 Energy and Power En gi neering, 2011, 3, 525-532 doi:10.4236/epe.2011.34064 Published Online September 2011 (http://www.SciRP.org/journal/epe) Copyright © 2011 SciRes. EPE Improvement of Free Convection Heat Transfer Rate of Rectangular Heatsink on Vertical Base Plates Hamid Reza Goshayeshi1, Mahdi Fahiminia1, Mohammad Mahdi Naserian2 1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran 2Young Researchers Club, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran E-mail:{Goshayshi, Mmahnas}@yahoo.com, MFahiminia@Gmx.com Received December 21, 2010; revised February 4, 2011; accepted February 28, 2011 Abstract In this paper, the laminar heat transfer of natural convection on vertical surfaces is investigated. Most of the studies on natural convection have been considered constantly whereas velocity and temperature domain, do not change with time, transient one are used a lot. Governing equations are solved using a finite volume ap-proach. The convective terms are discretized using the power-law scheme, whereas for diffusive terms the central difference is employed. Coupling between the velocity and pressure is made with SIMPLE algorithm. The resultant system of discretized linear algebraic equations is solved with an alternating direction implicit scheme. Then a configuration of rectangular fins is put in different ways on the surface and heat transfer of natural convection on these surfaces without sliding is studied and finally optimization is investigated. Keywords: Natural Convection, Vertical Surfaces, Simple Algorithm, Rectangular Fins 1. Introduction This document is a natural convection is observed as a result of the movement of fluid because of density changes which is caused by heating process. A radiator used for warming the house is an example of practical equipment for heat transfer of natural convection. The movement of fluid, whether gas or liquid, in natural convection is caused by buoyancy force due to density reduction beside to heat transfer's surfaces in heating process. When the domain of an exterior force such as gravity, has no effect on the fluid then will be no buoy-ancy force and heat transfer will be in the form of con-duction. But gravity is not th e only force causing natural convection. When a fluid is confined in the rotating ma-chine, centrifugal force is exerted on it and if one surface or so, with more or less temperature than that of the fluid are in touch with the fluid, natural convection flows will be experienced. The fluid which is adjacent to the verti-cal surface with constant temperature, and the fluid tem-perature is less than the surface temperature, a velocity boundary layer forms the natural convection. The veloc-ity profile in this boundary layer is completely different with the velocity profile in forced co nvection. Th e veloc-ity is zero on the wall due to lack of sliding .Then the velocity goes up and reaches its maximum and finally is zero on the external border of velocity boundary layer. Since the factor that causes the natural convection, is temperature gradient, the heating boundary layer appears too. The temperature profile has also the same value as the temperature of wall due to the lack of particles slid-ing on the wall, and temperature of particles goes down as approaching to external border of temperature bound-ary layer and it would reach the temperature of far fluids. The initial boundary layer enlargement is laminar , but in the distance from the uplifting edge, depending on fluid properties and the difference of temperature of wall and the environment, eddies will b e formed an d movement to turbulent zon e will be started. Today being mor e aware abou t energy sources’ limita-tions and also increase demand for energy consumption from one side and considerable waste of energy in heat-ing systems from the other side , have caused the socie-ties to investigate on energy systems and find solutions for reducing energy dissipation from these systems. There are many appliances in engineering in which two environments with different temperatures are separated by a wall or a thin surface. The wall on one side is get-ting warm and on the other side is making it is beside fluid warm. Heat transfer between the two environments and the temperature of the wall, depends on the shape of the boundary layers on the wall surfaces. The amount of H. R. GOSHAYESHI ET AL. 526 temperature on the wall will reach a balance of the tem-perature of both environments. Since the boundary layer of one side makes the boundary layer of the other side they are called conjugate boundary layers. Although a lot of investigations have been done on natural convection heat transfer, the data the effect of geometrical complexes on natural convection heat trans-fer has many deficiencies. Jofre and Barron have gathered some data on natural convection heat transfer, which the fluid is air, on the vertical surface with some swells in the shape of triangle ribs . They concluded that at RaL = 109. The average Nusselt number is increased 200% compared to the av-erage Nusselt of turbulent flow achieved by Ekertand Jackson. Of course if the fact is considered that the flow on the flat surface is not turbulent on the entire