Int. J. Communications, Network and System Sciences, 2009, 7, 583-591
doi:10.4236/ijcns.2009.27065 Published Online October 2009 (
Copyright © 2009 SciRes. IJCNS
A Scalable Architecture Supporting QoS Guarantees Using
Traffic Engineering and Policy Based Routing in the
Priyadarsi NANDA1, Andrew SIMMONDS2
1School of Computing and Communications, Engineering and IT
University of Technology, Sydney, Australia
2 Mathematics, Compu ting and Technology, the Open University, England, UK
Received February 25, 2009; revised April 10, 2009; accepted June 21, 2009
The study of Quality of Service (QoS) has become of great importance since the Internet is used to support a
wide variety of new services and applications with its legacy structure. Current Internet architecture is based
on the Best Effort (BE) model, which attempts to deliver all traffic as soon as possible within the limits of its
abilities, but without any guarantee about throughput, delay, packet loss, etc. We develop a three-layer policy
based architecture which can be deployed to control network resources intelligently and support QoS sensi-
tive applications such as real-time voice and video streams along with standard applications in the Internet.
In order to achieve selected QoS parameter values (e.g. loss, delay and PDV) within the bounds set through
SLAs for high priority voice traffic in the Internet, we used traffic engineering techniques and policy based
routing supported by Border Gateway Protocol (BGP). Use of prototype and simulations validates function-
ality of our architecture.
Keywords: QoS, BGP, Policy Based Routing, Traffic Engineering, Bandwidth Broker (BB)
1. Introduction
The success of the Internet has brought a tremendous
growth in business, education, entertainment, etc., over
the last four decades. With the dramatic advances in
multimedia technologies and the increasing popularity of
real-time applications, end-to-end Quality of Service
(QoS) support in the Internet has become an important
issue, which in this paper we address using Traffic En-
gineering and Policy Based Routing using BGP (Border
Gateway Protocol), the core routing protocol of the
The Internet can be considered as a connection of
Autonomous System (AS) domains, where each AS do-
main controls traffic routing in their own domain based
on their own policies. These policies are defined to bene-
fit the AS domain without consideration of other AS
domains, which may result in policy conflicts while es-
tablishing a flow to achieve a certain degree of QoS on
an end-to-end basis. Traffic Engineering concerned with
resource allocation mechanisms has been widely studied
[8,11–13] and also by us with a proposal for an inte-
grated architecture bringing routing and traffic engineer-
ing along with resource management to support end-to-
end QoS in the Internet [1]. The novelty of our scheme is
mapping traffic engineering parameters into QoS paths
available in the network and using policy routing to
support end-to-end QoS. This is discussed in terms of the
architecture of Figure 1 in Section 2 and how our
schemes can be used to achieve some well known QoS
objectives such as Delay, Throughput and Packet Delay
Variation (PDV) for high priority voice traffic in the
Internet. We conducted simulations to validate our re-
We introduce our architecture in Section 2 in order to
guide the reader in understanding where traffic engi-
neering and policy routing are used. In Section 3 we
highlight the use of a Bandwidth Broker (BB), which is
also part of our proposed architecture, to manage inter-
domain resources. Section 4 discusses our traffic engi-
neering model reflecting the objectives for end-to-end
QoS. Policy routing using Border Gateway Protocol
(BGP) is presented in Section 5. Simulation results to
validate our model are discussed in Section 6 and finally
our conclusion is given in Section 7.
2. An Integrated Architecture
In order to achieve a better service oriented model for the
Internet, we propose a three layer policy based architec-
ture for the Internet. The main functions of the architec-
ture are presented in Figure 1.
One of the key components of our architecture is to
separate out the control plane from the data forwarding
plane by hierarchically grouping network management
In this architecture, layer 3 end-to-end QoS, would be
responsible for policy based routing and traffic engi-
neering to dynamically provision bandwidth between
different domains. Having determined the route, the layer
3 policy agent would inform the layer 2 of the preferred
route. This route provisioning provides a connectivity
overlay on top of the normal IP routing, such that if the
route from Domain A to Domain B changes at the IP
layer it is not necessary to change the overlay routing.
