Chinese Medicine, 2011, 2, 93-102
doi:10.4236/cm.2011.23016 Published Online September 2011 (
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. CM
Observations on Traditional Phytotherapy among the
Inhabitants of Lahaul Valley through Amchi System of
Medicine—A Cold Desert Area of Himachal
Pradesh in North Western Himalayas, India
Parveen Kumar Sharma1, Surender Kumar Thakur, S. Manuja, R. K. Rana, Pardeep Kumar,
Sanjay Sharma, Jagdish Chand, Ashok Singh, Krishan Kumar Katoch2
1Krishi Vigyan Kendra Lahaul and Spiti, Kukumseri, India
2Chaudhary Sa rw an Ku ma r H i machal Pradesh Kri shi Vishvavidy alaya, Palampur , In d ia
Received April 1, 2011; revised April 20, 2011; accepted May 5, 2011
The paper highlights the Phyto-diversity and indigenous uses an ecosystem existing in Lahaul Valley of
tribal district of Lahaul and Spiti in Himacjhal Pradesh, India. This is one of the most preferred tourist spot
especially for foreigners. The cold desert area of India is known for its specific topography, sense climate
and unique vegetation. The valley is rich in high value medicinal wealth and local inhabitants (Buddhist)
practice the Tebetan Amchi System of Medicine. Keeping in view the continuous pressure on nature, this
paper reflects the Phyto-diversity of Valley, with reference to medicinal and aromatic plants and conserva-
tion mechanisms to protect the valuable wealth of the valley and also suggests effective ecotourisim planning
of the study area.
Keywords: Diversity, Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Ecotourisim, Lahaul Valley, Indigenous Uses,
Tebetan Amchi System of Medicine
1. Introduction
Twenty one year ago the word did not know about the
biodiversity. Today, it is one of the most commonly used
expressions in the biological sciences and has become a
household word. During the National Forum on Biodi-
versity held at Washington DC, w.e.f. September 21-24,
1986, under the auspices of the National Academy of
Science, Smithsonian Institute, the word spread like fire
throughout the world. In the Rio Environmental Summit
in 1992, biodiversity dominated the central issues of sci-
entific and political concern worldwide. At global level
about 16,04,000 species of plants, animals and micro-
organisms have been described so far. However, it is
estimated that there are around 17,98,000 species. Of the
total species, 4,22,000 flowering plants reported from the
world, of which > 50,000 species are used for medicinal
The high altitude Himalaya is rich in endemic plants
[1]. The increasing potential threat to biological diversity
ia an irreversible environment disorder that warrant im-
mediate remedial measures for sustainable conservation
of biodiversity. It is believed that the excessive anthro-
pogenic activities are the main cause of decline in popu-
lation and availability of medicinal and aromatic plants
in the Himalayan region [2-5]. The fast pace of tourism
in high altitudinal areas are another important factor
causing the damage of bio-diverse ecological system [6].
Himalaya is one of the mega biodiversityregion of
world [7]. The north western Himalaya consist unique
habitats to sustain several endemic and rare plant taxa.
The vegetation comprises evergreen forests with pure
stands of Pinus roxburghii, Pinus wallichiana, Quercus
spp., Cedrus deodara, Abies pindrow, Picea smithiana,
Taxus wallichiana and Juniperus spp. in dry temperate
and alpine regions representing various species composi-
tion make the valleys rich in phytodiversity.
The cold desert area covers 35 per cent of the total
geographical area in Himachal Pradesh. A review of lit-
erature indicates very few studies on medicinal & aro-
matic plants and ethnobotany of tribal valley/area of La-
haul and Spiti district of Himachal Pradesh [1,8-13].
