620.53
Gd 3.0 4.3 2.8 3.3 1.72 1.61 2.5 2.5 2.03 1.891.72
Tb 0.6 0.8 0.5 0.6 0.37 0.33 0.5 0.5 0.43 0.380.32
Dy 3.5 5.0 3.3 3.9 2.23 2.12 2.8 2.9 2.49 2.261.82
Ho 0.7 1.1 0.7 0.8 0.47 0.52 0.6 0.6 0.57 0.510.46
Er 2.2 3.1 2.0 2.41.45 1.38 1.9 2.0 1.83 1.491.43
Tm 0.34 0.48 0.30 0.370.20 0.20 0.320.330.350.230.290.430.310.32 0.29 0.240.25
Yb 2.2 3.1 1.9 2.4 1.35 1.41 2.2 2.3 1.81 1.601.63
Lu 0.35 0.46 0.28 0.350.23 0.22 0.370.360.360.300.320.540.350.39 0.31 0.260.28
La/YbCN 0.46 0.79 0.94 0.391.17 0.66 2.642.932.336.082.691.322.251.93 2.69 3.544.97
Eu/Eu* 1.03 0.79 0.98 1.021.12 1.01 0.830.930.820.770.990.830.930.92 0.92 1.060.95
Figure 3. Nomenclature diagram for the Keban magmatic rocks [28]. di:
Diorite, dq: Qurtz diorite, to: Tonalite.
Na2O + K2O)) [35] values are greater than 1 (Figure
4(d)), which is in accordance with mafic mineral asso-
ciation, such as biotit + amphibol. Zr, Nb, and Y-SiO2
(Figures 4(e)-(g)) diagrams indicate that these rocks
have I-type granitoid character.
Compositional differences in these rocks are also ob-
served in the main and trace elements versus silica dia-
grams. These units undergo different fractional crystal-
lization processes (Figure 5). Diorites have higher Al2O3
than tonalites (Figure 5(a)), indicating that the frac-
tionation process is effective in differentiation. Depend-
ing on the mafic phase composition, CaO, FeO, MgO,
MnO, and Ti2O are higher in diorites than tonalites (Fig-
ures 5(b)-(f)). However, tonalites have richer con- tent
of main oxides, such as K2O and Na2O, depending on
feldspars rich in K and Na (Figures 5(g) and (h)). The same
degree of P2O5 enrichment (Figure 5(i)) in both rock
groups indicates the presence of apatite in the rocks. The
negative correlation of the main elements, such as Al2O3,
CaO, FeO*, MgO, MnO, and Ti2O, with SiO2 and its
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Figure 4. Major element geochemical discrimination diagrams of the Keban magmatic rocks. (a) Total
alkalis vs silica ([31], dividing line between alkaline and sub-alkaline fields [32]); (b) AFM triangular
diagram [31]; (c) K2O vs silica [33]; (d) Shand Index ([34], ASI: Aluminum Saturation Index = molar
Al2O3/molar (CAO + Na2O + K2O [35]) and (e-g) Plot of thr Keban magatic rocks on the I/A-type gran-
ites diagram [36]).
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Figure 5. Magor oxides and some trace elements vs. SiO2 variation diagrams for rocks samples from the Keban mag-
matic rocks.
positive correlation with Na2O and K2O in both rock
groups indicate fractional crystallization during magma
evolution. The variations of the trace elements, Hf and V,
with SiO2 (Figures 5(j) and (k)) are further indications
of fractional crystallization. Fractionation phases are
mainly plagioclase, pyroxene, and hornblende.