The fall back position for a null layer 3 is that routes will
be statically provisioned between individual domains so
as to carry the flow to the destination domain.
Layer-2, Network Level QoS. The management unit in
this layer is a Bandwidth Broker (BB) [2,3,14]. This in-
terfaces to layer 1 and 3 devices, but also supports in-
ter-domain resource control functions in cooperating
with BBs in neighboring domains. Note that the policy
function is an add-on to the BB function, i.e. with a null
policy to accept everything, BBs can support end to end
QoS, but any domain which wishes to implement net-
work policies can do so to its benefit without affecting
the functionality of the BB layer.
Figure 1. Logical view of the architecture.
The inclusion of null policies and layers is important
to enable a gradual take-up of these tools in the Internet.
It is not necessary for all domains to implement all levels
before anything can work. We present the prototype of
our BB design in Section 3 of this paper.
Layer 1, Device Level, is where network devices are
configured to support the QoS levels agreed on in the
higher levels, getting their instructions from higher lay-
ers in the architecture. One possible QoS mechanism
being Differentiated Services (DiffServ) (RFC 2475)
with Common Open Policy Service (COPS) [13] (RFC
2748, RFC 3084) and being used for signaling. Units in
this layer are network devices such as routers and
switches and the operation is purely intra-domain.
3. Bandwidth Broker (BB) Design
The conventional definition [2,3] of a Bandwidth Broker
(BB) is an agent, running in an Autonomous System
(AS), which manages resources within its own domain
and with adjacent BB domains, to provide Quality of
Service (QoS) support for traffic flows across multiple
domains. BBs use hop-by-hop based routing to negotiate
with other BBs (the inter-domain function) to provide
agreed levels of service for selected traffic flows. Flows
getting this preferential treatment will normally be ex-
pected to pay more, and this is expected to be a driver in
sharing Internet resources as well as providing a revenue
stream for Internet Service Providers (ISPs).
A BB controls the network devices in its own domain
(the intra-domain BB function) which provide QoS func-
tionality, such as routers and switches. Note that for
scalability it is best if the core routers have as little to do
as possible apart from forwarding packets, so there
should be no interaction between a BB and the core
routers. As no particular QoS mechanism is linked to the
BB function, different domains can run different QoS
mechanisms if they choose. As long as BBs can commu-
nicate with each other and agree on common definitions
for the level of service required by different priority
flows, then a consistent level of QoS support can be set
up across different domains for a particular flow. When a
new request for a particular QoS arrives, BBs pass the
request from one to another, such that if resources are
free all along the chain from source to destination then
the request is allowed, else it is rejected.
We developed a prototype for a simpler BB architec-
ture and signaling protocol which we believe can be im-
plemented easily. A BB is a resource manager, the re-
source often being taken as simply bandwidth (BW), as
in our prototype, but it could be high quality (e.g. low
delay or low jitter or low loss links), buffers, or even low
cost, low quality links. The six traffic classes we use for
sake of example, in descending priority with binary val-
ues for the DiffServ field [15], are:
Copyright © 2009 SciRes. IJCNS
1) Network traffic – 11100000 (used for BB signaling)
2) Expedited Forward (EF) - 1011 10xx (used e.g. for
3) Assured Forward Gold (AFg) - 0111 10xx, AF33
4) Assured Forward Silver (AFs) - 0101 10xx, AF23
5) Assured Forward Bronze (AFb) - 0011 10xx, AF13
6) Best Effort (BE) - 0000 00xx, default
RFC 2597 [16] defines the Assured Forward “Olym-
pic” Per Hop Behavior (PHB) classes and RFC 3246 [17]
the EF PHB class. A drop precedence of 3 was chosen
for the AF values for compatibility with the deprecated
TOS field of the IP packet header, giving flag settings for
(D = 1) low delay, (T = 1) high throughput, and (R = 0)
normal reliability.