2. Materials and Method
2.1. Study Area
The present study has been carried out in Lahaul valley
of Himachal Pradesh. The Lahaul valley lies between
31˚44'57'' and 32˚59'57''N latitude and 76˚46'29'' and
78˚41'34''E longitude. It is surrounded by the main Hi-
malayan ranges on the North mainly Baralacha Pass, the
mid Himalayan range or Pir Punjal on the South, the
Kunjum range which separates Lahaul from Spiti on the
East and the off-shoot of the Pir Punjal range on the
West. In its West, the Chenab river flows into Pangi val-
ley, while in the North-East the Yunan river flows into
Zanskar. The Rohtang Pass (3978 m), the gate way to
valley, connects Lahaul to Kullu district. The valley can
be approached through Rohtang Pass (3978 m) by road
to Lahaul from Kullu, Kunjum Pass (4740 m) road to
Lahaul from Spiti, Baralacha Pass (5019 m) road to La-
haul from Leh, Kugti Pass (5043 m) partially by road and
on foot, and Drati Pass (4725 m) by foot journey from
Chaurah-Chamba to Lahaul.
The distinctive features of the valley are snow covered
peaks, massive glaciers, view of bleak, sunny, higher
mountain ranges and narrow river valleys. The valley
represents few prominent lakes such as Chandratal, Sura-
jtal, Sissutal and Neelkant along with many glaciers.
Andrew Wilson denoted this valley as a “Valley of Gla-
ciers” [14]. High mountains, water falls, Buddhists Gom-
pas, Hindu Temples and trekking places are some of the
attractions for tourists. The inhabitants belong to Hindu
and Buddhist community.
The district contains 41 Panchyats. The total area of
the district is 13,835 km2, out of which 1,35,369 hectares
are under Forests and 4459 hectares are under cultivation.
The whole area of Lahaul is divided into four valleys
namely, Pattan Valley, Myar Valley, Todh Valley and
Tennan Valley. In the valley soil is more or less loam to
sandy loam with gravel. In the vicinity of villages and
nearby, denuded slopes are subjected to concentrated
year round grazing; hence the soil is equally poor. On the
northern aspects, in folds and hollows as also on easier
slopes, the soil is fairly deep and fertile for tree growth.
It is therefore, the best forests in the valley are on the left
bank of the Chanderbhaga River.
Due to melting of snow, the soil from the upper slope
is carried down to the lower slopes where the depth of
the soil is deeper. At present, soil in this tract is patrtillay
protected by the vegetation. The climate of the area is
dry temperate to alpine types and has distinct seasons.
The summer is rainless due to high mountains. The rainy
season receive very less rainfall. The winter season is
comparatively a large i.e., from late November to early
April. During this period, heavy snow fall occurs in the
The Lahaul valley is also known for its unique faunal
diversity. Some of the prominent wild animals and birds
are Ibex (Capra ibex), Bharal (Psueudois nayaur), Snow
Leopard (Panthra uncia), Musk Dear (Moschus chry-
sogaster), Ghoral, (Nemorhaedus goral), Himalayan
Marmot (Marmota bobak), Wild Yak (Bos grunniens),
Himalayan Snow Cock (Tetragallus himalayensis), Hi-
malayn Snow Pigean (Columba leuconota), Crow (Cor-
vus caurinus), Chukor (Alectoris chukar), Bar-headed
Goose (Anser indicus), Snow Pigeon (Columba leu-
conota) and Himalayan Snow Cock (Tetraogallus hima-
Man has been utilizing plant resources for various
purposes since the time immemorial. The documentation
of traditional knowledge would appear to be the “need of
the hour” in view of the current demand for herb based
products. Documentation serves to ensure the preserva-
tion of traditional information for future generations. It is
also a step forward in the creation of a database on eth-
nobotanical notes. An attempt therefore, has been made
here to document the indigenous uses of some important
medicinal and aromatuic plants of Lahaul; Valley.
2.2. Surveys and Data Collection
The Lahaul valley has been surveyed under an adhoc pro-
ject funded by National Medicinal Plant Boards (NMPB)
Govt. of India, New Delhi during 2008-2010 to generate
information on indigenous uses of medicinal plants from
the inhabitants. Information on medicinal plants was col-
lected through Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA). After
interaction, the inhabitants were interviewed for utilization
of medicinal plants and aromatic plants, mode of admini-
stration, occurrence in the area, etc. in different valley of
the Lahaul valley.