surface, and the data are compared with upstream flow that is assumed laminar flow, the results show 100% increase as compared to the recent one. We can say that this big dif-ference is caused by the lack of attention to the correct way of radiation heat t ransfer  . Bhavnani and Burgles  after several experiments proved that making special changes on vertical surfaces (horizontal little fins) reduces heat transfer in the natural convection heat transfer process. This conclusion can cause changes in the ways of insulating heat repelling surfaces and in this respect is of great importance. On the other hand we face many practical technologies causing natural convection heat transfer on the fins vertical sur-faces. This matter is more obvious in the electronic cir-cuit in which segment duty cycle is highly effected by the duty cycle. Rebert, Green, Chapman and others have offered five important advantages of algorithmic solving method [4,5]. Numerical solution of the governing equa-tions of boundary zones for vertical surfaces has been done by Helus and Churchil and step changes of surface temperature has been achieved . Most of the works  in this field are true for low Prandtl and in high Prandtl, computing errors ca n not be negl igible. Although th ere are many articles about forced conv ec-tion gas flow on vertical surfaces, there are quantitative researches done about natural convection flow on sur-faces with rectangular fins. In this paper, a complete nu-merical solution including developing and developed enlarged hydrodynamic and heating parts is presented to analyze natural convection flow on the extended vertical surface. 2. Numerical Modeling For analyzing the above mentioned matter, first the dif-ferential equation of the movement of this layer should be achieved. So y axis is on the horizon and x axis is erected vertically on the surface As in Figure 1. 2dimen- tional flow is considered with physical properties, fixed wall temperature, more than the entrance free flow tem-perature. So upward flow is produced by buoyancy force in top of the surfaces. Two ends of the surface are open towards the environment with free flow temperature. Compressibility effect in the free flow with low velocity taken here can be negligible, and just laminar flow re-gime can be considered . Density conversion caused by temperature changes are exerted in buoyancy force is done by boussinesq approximation. The equation of con- servation of mass, momentum and the energy for stable and laminar flow is describe d follo w [9 ,1 0] . Continuity Equation : 0.uvxy (1) X-Momentum Equation: 2.xuu puv uBxy x   (2) Y-Momentum Equation: 2 .vvpuv ugxy y   (3) Energy Equation: 22.ppcT cT Tuvxyy  (4) With boundary conditions: Figure 1. Geometry of coordinate system and velocity Boun- dary layer. Copyright © 2011 SciRes. EPE H. R. GOSHAYESHI ET AL.527 000wxuvTTxvTT (5) Assuming that there a re not any parameter changes on x direction, (2) is omitted. Pressure variation on “y” direc-tion is caused by changes in height of the fluid. Out of velocity boundary layer, u, v, and their derivative are zero. .px (6) With putting (5) in (3), we have: 22.   uv yuvxyxg (7) Difference of density can be defined according to Thermal Expansion Coefficient. 1.PT  (8) 1.TT  22.uv yuv TTxyx    (9) Above mentioned equation defines the momentum in natural convection velocity boundary layer, this momen-tum is caused by temperature gradient. Since temperature depends on the velocity and vice versa, momentum Equation (9) and energy Equation (4) should be solved simultaneously. Now considering boundary conditions, temperature a nd velocity distributions are guessed and p ut in equations. Governing equations are solved using a finite volume approach. The convective terms are discre-tized using the power-law scheme, whereas for diffusive terms the central difference is employed. Coupling be-tween the velocity and pressure is made with SIMPLE algorithm. The resultant system of discretized linear al-gebraic equations is solved with an alternating direction implicit scheme . 3. Result In this paper, first, vertical surface is considered, and thenheat sinksare put on the surface. Dimensions, dis-tances between fins, the type of fins and the location they are put in, are considered. The dimensions are considered as shown in Table 1. The mentioned heat sinks have shown in Figure 2. Table 1. Dimensions of the fin configurations. Fin lengthL(mm) Fin width W(mm) Fin thickness t(mm) Base thicknessd(mm) 80 59.8 1 1.4 Fin heighth(mm) Fin spacings(mm) Number of fin n 29.2 2.1 20 29.2 3.9 13 29.2 7.4 8 29.2 8.8 7 29.2 13.7 5 29.2 18.6 4 Figure 2. Fin configuration geometry. The studies on different surfaces show that in fins with low distances, air flow between the fins is fully devel-oped due to boundary layers interference, t and ther efore heat transfer rate is achieved by 1 .c single channelPQmCT (10) 3.sTmH (11) If n = w/s, then, 31.csTWQHkST (12) 31.csTQHkTSW (13) Unlike the previous way, if the fin distances are great, the boundary layer thickness is so much less than the distance between the fins and the space between the fins is like the flow in parallel surfaces in which boundary Copyright © 2011 SciRes. EPE H. R. GOSHAYESHI ET AL. 528 Tlayers have no interference. Natural convection heat transfer from two surfaces of a fin is as follow: 1 .cFinQhA (14) in which heat transfer coefficient is defined as: 134.LT khL (15) If A = H  L, then: 1342.cLT WQkHTs2 (16) 112,ccQsQ s is observed. As it has shown in Figure 3, the investigations show that in the same fin length and height and constant dif-ference of temperature, heat transfer rate first increases with increasing the fins distance, until reaches the maximum point and then decreases. The maximum point is called optimum distance between the fins, is the dis-tance in which there is the maxim um heat transfer. We can have an equation for the optimum distance, by interfering Equations (12) and (16). 