The chondrite-normalized spider diagram (Figure 6(a))
demonstrates the differences between the tonalites and
diorites in terms of LREE. In general, tonalites show
higher LREE [(La/Yb)CN = 6.08 – 1.32], whereas dio-
rites are more depleted in these elements [(La/Yb)CN =
1.17 – 0.39]. Except for the negative Eu anomaly
(Eu/Eu* = 0.79) in Sample SK-3, the other samples from
the diorites do not show negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu*
= 1.12 – 0.98). All samples of the tonalites display nega-
tive Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.99 – 0.77) except sample
SK-28 (Eu/Eu* = 1.06). In addition, the upward concave
distribution from LREEs to HREEs, especially in the to-
nalities, emphasizes the importance of the feldspars in
tonalites during fractionation and melting [37].
In the MORB-normalized spider diagrams, tonalites
are richer in LREE, similar to previous diagram (Fig-
ures 6(b) and (c)). However, the distributions of some
elements remarkably vary in tonalites and diorites. For
instance, whereas Hf and Zr are depleted to the extent of
negative anomaly in diorites, these elements are enriched
in tonalites.
Crustal-origin elements, such as K, Rb, Ba, Th, and Y,
are found with fewer amounts in diorites than in tonali-
ties. Ti, which represents the mantle, shows remarkable
negative anomaly. These findings confirm that these ele-
ments are compatible with each other. Although such
S. Kürüm / Natural Science 3 (2011) 750-767
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Figure 6. Chondrite (a) and MORB (b-c) normalized spider diagrams for the Keban
magmatic rocks. MORB and Chondrite-normalizing values [38].
S. Kürüm / Natural Science 3 (2011) 750-767
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. OPEN ACCESS
distribution coincides with the mature period of arc plu-
tonism [39], acidic magma can be said to have formed as
a result of the contamination of magma with basic-inter-
mediate composition or its assimilation. The HREE be-
tween Gd-Lu is more enriched in tonalites.
6.2. Sr and Pb Isotope Geochemistry
The Pb and Sr isotope ratios of the samples are pre-
sented in Table 4. Sr isotope ratios in diorites are SK-23
= 0.704828 and SK-25 = 0.704754. They are higher in
tonalities, with SK-27 = 0.705405 and SK-29 = 0.706053.
The Pb isotope ratios display similar distribution in to-
nalites and diorites (Table 4).
The distributions of the samples were analyzed in dif-
ferent isotope variation diagrams (Figure 7). According
to these analyses, the samples in the 87Sr/86Sr - 206Pb/
204Pb diagram are positioned close to the Upper Conti-
nental Crust and Lower Continental Crust (Figure 7(a))
but are mainly found in the Ocean Island Basalt (OIB)
zone. Three samples in the 208Pb/204Pb - 206Pb/204Pb dia-
gram are found in Enriched Mantle II (EM II), and one
sample from the acidic rocks is in the enriched oceanic
sedimentary zone very close to the EM II zone (Figure
7(b)). Such distribution indicates that the samples have
compositions similar to those of enriched mantle sources
and that the differentiation between I-type granitoids and
crustal materials plays an active role in the formation of
the magma. The intensification of samples in the 207Pb/
204Pb - 206Pb/204Pb diagram (Figure 7(c)) around the EM
II or pelagic sediment zone may indicate the presence of
a sedimentary rock in the mantle source or the contami-
nation of large magma masses resulting from a used-up
under-continent lithospheric mantle. However, the greater
concentration in our samples around EM II can be better
interpreted as the presence of continental crust traces in
the source rock or the presence of continent-derived
sediments [40,41].
Based on the evaluation of mineralogical-petrographic
and geochemical studies (Figures 3-6), these intrusive
rocks indicate two different phases with I-type granitoid
property. Thus, utilizing these data is important to de-
termine the crystallization processes [i.e., fractional cry-
stallization (FC) and accumulation fractional crystalliza-
tion (AFC)] of the magma forming the Keban magmatics,
magma mixing, and source characteristics. These issues
will be discussed within this context.