3. Results
3.1. Treatment by Animal Parts
The amchies keep in their medicine bags animal organs
like; dog or wolf tongue, antelope horns, snake flesh
rabbit heart and bile of beer and tiger etc. for treatment in
eheumatism, epilspsy and pulmonary and bronchial dis-
3.2. Treatment with Mineral Water
Sulphur and mineral springs in Kullu-Manali and Ladhak
area are frequently used in the treatment of headache and
other diseases of brain.
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. CM
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. CM
3.3. Puncturing of Veins
The treatment consists of pricking the patient body with
specially needles at certain points. Usually this therapy is
uses for treatment of gout, blood and skin disorders.
3.4. Treatment by Mysticism
Treatment by Mysticism (Tantra-Mantra) is with influ-
ence with stars on human destiny. They treat the patient
by looking at the horoscope for their evil and good stars.
3.5. Other Uses
3.5.1. Use of Shilajit as a Single Medicine
Shilajeet is used as a single medicine in old age, for genel
debility and as an approdisiac. The medicine should be
taken on an empty stomach with milk or lukeworm water.
Peas and pigeons are forbidden in the diet while taking
Dose: 8 mg in first week and thereafter 16 mg for 2nd,
3rd, and 4th week. Then the dose is increased by 2mg up to
7 weeks and then it should be maintained.
3.5.2. Other Minerals Used in the Theraphy Are
Sodium Sulphate;
Antimoni Sulphate;
Sodium Bicarbonate;
Yellow Arsenic;
Metals and Bhasmas.
4. Discussion
The present study reveals that there is an intimate rela-
tionship between the inhabitants of Lahaul valley, par-
ticularly native people and plants of their surroundings.
During field studies, it was noticed that a vast treasure of
hidden knowledge is lying with them especially with the
old people living in the valley. A wide range of ail-
ments/diseases ranging from common cold & cough to
asthma, bronchitis, liver, stomach, heart, kidneys, and
cuts and wounds to snakebites are treated by the tradi-
tional healers of the valley (Amchies) with the help of
local plant remedies.
In total, 354 species of medicinal and aromatic plants
belonging to 208 genera and 76 families were recorded
from the Lahaul valley [15-17]. Out of the total 79 plant
species of medicinal and aromatic plants belonging to 37
families and 64 genera have been discussed in the pre-
sent paper which are used to cure more than two diseases
(Table 1). The population of Aconitum heterophyllum
(Critically engangered), Picrorhiza kurrooa and Rheum
emodi (Engangered) and Begenia stracheyi and Rhodo-
dendron anthopogon (Vulnerable) according to IUCN
categoirization are very low.
Most of the plant species are in the altitudinal ranges
Table 1. Diversity, distribution and indigenous uses of some important medicinal plants and aromatic plants occurring in
cold desert area of Lahaul valley.
Taxa/Family Local name
Altitudinal range
(m) Herb/Shru
b/Tree Parts used Indigenous uses
Allium carolinianum DC. Keor, Jimboo 3300 - 4000 H Leaf and bulbs
Stimulant, diuretic, given with milk after
delivery); Soup making regarding the
treatment of stomach infections.
Angelica glauca Edgew. Chaura 2700 - 3510 H Roots
It is beneficial in restoring kidney heat
and treating anemia, debility, lung dis-
eases, stomach disorders and fluid reten-
sion in the joints.
Bunium persicum B. Fedtsch Kalagira 2760 - 3700 H Seeds
Abdominal pain, cold, cough, fever, loss
of appetite, back pain, liver problems,
dysentery in domestic animals and also
used as condiment.
Carum carvi L. Gonyorog,
Shingu Jeera 2700 - 3650 H Seeds It is used to alleviate the disorders of the
lungs. Also used in eyes ailments.
Chaerophyllum aromaticum L. Shakkara 3000 - 3400 H Roots
Used against Indigestion;
Roots along with mint leaves are acts as
flavor agent.
Ferula jaeschkeana (L.) Vatke Bakhyot ,
Kalyash 2600 - 3400 H Roots and
Used for pain of chest, backache despon-
dency, fatigue, rheumatism and poultices.