The resources monitored in our implementation are
simply additive, but statistical multiplexing could be
used to carry more paying traffic over reserved links, as
[18] suggests. Our current implementation is open loop,
that is available resources are entered in a database (DB)
and the BB subtracts resources from the available total as
requests are granted, and adds resources when flows fin-
ish. Eventually the aim is to have closed loop control, by
deploying a resource discovery mechanism to actually
measure queue length, etc., e.g. as proposed by one of us
using Fair Intelligent Admission Control (FAIC) [19].
The design philosophy we chose is one we believe is
consistent with the design philosophy of the Internet:
where we faced a design choice we chose the simplest
solution, and we implement a minimum function set
which can then be extended to provide added functional-
4. Traffic Engineering Issues
An important objective of Internet traffic Engineering is
to facilitate reliable network operations by providing
proper QoS to different services through mechanisms
which will enhance network integrity and achieve net-
work survivability. The objective of traffic engineering
measures in our architecture is to achieve load balancing
between neighboring ASs using BGP parameters. By
doing so, the architecture then optimizes resource utiliza-
tion across multiple links, maps divergent QoS parame-
ters to the paths which can support end-to-end service
qualities, and avoids congestion hot-spots across the
In our architecture we used BGP routing to send traffic
between domains. But BGP routing policies are not de-
signed specifically to address traffic engineering issues
in the Internet. Instead, they are designed to support
routing policies determining network reachability be-
tween ASs. Obtaining a globally optimized routing path
in the Internet is a difficult task due to different policy
requirements. Our aim to achieve a scalable solution is
based on the following assumptions while incorporating
traffic engineering into the architecture:
1) The use of community attributes in policy routing to
add extra policy information into the BGP path an-
nouncements, enabling traffic engineering to map dif-
ferent QoS parameters to the available paths computed
using policy routing.
2) That load balancing traffic with different policies
across multiple available routes to the same destination is
performed only when the policy co-ordination algorithm
for a specific path fails.
Hence our proposed traffic engineering solution can be
stated as parameter mapping to different QoS paths
available in the Internet, using a policy co-ordination
algorithm to resolve any policy conflicts between differ-
ent ASs while selecting a QoS routing path. In order to
be more specific on the issue of parameter mapping, we
identified three important parameters related to real-time
services such as VoIP application:
a) Bandwidth: When different bandwidth capacities
are available in different AS domains for a specific pol-
icy in an end-to-end QoS path, the BW allocated is the
BW of the AS with the minimum available BW. This
minimum bandwidth also needs to satisfy the perform-
ance requirements for VoIP traffic in order for the path
to be selected.
b) Delay: Two components of end-to-end delay are
important for VoIP traffic: delay due to codec processing
and propagation delay. ITU-T recommendation G.114 [4]
recommends one way delay values less than 150 ms for
most user applications, 150 to 400 ms for international
connections, with more than 400 ms deemed to be unac-
ceptable. ASs can indicate end-to-end delay in their own
domain between edge routers. Hence, complete end-to-
end delay for a QoS path would be the sum of all the
delays offered by individual AS provided that the sum
satisfied the delay requirements specified by G.114. An
AS receiving the path announcement along with the de-
lay value from its neighbor adds its own delay and then
announces the sum to other ASs further along.
c) Packet Delay Variation (PDV): as it is now prop-
erly called rather than jitter, affects real time services,
e.g., voice and video traffic. For non real-time voice and
video traffic PDV can be removed by a buffer in the re-
ceiving device. However if the PDV exceeds the size of
the PDV buffer, the buffer will overflow and packet loss
will occur. PDV is caused by queuing and serialization
effects on the packet path, and is defined by the IETF
(RFC 3393) as the difference in delay between succes-
sive packets, ignoring any delays caused by packet loss.