7.1. Interpretation of Amphibole K-Ar Ages
Two amphibole separates extracted from diorites and
quartz diorites yielded similar K-Ar ages of about 85 Ma
(Table 1). This finding indicates synchronous cooling
below 500˚C based on the blocking temperature of ra-
diogenic Ar in amphibole minerals [42]. The two am-
phibole ages from the tonalites are not consistent with
each other (Table 1). Samples SK-27 and SK-29 yielded
ages of about 75 and 60 Ma, respectively. This age dif-
ference may have resulted from amphibole minerals,
which were crystallized at different stages during the
solidification of magma; i.e., the older K-Ar age data
may come from early-stage amphibole minerals first
crystallized during FC. Another reason could be the loss
of radiogenic Ar, which could result in low K-Ar age of
the rock sample SK-29. This sample shows an alteration
effect under microscopy, i.e., chloritization and epidoti-
zation of biotites, sericitization and saussuritization of
feldspars, and opacitizations of amphibole minerals. In
this circumstance, an age interval between approxima-
tely 85 and 60 Ma is suggested as the most reliable am-
phibole K-Ar cooling age for Keban magmatics.
7.2. Crystallization Processes
The main processes of magma crystallization in Keban
magmatics are FC, magma mixing, and AFC. Based on
the Rock/Chondrite diagram (Figure 6(a)), FC is deve-
loped as the FC of different magmatic phases in acidic
and intermediate magmas.
The negative correlation of CaO, FeO*, MgO, MnO,
Ti O2, and P2O5 composition with increasing silica and its
positive correlation with Na2O and K2O in the Harker
diagrams (Figure 5) indicate the FC effect, especially in
basic/intermediate rocks. The 5.00 - 7.30 variation of the
MgO content in diorite and quartz diorites further indi-
cates the predominance of olivine and pyroxene in frac-
tionation phase. This variation is also observed in the
Table 4. Sr and Pb isotope geochemical data.
Sample Rock Sr (ppm)Rb (ppm) 87Rb/86Sr (87Sr/86Sr)0 (
87Sr/86Sr)i 206Pb/204Pb 207Pb/204Pb 208Pb/204Pb
SK-23 Q diorite 205.7 4.0 0.0562 0.704828 0.70476 19.0597 15.6553 38.8229
SK-25 Diorite 194.6 0.5 0.0074 0.704754 0.70475 18.5931 15.6144 38.4978
SK-27 Tonalite 199.4 20.3 0.2945 0.705405 0.70509 18.9903 15.6472 38.8670
SK-29 Tonalite 192.7 30.5 0.4579 0.706053 0.70566 19.0272 15.6678 38.9609
S. Kürüm / Natural Science 3 (2011) 750-767
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. OPEN ACCESS
Figure 7. (a) 206Pb/204Pb vs. (87Sr/86Sr)i, (b) 206Pb/204Pb vs. 208Pb/204Pb and
(c) 206Pb/204Pb vs. 207Pb/204Pb variation diagrams of the rock samples from the
Keban magmatic rocks [40]. OIB (Oceanic Island Basalts), UCC (Upper Continental
Crust), LCC (Lower Continental Crust), NHRL (Northern Hemisphere Reference
Line), HIMU (mantle with High U/Pb ratio), PREMA (frequently observed PREva-
lent Mantle composition), BSE (Bulk Silicate Earth), EMI and EMII (Enriched
Mantle), DMM (Depleted Mantle).
change in LILE and HFSEs with silica, enabling the
formation of some major rock-forming minerals (Figure
8). The increase in Rb content caused by the silica dia-
gram in diorite and quartz diorites (Figure 8(a)) indi-
cates AFC processes, whereas Ba and Sr-SiO2 variation
diagrams signify pyroxene (orthopyroxene and clinopy-
roxene) fractionation for these rocks (Figures 8(b) and (c)).