Heracleum candicans Wall. ex
DC. Dundu, Raswal 2690 - 3660 H Rhizomes
It is used to treat inflammation and pain
caused by vulnerable fever, checks haem-
orrhage and abdominal cramps caused by
the intestinal worms. It is also beneficial in
treating leprosy.
Selinum vaginatum (Edgew.) Cl. Matosal 2710 - 3630 H Rhizomes
It is used to treat Cough, asthma, hysteria,
nurvus tonic, sedative, incense, spices,
local liquor, antibacterial, analgesic.
Achillea millefolium L. Chabu,
Shugumentog 2700 - 3600 H Flowering part
It is used as Carminative, tonic, stimu-
lant, toothache, cough, cold, insect repel-
lent and diaphoretic.
Arctium lappa L. Pichawag 3200 - 3420 H Roots It treats Gastric, burns; burs used for re-
pelling rodents.
Artemisia biennis Willd. Karkatang,
Khampa 2510 - 3950 H Whole herb Used against obesity.
A. dracunculus L. Chamary,
Burtse 2500 - 4000 H Whole herb
Acts as Carminative for animals, throat
infection, toothache and in menstrual
A. maritima L.
Seski, Nyurcha,
Nyurchi, Sensi
2600 - 3800 H Whole herb
Tonic used to remove abdominal para-
sites, anthelmintic, antiseptic, blood puri-
fier, gastric disorder; Edible bunch grass
used for storing the boiled water after
sprinkling the sattu or roasted barley
A. nilagarica (Cl.) Pamp. Chirmara 2990 - 3490 H Whole herb
Abscess, analgesic, anthelmintic, antisep-
tic, antispasmodic, asthama, ear com-
plaints, epilepsy, haemostat, headache,
menstrual complaints, nervous disease,
peptic ulcer, skin disease, sores, stom-
achache, tonic, vermifuge, wounds.
Cichorium intybus L. Khibsha 2710 H Seeds
Used to treat Fever, headache, vomiting,
diarrhoea, joint pain, also act as blood
Cousinia thomsonii Cl.
Bacha Chawag,
2720 - 4000 H Whole Herb Cure body pain, swelling due to sprain,
Echinops cornigerus DC. Chawag 2500 - 3500 H Whole Herb
Used to cure Cold, cough, promote teeth
of infants, fever, urinary trouble, tonic,
septic, food poisoning.
Inulu racemosa Hk. Mano 2600 - 3500 H Roots
It is used to treat Asthma, blood purify,
stomach disease, rheumatism, liver com-
plaint, fever, headache.
Jurinella macrocephala (Royle)
Aswal Dhoop Above 3700 H Roots
Roots are Antiseptic, used to cure fever
during child birth, laxative, skin erup-
tion); Religious (incense in temples).
Senecio graciliflorus (L.) DC. Zerjum 3200 - 3800 H Whole Herb Used as Antidote against insect bite, ring
worm disease, pussed ear.
Sonchus oleraceus L. Panu Aag 2640 - 3830 H Latex Used to treat jaundice and liver com-
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. CM
Taraxacum officinale Wigg.
Quanti, Sarkhen
Mentok, Dudhi
2710 - 3800 H Whole Herb
Used as bandage of cuts, headache, fever,
liver, kidney, chronic disease of the di-
gestive organs, cure jaundice, inflamma-
tion of the liver, loss of appetite, food
poisoning, antibiotic, tonic, blood puri-
fier, hepatitis, migrains, foreheads); Reli-
gious; Musical instrument; Temporary
tattooing of hands.
Betula utilis D.Don Bhojpatra, Shag,
Bhuj 3000 - 4000 T Bark and other
aerial parts
Curing redness in eyes antiseptic, antiseptic,
burns, cuts, contraceptive, ear complaints,
hysteria, jaundice, spermicidal, Wounds.
Arnebia euchroma Royle ex
Khomig 2650 - 4000 H Roots
Act as Abortifacient, hair tonic, also used
to treat blood pressure, backache, head-
ache); dye.
Onosma hispida Wall. ex G. Don Kaume 3410 - 3550 H Roots and
Used as blood purifier, cuts, swells, ulcer,
wound); Religious; (lamma people use
the pink dye for lamistic ceremonies).