The one-way delay being timed from the beginning of
the packet being sent at the source to the end of the
packet being received at the destination. To clarify fur-
ther, if consecutive packets leave the source AS domain
with time stamps t1, t2, t3, …, tn and are played back at
the destination AS domain at times t1’, t2’, t3’, …, tn’,
Copyright © 2009 SciRes. IJCNS
Maximum PDV = Max {Abs [(tn’ - tn-1’) - (tn -
tn-1)], …, Abs[(t2’ - t1’) - (t2 - t1)]} = Max {Abs [(tn’ -
tn) - (tn-1’ - tn-1)], …, Abs[(t2’ - t2) - (t1’ - t1)]}
PDV can also be signed, where a positive PDV indi-
cates that the time difference between the packets at the
destination is more than that at the source, and
Hence, while mapping QoS parameters such as band-
width (BW), Delay (d), and PDV (j) for a specific QoS
path, traffic engineering considers the following, where 1
i k are the ASs involved in the end to end path:
BW = Min {BW1, BW2, … BWk}
Delay = Sum (d1, d2, … dk)
PDV = Max{Abs (j1, j2, …. , jk)}
And minimizing cost over all the announced path
would be given by:
Min [C1|P1 – A1 | + C2 |P2 – A2 | + … Ck|Pk – Ak |],
where P is the required policy parameter, A is the an-
nounced value of the policy parameter by a neighbor
which exported the path and C is the cost associated with
these parameters which determines the weight for them.
Such costs are important to consider when different ASs
have different QoS objectives to satisfy a given Service
Level Agreement (SLA) for their customers. In a stan-
dard traffic engineering problem, the aim is to minimize
the maximum utilization of links, whereas in our archi-
tecture it is to maximize the number of AS domains
which support the above mentioned constraints. Hence
traffic with different policies can be distributed among
those paths, improving overall traffic engineering objec-
tives by using the traffic engineering framework of Sec-
tion 4 and the policy routing of Section 5.
4. Traffic Engineering Framework
The framework is based upon the fact that ASs must
communicate with their neighbors to get a fair picture
about which relationships they must hold with them in
order to apply specific traffic engineering policies in
their respective domains. At the same time, ASs must
also protect themselves against route instabilities and
routing table growth which may otherwise occur due to
misconfigurations or problems in other ASs. Manually
configuring routing will of course achieve optimum re-
sults if the routing is configured optimally. However,
Internet routing is complicated so manually configuring
routing will not achieve optimal routing in practice, and
misconfigurations may well cause catastrophic failure to
the Internet. Hence we seek an automatic solution. The
components of our traffic engineering framework are
presented in Figure 2.
The middle layer (network layer QoS) of our architec-
ture presented in Section 2 has the necessary compo-
nents for including network policies in traffic engineering.
Figure 2. Framework of traffic engineering.
AS relationships play an important role supporting QoS
in the Internet. But obtaining data on such relationship is
a difficult task, as ASs such as ISPs may not reveal such
data to their competitors. Hence we propose to use a
measurement based approach where an ISP ranks ASs
based on the frequency of their presence in the routing
table. A heavily used AS in the path list is one where
some kind of traffic engineering should be applied if
selected for next hop forwarding. For example the deci-
sion of selecting local preference is very much local to
an ISP in order to balance its outgoing traffic (selecting
the path to forward packets to the next ISP). On the other
hand, an AS which is used less frequently is less con-
gested and has a better chance of providing QoS re-
sources [5].
Traffic Engineering Mapper (TEM) has a repository
that holds AS relationships and the hierarchy for inter-
connectivity between various ASs. TEM is responsible
for directing those relationships to the Attribute Selector
as well maintaining a list of those attributes once selected.
Because the routing table holds information regarding
import and export policy filters, as well the attributes
associated with them, TEM also investigates their valid-
ity in the AS routing base. One of the export rules based
on the business relationship between ASs is for the TEM
to enforce the provider to send all routes (customer as
well as provider routes) that the provider knows from its
neighbors. Alternatively, TEM could ensure that peer or
provider routes are not sent when sending routes to an-
other provider (i.e. just send customer routes). TEM is an
essential component of traffic engineering framework.