There is no evident trend in tonalites in Rb and Ba com-
positions, and biotite and K-feldspar fractionation is an
observed trend in Sr (Figure 8(c)). The Y-silica variation
diagram shows the effect of amphibole in diorites and
tonalites (Figure 8(d)). The effect of amphibole on the
S. Kürüm / Natural Science 3 (2011) 750-767
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Fiure 8. Rb, Ba, Sr and Y vs. silica (a-d) semi-logarithmic variation diagrams of various I-type granites from the Keban
magmatic rocks, Arrows were taken after [43], and they indicate theoretical Rayleigh fractionation vectors modelled for
crystallization of indicidual mineral phases. Theoretical vectors for the likely crystallizing phases are for 50% fractiona-
tion of single phases. Partition coeddicients used for the modelling are from the compilation [37]. (e) Sm vs Rb variation
diagram [44]. (f) Y vs Rb variation diagram [45]. (g) MgO-87Sr/86Sr cariation diagram. Opx, orthopyroxene; cpx, cli-
nopyroxene; amp, amphibole; plg, plagioclase; bio, biotite; K-feld, K-feldspar; hb,hornblende; gt, garnet; zr, zircon; ol,
crystallization process of the tonalites is also visible in
Sm-Rb and Y-Rb variation diagrams (Figures 8(e) and
(f)). A weak effect of amphibole on diorites is also ob-
served. Different from the above-mentioned diagrams,
the 87Sr/86Sr-MgO variation diagram demonstrates the
effect of FC on diorites and the effect of source con-
tamination/mixing (SC/M) on tonalites (Figure 8(g)).
In addition to all these data, the ratios among the
highly incompatible elements are used in petrogenetic
processes, such as partial melting and fractional crystal-
lization. For example, Zr/Y is not greatly affected by
fractional crystallization in basaltic system, but it changes
S. Kürüm / Natural Science 3 (2011) 750-767
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. OPEN ACCESS
during partial melting [46]. In case of a low melting de-
gree, the Zr/Y rate is high. This finding corresponds to
the changed rate of Y, which is higher than Zr. Accord-
ingly, Zr/Y rates in the samples (Figure 9) markedly
show that the partial melting processes changed during
the formation of rocks. This change can be clearly ob-
served between tonalites and diorites. Tonalites are also
influenced by different melting degrees. Rocks have dif-
ferent Fe contents, depending on the differences in their
mantle source compositions. As a result, high Fe content
and Zr/Y rate indicate high pressure or low melting rates
during magma formation processes.
Aside from the field data on the presence of MME and
syn-plutonic dykes in Keban magmatics, the existence of
special textural properties, such as skeleton structure in
the minerals, oscillator zoning, and acicular apatites,
indicates the mixing of mantle and crustal magma [47].
This interaction between acidic and intermediate-com-
position rocks emerges from the different distributions of
the elements in the geochemical data (Figures 8(a)-(g)).
In these data, AFC processes were observed in both rock
groups. Therefore, the co-development of crust assimila-
tion and FC is more effective in the crystallization of the
felsic magma.
7.3. Source Characteristics
Ni content is an important indicator of whether the
source material in the plutonic rocks is primitive or de-
pleted mantle. Low Ni content (5.9 - 19 ppm) in Keban
magmatics demonstrates that the source material is not
primitive mantle but depleted mantle melt that under-
went significant fractional crystallization [48]. The dio-
rites seem entirely derived from the mantle in the Na2O-
K2O diagram (Figure 10(a)), whereas it is generally con-
centrated in the region of depleted mantle in the
Zr/Yb-Nb/Yb diagram (Figure 10(b)). The diorites also
demonstrate a passage to the E-MORB. The same dia-
gram demonstrates that the tonalites are concentrated in
the E-MORB region, whereas the Sm/Yb-Ce/Sm dia-
gram (Figure 10(c)) shows that the diorites are in
MORB, and the tonalites are in the interaction site of
MORB-OIB. This kind of concentration can be created
by subduction zone enrichment or crust contamination
Crustal interaction is evident in the Rb/Y-Nb/Y and
Ba/La-Ce/Pb diagrams (Figures 10(d) and (e)). Further-
more, the effect of subduction is apparent in the Th/Yb-
Ta/Yb (Figure 10(f)) diagram used in magmatic petrol-
ogy [53]. The FC effect is also visible in this diagram.