Codonopsis clematidea
(Schrenk) Cl. Golchokpa 2800 - 3500 H Flower and
Used to treat Rheumatism, swelling due
to sprain, and skin disease.
C. ovata Benth. Golchokpa 3400 - 3600 H laeves Medicinal (Oxytoxic, wound).
Cannabis sativa L. Bhang, bang 2600 - 3500 H Seeds, Leaves
and Stem
Used to cure appetite, bowel complaints,
bronchitis, cuts, dyspepsia, ear, eye com-
plaints, gonorrhoea, narcotic, piles, skin
disorder, skin eruption, cold, cough, con-
vulsions, cramps, epilepsy, laxative, ner-
vine stimulant, paralysis of tongue, sleep-
ing pills Miscellaneous (local shoe: Pula
is prepared).
Rhodiola heterodonta (Hk. &
Th.) A. Boriss. Churupa 2900 - 4000 H Aerial part Used to treat Cough and lung infections.
Chenopodium botrys L. Sokann,
Sanyek 2500 - 3550 H Aerial part Used to treat Gastric disorder, Gall blad-
der, liver diseases.
Juniperus communis L. Petada, Shukpa,
Dhup 2500 - 4000 Sh Entire herb
It is useful against treating Kidney disor-
der, malfunctioning of kidney, liver,
bladder, heart disease, nervous disorder,
oilfrom barriers inhaled as vapors, or
taken in the form of pills, dropsy mucous
discharge, antibiotic for animal, repel
flies); Fuel; Religious (smoke purifier,
against evil sprits, leaves dipped three
times in arak or chang as a mark of cele-
J. polycarpos Boiss. Shur, Leyur 2500 - 4000 T Entire herb
Oil is used as antibiotic for animal, repel
flies, nervous disorder, stomach cramp);
Fuel; Timber; Religious (incense, smoke
purifier, leaves dipped three times in arak
or chang as a mark of celebration, against
evil sprits.
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. CM
Dioscorea deltoidea Wall. ex
Kunth Kinsh 2490 - 3000 H Tubers Tubers are Source of diosgenin, a ster-
oidal sapogenin, oral contraceptive pills.
Hippophae rhamnoides D. Don Sarla 3100 - 3600 T Fruits and barkIt is beneficial in treating diseases of the
lungs, blood coagulation and blood cysts.
H. salicifolia D. Don Sarla 3100 - 3600 T Fruits and bark
Used ty treat Cuts, ulcer, wounds, cough,
fever, dandruff of hairs and skin disease);
Edible; Fuel; Fodder; Small timber; Ag-
ricultural tools.
Ephedra gerardiana Wall. ex
Kiok, Buchchur,
2500 - 3900 Sh Stem and
It is a rejuvenating agent and is useful
against the treatment of haemorrhage,
gall bladder, liver, spleen and all kinds of
initial and chronic fevers.
Cicer microphyllum Benth.
2600 - 3800 H Whole herb Used to cure mouth disease tongue infec-
tion, jaundice.
Corydalis govaniana Wall. 2700 - 3600 H Whole herb
Used against excess formation of impure
blood. Also used for drying up excess pus
formation in lungs and visceral organs.
Herb is also used to heal ruptured wounds
and fractured bones.
Swertia cordata (G. Don) Cl. 2700 - 3600 H Whole herb Used in treatment of hot disorders of the
gall bladder.
Geranium nepalense Sw. Laljari,
Gajaljhar 2900 - 4000 H Roots Used to treat Cuts, jaundice, toothache,
ulcer, wounds and stomach complaints.
G. pratense L. Porlo 2800 - 4000 H Whole herb Used as Naksur, black dye, stomach trou-
ble, jaundice, gastric disorder.
Hypericum perforatum L. - 2500 - 2900 H Whole herb
Used in inhancement of immunity, cures
malarial fever, anti-depressant, anti-tumou-
rous, anti-cancerous, anti-viral.
Iris kemaonensis D. Don ex
Royle Praynal 3000 - 3900 H Whole herb Medicinal (Epilepsy, fever, toothache).