Finally, the decision on traffic engineering is taken by
the Load Balancing module which receives necessary
inputs regarding which attributes are to be applied and to
which paths they must be applied. The policy database
holds policy information regarding how the AS may
change routing for its own domain. Also included in the
policy database is information on a list of remote ASs
which are also customers of this AS, and pricing struc-
tures imposed by the SLAs of its providers. Such infor-
mation is given to the load balancing module which then
Copyright © 2009 SciRes. IJCNS
takes a final decision on traffic engineering. The process
is the same for both importing and exporting a route be-
tween neighboring ASs.
Several efforts on finding solutions to BGP based traf-
fic engineering and AS relationships have been explored
in the past [6–9]. While the authors described some
drawbacks of BGP in the first instance and then proposed
their schemes on better management of BGP for traffic
engineering, our approach is different as we consider the
relationship between ISPs as a central issue in defining
necessary traffic engineering policies for the Internet,
and add a community policy attribute to BGP to solve
this issue. Hence our proposal builds on BGP to provide
a solution. Policy routing using BGP is presented in the
following section of this paper.
5. Policy Routing
Routing protocols play an important role in exchanging
routing information between neighboring routers. Such
information may be used to update routing tables and to
share information about network status so that traffics to
appropriate destinations will be set up quickly, effi-
ciently and achieve the required QoS between end sys-
tems. Different types of routing protocols are in wide-
spread use across the Internet. Apart from determining
optimal routing paths and carrying traffics through the
networks, these routing protocols should have additional
functionalities such as resource discovery, policy map-
ping and policy negotiation mechanisms to support net-
work policies, traffic engineering and security.
BGP is a path vector protocol that uses AS path in-
formation between neighboring routers in different AS
domains to determine network reachability. Such net-
work reachability information includes information on
the list of ASs and the list of AS paths. One of the im-
portant features supported by BGP is policy routing,
where an individual AS can implement network policies
to determine whether to carry traffic from different users
(mostly users from other ASs) with diverse QoS re-
quirements. Such network policies are not part of BGP,
but provide various criteria for best route selection when
multiple alternative routes exist and help to control re-
distribution of routing information, resulting in a rich
support by BGP for policy routing and traffic engineer-
ing in the Internet.
Current Internet Traffic Engineering depends heavily
on both Intra and Inter Domain routing protocols using
network policy in order to configure the routers across
various domains. The support for policy based routing
using BGP can provide source based transit provider
selection, whereby ISPs and other ASs will then route
traffic originating from different sets of users through
different connections across the policy routers. Also QoS
support for Diffserv networks can be supported using
policy routing through the use of the DiffServ field in the
IP packets. Hence, a combination of traffic engineering
for load balancing across network links offered by desti-
nation based routing, and policy based routing, can en-
able implementation of policies that distribute traffic
among multiple paths based on traffic characteristics.
Policy routing in the Internet can be based on the fol-
lowing principles:
1) Each AS to take action on routing based upon in-
formation received from neighbors. Such decision proc-
ess is central within each AS.
2) Neighbors are free to negotiate any policy conflict
by adjusting their traffic parameters and waiting for con-
firmations from all the domains involved in routing.
3) Incorporation of a direct relationship between net-
work level flow management and traffic engineering
Routing traffic across several routers in the same do-
main to support QoS between the edges of the network is
relatively easy to achieve, as we can gather knowledge
on QoS paths and select edge routers administrated by a
single network entity. But inter-domain QoS path selec-
tion is difficult to achieve and to demonstrate how we
can approach such a problem, we present the policy
routing framework in Figure 3. We assume that the in-
tra-domain QoS path computations are already optimized
based on the local knowledge of intra-domain routing
protocol and this information is already stored in layer-2
of our architecture.