Although Keban magmatics generally display MORB
property in the diagrams (Figures 10(a)-(f)), they also
show eastern Hebei granulites, compositional property of
arc volcanites, and classic continental sedimentary in the
Figure 9. Distribution of the Zr/Y-(La/Yb)N diagram for
the Keban magmatic rocks. Normalizing values [38].
Ba/Nb-La/Nb diagram (Figure 10(g)). This effect is due
to enrichment of the mantle material by the upper crust
sediments before partial melting.
As previously mentioned, a clear indicator of the ef-
fectiveness of crustal contamination is the increase in
Rb/Sr and K2O/P2O5 depending on SiO2 (Table 2) [55].
However, this indicator should be considered together
with AFC and partial melting [56].
The high values of some element ratios, such as Ba/Nb
(diorite = 20 - 112; tonalite = 40 - 151) and Zr/Nb (dio-
rite = 19 - 39; tonalite = 26 - 226; Table 2), in Keban
magmatics, which are observed to have similar composi-
tional properties with the mantle wedges in some of the
diagrams presented, denote that these rocks were sub-
jected to mantle-derived depletion [57]. The La/Nb ratios
used to differentiate between asthenospheric and litho-
spheric mantle sources are higher than 1 (La/Nb > 1) in
sub-continental lithospheric mantle sources and lower
than 1 (La/Nb < 1) in asthenospheric mantle sources.
La/Nb value > 1 in all the samples (1.4 - 5.9) is another
indicator of the lithospheric mantle property of these
rocks [58]. However, some researchers suggest that rela-
tive depletion, especially in Nb and Ta, could be caused
by the interaction between the sub-continental litho-
spheric mantle and the asthenospheric melt [59].
Similarly, frequent modification of sub-continental
lithospheric mantle caused by dehydration in the sub-
duction zone and its sediment content [38] causes rela-
tive depletion of Ti, Nb, and Ta and the enrichment of Ba.
The remarkably negative anomaly of Nb and Ti in Ke-
ban pluton diorites and tonalites indicates that apatite and
Fe-Ti oxides play an important petro-genetic role in the
formation of rocks [60].
These data on magma origin show that Keban mag-
matics were formed from a single source. However, in
this petro-genetic process, the two rock groups were de-
veloped by FC, AFC, and magma composition processes.
Accordingly, they were formed in two different phases.
S. Kürüm / Natural Science 3 (2011) 750-767
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Figure 10. (a) Na2O vs K2O, PRB: batolites of the arc-magmatism in the subduction zones. PFB: lower crust of
fractional—crystallization granitoides. M-type: subfield derived-mantle granitodes [49]. (b) Zr/Yb vs Nb/Yb and (c)
Sm/Yb vs. Ce/Sm [50]; (d) Rb/Y VS Nb/Y [51]; (e) Ba/La vs Ce/Pb [52]; (f) Th/Yb vs. Ta/Yb; (g) Ba/Nb vs.
La/Nb plots of the rock samples from the Keban magmatic rocks.
S. Kürüm / Natural Science 3 (2011) 750-767
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Crustal interaction and hybrid magma textures in to-
nalites are indicative of this.
In the samples, 87Sr/86Sr in diorites/quartz diorites is
0.704, which shows that this magma formed from an
isotopically derived lithospheric mantle. The tonalites,
with values of 87Sr/86Sr = 0.705 - 0.706, are derived from
the mixing of the upper mantle material of the same
properties. Typical mafic and magma originated from the
lower crust.
7.4. Geodynamic Interpretation
In many studies conducted in the region, various tec-
tonic models have been suggested for the tectonomag-
matic units in southeast Anatolia. One premise is that the
Neotethyan oceanic was closed in the late Cretaceous era
[24]. However, in this model, the existence of the plat-
form carbonates (Malatya-Keban) and arc-type intrusive
rocks such as Baskil granitoids is difficult to explain [7].