Juglans regia L. Akhrot, Ka,
Kaboot 2500 - 3000 T
Branches and
Fruit-coat & bark is useful for teeth clean-
ing, skin diseases, anthelmintic, astringent,
toothache, fungicide, insecticides.
Ajuga bracteosa Wall. ex Benth. Karku,
Neelkanthi 2600 - 3200 H Whole herb Used to treat Malarial fever and tonic for
gastric problems.
Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds. Takchi, Marini,
Madaen 2700 - 3600 H Whole herb Used as carminative, digestive, on wound
to kill maggots.
Origanum vulgare L. Lamay masha,
Massow 2700 - 3600 H Whole herb Used to cure bronchitis, colic, diarrhoea,
bath to ladies after child birth.
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. CM
Thymus linearis Benth. Kochi masha 2730 - 3800 H Whole herb
Used as Antifungal, antibacterial, pain
reliever during childbirth to mother, whoop-
ing cough, epilepsy, skin eruption, reduce
excessive bile secretion, juice, alopecia or
hair loss, spices phlegm counter spasmodic
pains, stomach complaint, cold, toothache,
kill hookworms, liver compliant, heating
Polygonatum cirrhifolium
(Wall.) Royle 3050 - 3120 H Whole herb
It restores body strength and is useful in
the treatment of pain in kidneys and waist
region, fluid retension in joints and im-
P. verticillatum L. 2500 - 3650 H Whole herb
Used to cure Appetite, Nervine tonic,
kidney trouble and also restores body
Malva sylvestris L. Sotsal 3100 - 3600 H Flowers Used against treatment of Stomach cramp
and whooping cough
M. verticillata L. Mikanchi 2700 - 2990 H Whole herb
It is used to treat dropsy, thrists, diarrhea,
infected sores and dilates all vessel in the
Dactylorhiza hatagirea (D. Don.)
Soo Hathpanja 3000 - 3400 H Tubers
Used as Antibiotic, wound healing, bone
fracture, cough, cold, cuts, sexual disabil-
ity, rheumatism, blood purifier, tonic, many
ayurvedic and unani medicine preparations
Oxalis corniculata L. 3000 - 3300 H Whole herb
Used to cure Appetite, corns, cuts, dy-
santery, fever, jaundice, rickets, scurvey,
stomachache, swelling, wart, cataract, con-
Meconopsis aculeata Royle Chharbongcha,
Chharmen 3200 - 4000 H Whole herb It is effective against the disorder of
lungs, liver and inflammation.
Plantago depressa Willd. Maran 2610 - 3410 H Whole herb It stops diarrhea and also beneficial in
treating fevers.
P. major L. Karecha 2600 - 3450 H Whole herb
Used against the treatment of Fever,
cough, gastric disorders and other stomach
Podophyllum hexandrum Royle
2500 - 3700 H Entire herb
It is used for gyaecological diseases like
menstrual irregularity, diseases of uterus.
Also improves blood circulation, helps in
Bistorta affinis Greene Chunru, Kapad 2700 - 4000 H Entire herb Cures diarrhoea, check flatulence and
also check dysentery
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Rheum australe Spreng. Archo 3015 - 3910 H Entire herb
It purges epidemic diseases and also
beneficial in treating indigestion and fla-
Rumex nepalensis Spreng. Napchati 2500 - 3700 H Entire herb
Helps in treating Boils, colic, cooling,
diuretic, dymenorrhoea, purgative, scur-
vey, swelling of muscle, stomachache.
Androsace rotundifolia Hardw. Zigsolo marpo 2730 - 3400 H Entire herb Reduces excess serous fluid, fever, wound
in the body and sudden swelling.
Primula denticulata Sm. 3100 - 3840 H Entire herb It is useful in treating wounds, psoriasis
and warts.
P. rosea Royle 3510-4000 H Entire herb It is useful to cure muscular pain.
Aconitum heterophyllum Wall. ex
Bonga, Atees
Boa 2900 - 3600 H Roots
It is an antitode against snake and scorpion
bite and treats infectious fever. Also useful
in treating intestine infections.