Standard BGP routing process involves applying an
import policy onto routes received from neighbors, de-
ciding the best route based on BGP routing decision
process [10] and then applying export policy to the
computed routes before announcing to neighbors. Such a
process does not take all policy decisions into account,
particularly while computing the routing paths in support
of QoS in the Internet. The inter-domain route selector
which is central to the routing module within an AS do-
main receives path announcements from the neighbors
through the inbound route announcement. Apart from
applying standard BGP decision process on selecting
certain route advertisement from its neighbor, the route
Figure 3. Interaction between routing components for pol-
icy based routing.
Copyright © 2009 SciRes. IJCNS
selector needs further consultation for QoS path selection
by interacting with the following components:
It is important to decide which types of neighbor (e.g.,
provider, customer or peer) the route advertisement
came from and based on that, the AS will then decide
whether to announce the path to its neighbor. Such
relationships are held in a policy database which then
inputs the information to the route selector.
The route selector gets path information within its
own domain by communicating with the intra-domain
QoS path repository. Actions such as changing values
for LOCAL_PREF, MED, IGP Cost, and Pre-pending
AS_PATH results in directing incoming traffic to a
specific edge router.
The decision process also needs to consider which
QoS policies are supported by the AS domain which
sent such path announcements. For this, each AS,
which can support different policies in relation to QoS
services (e.g., Premium, Gold, Silver, Bronze), adds a
“COMMUNITY” policy attribute along with the path
In case of policy mismatch i.e., advertised policies by
neighbor does not match with the AS’s own policy,
the route selector will apply “policy co-ordination al-
gorithm” (Subsection 5.1) to resolve such conflict.
Finally routes selected by either the route selector
without any policy mismatch, or applying policy co-or-
dination algorithm in case of any policy conflict, are fur-
ther announced to ASs through outbound route an-
nouncement. The announced route is stored in the AS’s
inter-domain routing table.
5.1 Policy Co-Ordination Algorithm
An algorithm performing such functions is presented
Get list of policies from neighbor
For each neighbor policy {
Compare policy support with own policy list
If match {
Set values and put policy in End-to-End (E-E) list
Else (no match) {
Tag policy as non-confirmed and put policy in
Temp list
} (All policies checked)
For all policies in the Temp list {
Check if another route satisfies policy constraints
If match {
Set values and put policy in E-E list
} (End the process of policy comparison)
Else (no match) {
For all policy mismatch {
Adjust own policy and apply traffic engineering
parameters for new policy
Select the ones which contribute to maximum
Announce all paths to neighbors in the list
} Set values and put policy in E-E list
} (End the process of policy adjustment)
} (Temp list emptied)
Finally in order to validate our algorithm and func-
tional models, we conducted a series of experiments us-
ing OPNET based simulation to take into account the
effect of traffic engineering and policy routing which are
presented in the next section of this paper.
6. Simulation Results
In order to validate our algorithm and functional models
we performed a series of experiments and obtained vari-
ous statistics from the simulation. The topology and the
default routing paths between customers A, B and C are
presented in Figure 4 below:
A-B , A-C and B-C
As presented in Figure 4, the network is created by
configuring all default values into the devices and net-
work reachability test is performed to ensure end-to-end
connectivity between each AS domains in the network.
Once these are performed, based on routing table entries,
we performed our analysis on how BGP paths are re-
corded between different AS domains without any policy
but with its default routing decision process. The com-
plete network diagram is presented in Figure 5 below
which also presents end-to-end connectivity between all
the domains.
Our second scenario in Figure 6 demonstrates the ef-
fect of our proposed policy mechanism compared with
the base-line scenario in Figure 4. The end-to-end path
between customers now have different routes as a result
of policy enforcements across all the AS domains.
Figure 4. Simulation topology and default routing paths.
Copyright © 2009 SciRes. IJCNS
Copyright © 2009 SciRes. IJCNS
Figure 5. End-to-end netw ork configuration.
Figure 6. End-to-end path using policy.