Another suggestion is that southern Neotethyan was
closed in middle Miocene [61]. Some authors suggest
that the closing of the southern Neotethyan was com-
pleted with the emplacement of ophiolites in late Creta-
ceous [7,62-65]. Despite these controversies related to
the closure of the Tethyan oceanic basin and its relevant
formations, the tectonomagmatic/stratigraphic units in
the southeast Anatolia orogenic system are undisputable:
metamorphic massifs (Malatya-Keban platform carbon-
ates), SSZ ophiolites (Göksun, İspendere, Kömürhan, Gule-
man), ophiolite-related metamorphic rocks (Berit meta-
ophiolite), and granitoides (Göksun, Doğan şehir, Baskil).
All granitoids in this belt are intruded into metamor-
phosed platform carbonates and ophiolites.
Keban magmatics, which have volcanic-arc magma-
tics characteristics (Figure 11), are in harmony with all
these granitoids in terms of petrographic, chemical, and
radiogenic isotope ages and geologic positioning. There-
fore, in the regional scale, they must be discussed within
the context of the Malatya-Keban platform and Baskil
arc magmatics.
Keban magmatics, which widely crop out between
Elazığ and Keban, represent two different phases in the
composition of diorites/quartz diorites and tonalites. The
two units show subduction zone VAG and I-type grani-
toid properties as well as different K-Ar amphibole ages
of 84 - 85 Ma in diorites/quartz diorites and 60 - 75 Ma
in tonalites. According to the age data on Keban mag-
matics, rocks with acidic composition have been intruded
later than the basic ones. These results are in accordance
with the field data.
Major and trace element variations indicate the effect
Figure 11. Rb (ppm) vs Y + Nb (ppm) geotectonic discrimina-
tion diagrams for the Keban magmatic rochs. Syn-COLG, syn-
collisional granitoids; WPG, within-plate garnitoids; VAG, vol-
canic-arc granitoids; ORG, ocean-ridge granitoids.
of mineral fractionation during the formation of both
rock groups, especially fractionation of plagioclase, horn-
blende, pyroxene, and olivine, aside from apatite and
Fe-Ti oxides.
The enrichment in LIL elements, as observed in the
tonalities, can be explained by the enrichment of mantle-
derived magmas by crustal contamination [66]. Very
strong negative anomalies of Ti and Nb in tonalites are
apparent, whereas those in diorites only deplete Nb. This
feature confirms that aside from the similarity with the
subduction zone series, diorites may also be mantle de-
In light of all the data, this pluton can be inferred to be
composed of diorites, which developed in the pre-colli-
sion environment. These plutons are formed by a man-
tle-derived mafic magma source and tonalites derived
from the mantle and crust developed in the post-collision
environment. The tonalites are affected by the mafic and
felsic magma mixture formed by the magma melting the
crust during its injection into the crust or its ascent
through the crust.
The frequent modification of the sub-continental litho-
spheric mantle caused by dehydration in the subduction
zone and the subduction sediments causes a proportional
depletion in Ti, Nb, and Ta and enrichment in Ba. The
strongly negative anomalies of Nb and Ti in diorites and
tonalites in the Keban pluton can be considered indica-
tors of subduction sediments, as observed in the dia-
grams. The negative Ti anomaly indicates that apatite
and Fe-Ti oxides petrogenetically play an important role
in the generation of this magma.
According to the petrographic, geochemical, and ra-
diogenic isotope data, Keban magmatics have petro-
graphic, geochemical, geochronologic, and geotectonic
S. Kürüm / Natural Science 3 (2011) 750-767
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. OPEN ACCESS
characteristics similar to Göksun-Afşin, DoğanşehirPolat-
Begre, and Baskil-Pertek granitoids located in the South-
east Anatolia orogene region [1-8].
I am indebted to Prof. Durmuş Boztuğ, Dr. Orhan Karsli and Dr. Er-
han Akay for reading and correcting the manuscript.
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