A. violaceum Jacq. ex Stapf Dudatees,
Jhimba 3600 - 4000 H Roots
Used to cure cough,
gastrointestinal complaints, renal pain,
rheumatism and stomachache.
Anemone rivularis Buch.-Ham. Chutrak 3100 - 3560 H Entire herb
Restores digestive heat of the stomach.
Also useful in treating indigestion, tumors
of cold nature, helas infected wounds.
Delphinium cashmerianum Royle
3000 - 4000 H Entire herb
It ius used against frequent occurrence of
common cold and feverb due to poisoning,
helps to cure sking deseases.
R. hirtellus D. Don
2750 - 3500 H Entire herb It stops diarrohaea, dries pus of wounds
and useful in treatment of lice-infestation.
Thalictrum minus L. Mobje-dung 3200 - 3400 H Entire herb Used against inflammation, turbid fever,
unripe fever and diffused fever.
Fragaria vesca var. nubicola L. Palla 2500 - 4000 H Fruit and inflo-
It reduces ous accumulated in the lungs
and chest and also helps in treatment of
inflammation of nerves.
Rubia cordifolia L. 2500 - 3200 H Stem and root
It is effective against blood related prob-
lems, fever diffused from the kidneys and
intestinal fevers.
Bergenia ligulata Haw. Sternb. Silpayi 3400 - 4000 H Roots and
Used against Asthma, boils, cuts, wounds,
burns, fever, liver complaints, ophthalmia,
piles, thirst, kidney stones, urine com-
plaints and diarrhoea of cattles.
B. stracheyi Hk. & Th. Silpayi 3300 - 4000 H Rt, Lf
Cures Kidney stone, poultice, stiff joint,
diuretic, antiscorbutic, astringent, fever,
opthalmia, tonic, cuts, wounds); Edible.
Pedicularis bicornuta Klotzsch
ex Klotzsch Lugru serpo 3500 - 3800 H Aerial Part
It is useful in treating liver and gall bladder
problems, excessive seminal discharge,
oedema and hangover.
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. CM
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. CM
Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex
Benth. Karu 3400 - 4000 H Entire herb
It is useful in treating Anemia, arthritis,
asthma, bitter tonic, cardiotonic, cold,
dyspepsia, diarrhoea, influenz, diuretic,
fever, hepato protective, indigenous sys-
tem of medicine, jaundice, liver trouble,
stomach, laxative, pure circulation blood,
neck pain, internal wound, large dose asca-
Verbascum thapsus L.
Jawarna Loudi,
2500 - 3900 H Entire herb
It is useful in curing Asthma, cough,
diarrhoea, dyesentry of sheep, poultice,
skin disease, narcotic, fish poisoning, ear
infection, dye.
Hyoscyamus niger L. Bazerbangh 2600 - 3630 H Entire herb
It subsides pains cused due to pathogen
diseases, toothache, pharyngitis and also
used in treating malignant ulcers.
Equisetum arvense L. Khin 2800 - 3560 H Ashes of plants
It acts as Diuretic haemostatic, properlic-
kidney, dropsy gravel affection, acidity,
*H-herb; Sh-Shrub; T-Tree.
from 2800 to 3800 m above the mean sea level. It was
observed that the developmental activities like; contruc-
tion of roads, dams and hydropower units had brought
rapid change in local environment, old culture, mindset
of the native people and also threatened to existing flora
and flauna of the valley.
The occurrence of near endemic, endemic, critically
endangered, endangered, vulnerable, near threatened and
threatened species indicated high anthropogenic pressure
and that area has high conservation value. Most of these
species are commercially viable. Mass reproduction for
ex-situ conservation and to ensure availability of quality
planting material for cultivation, together with education
and awareness programmes for large-scale cultivation are
suggested. The old people still says that the superstition is
the best way to conserve this valuable wealth.
5. Acknowledgements
Help of forest officials of Lahaul valley is duly ac-
knowledged. Thanks are due to the inhabitants for shar-
ing important information regarding the use of plants.
The authors are grateful to National Medicinal Plant
Board, Govt. of India for providing financial assistance
through a project.
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