The results show effect of our proposed Community
attribute for selecting specific QoS domains using BGP
routing process between end nodes. Such a scheme not
only balances traffic distribution across inter-domain
links but also fine tunes traffic engineering for better
provisioning of QoS between end domains. However, the
scheme does increases complexity in BGP decision
process due to extra information involving the commu-
nity attribute.
Traffic was generated from a G_711 interactive voice
source with duration of 1 hour and several experiments
were conducted to demonstrate the quality of voice traf-
fic on an end-to-end basis. We assigned a DSCP value of
B8 (EF=184) to the VoIP traffic which is then mapped to
a BGP community value of 0x00640184 to ensure voice
quality is maintained strictly between end domains. A
series of graphs representing QoS parameters for VoIP
applications are presented through Figure 7 (a-d).
While sending QoS aware applications in the Internet
such as VoIP, we are mainly concerned about maintain-
ing delay budget within the limit set for QoS assurance.
The plots in Figure 7 (a-d) represent Packet Delay Varia-
tion (defined as jitter by OPNET), end-to-end delay,
variance of the end-to-end delay and BGP updates, av-
eraged over a 10 minute period for the scenario with
policy routing enabled on all the routers running BGP.
The actual VoIP traffic starts after 2 minutes and is de-
liberately set to make sure that BGP timer values are
taken into account.
In our experiment, plot (a) demonstrates the variation
in packet end-to-end delay (PDV) and shows that it is
kept to low bounds (-0.3 μs to +0.1 μs), in spite of acti-
vating multiple QoS and routing policy configurations
across the whole network. The PDV is influenced by
packet scheduling and queuing strategy implemented
across the routers (layer-1 functions) in order to support
QoS within and across various domains. PDV is reported
as the maximum absolute time difference between the
instances when successive packets are received at the
destination minus the time difference between the in-
stances when these packets are sent at the source, aver-
aged over 10 minutes, which is equivalent to the IETF
definition assuming constant packet processing times at
the destination.
The end to end delay for VoIP traffic is maintained at
a value 50.4 ms (plot b), well within the SLA of 150
ms, while PDV converges to less than 0.1 μs (Plot a).
Plot c shows that the variance of the end-to-end delay
falls to less than 1.75 μs after 5 min. This is confusingly
defined as Packet Delay Variation (PDV) by OPNET,
but we will use the IETF definition for PDV.
Plot d presents number of BGP updates. In our simula-
tion the access router in Customer_A network (Cus-
tomer_A_AR) is the one where most policies related to
load balancing and traffic engineering are enforced. For
this reason we collected the BGP updates sent by this
router which contains either new routes or unfeasible
routes or both in the system. In our case this access
router sent 43 updates at 69 s due to strong policy en-
As shown above, voice traffic sent between Cus-
tomer_A network and Customer_C network experienced
QoS parameters well within our design limits. However
these parameters could be further improved by carefully
selecting other QoS strategies within individual domains.
7. Conclusions
In this paper we demonstrated the effect of Internet traf-
fic engineering and use of policy routing to achieve
end-to-end QoS for high priority Voice traffic, in the
context of our high level architecture of Figure 1. We
also presented simulation results to demonstrate how we
achieve automatic load balancing between different ser-
vice providers using a BGP community policy attribute
and the policy co-ordination algorithm of Subection 5.1.
(a) Packet delay variation (b) End-to-end delay
(c) End-to-end delay variance (d) BGP updates at Customer_A_AR
Figure 7 (a-d) VoIP QoS measurement.
This is substantially different from the default routing
which does not select the AS domains based on QoS
requirements for an application. Such results are evi-
dence that our scheme improves end-to-end QoS re-
quirements for high priority voice traffic particularly
when many other applications are running simultane-
ously in the Internet.
The objective of our design is how BGP can be used to
select QoS domains for QoS support. For this reason we
are mainly concerned with AS domain traffic behavior
contributing to policy routing and traffic engineering.
8. References
[1] P. Nanda and A. J. Simmonds, “Policy based QoS sup-
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