14optLSRaL. (17) For dimensionless presentation of the order of magni-tude of optimum fin spacing, the Rayleigh number is employed according to its definition. 3.LLTRa (18) And according to our investigations on mentioned di-mensions the optimum distance equation calculated as follow: 142.91 .optLSRaL (19) As a point of departure for the presentation of heat transfer rates from fin-arrays are plotted as a function of temperature differences as in Figure 4. From these Figures it can also be seen that, at a given fin height and temperature difference, the convection heat transfer rates increases with increasing fin spacing and reaches a maximum. With further increases of fin spacing, heat transfer rate starts to decrease. The occur-rence of this maximum has significant practical applica-tions for optimum performance of fin-arrays. It would be appropriate tomanufacture the fin array with aforemen-tioned fin height and spacing.The values of heat transfer coefficient obtained for an ambient air temperature of 27ºC and plate surface temperatures of 77, 102, 127 and 157ºC app ear in Figures 5-7, As may be seen, the natural Figure 3. Variation of convective rate with base-to-ambient temperature difference at H = 29.2 mm and L = 80 mm. Figure 4. Variation of convective heat transfer rate with fin spacing (fin height 29.2 mm). Figure 5. Natural convection heat transfer coefficients for different heat sinks. Copyright © 2011 SciRes. EPE H. R. GOSHAYESHI ET AL.529 convection heat transfer coefficient increases substan-tially as the gap between fins increases from 2.1 to 18.6 mm, and then flattens out with further increases in gap. The temperature at the upper surface of the heat sink base, the surface exposed to the operating fluid can then be found from (20), knowing the temperature at the bot-tom of the base by thermocouple measurement and the heat flux through the base. .WbpcdTT QkA (20) The heat flux at the base in W/m2 is found with (20), knowing that the exposed base area is 4768 mm2. .ccQqA (21) Finally, the heat transfer coefficient is calculated using (22) and the thermal resistance using (23). .cwqhTT (22) wcTTRQ (23) Refer to (22), (23), thermal resistance has reverse rela-tion to heat transfer coefficient. As in Figure 8, average Nusselt number is increased with increasing average Rayleigh number and at a certain average Rayleigh number, average Nusseltnumber is increased by increasing the distance between the fins. 4. Conclusions From these Figs it can also be seen that, at a given fin height and temperature difference, the convection rates increases with increasing fin spacing and reaches a maximum. With further increases of fin spacing, rate starts to decrease. The occurrence of this maximum has significant practical applications for optimum perform-ance of fin-arrays. It would be appropriate to manufac-ture the fin array with aforementioned fin height and spacing. The values of coefficient obtained for an ambient air temperature of 27ºC and plate surface temperatures of 77, 102, 127 and 157ºC appear in Figure 5-7, As may be seen, the natural convection coefficient increases sub-stantially as the gap between fins increases from 2.1 to 18.6 mm, and then flattens out with further increases in gap. It may be noted that the values shown for a gap of 18.6 mm are within a few per cent of those obtained us-ing a correlation for an individual vertical plate. Figures 9-11 show that, the convective heat transfer rate from fin arrays depends on fin height, fin length, fin spacing and base-to-ambient temperature difference. The Figure 6. Variation of heat flux rate with Average Rayleigh number at H = 29.2 mm and L = 80 mm. Figure 7. Variation of thermal resistancewith heat transfer coefficient. Figure 8. Variation of average nusselt number with average Rayleigh number. convective heat transfer rates from the fin arrays in-creases with fin height, fin length and base-to-ambient temperature difference. The heat transfer rate increases monotonously with temperature difference between fin base and surroundings, Tw-Ta. If the distance between the fins is selected properly, there will be no interference beween boundary layers of two adjacent fins and the t Copyright © 2011 SciRes. EPE H. R. GOSHAYESHI ET AL. Copyright © 2011 SciRes. EPE 530 Figure 9. Variation of temperature contour of the heatsink (s = 3.9 mm). Figure 10. Variation of temperature contour of the heatsink (s = 7.4 mm). Figure 11. Variation of temperature contour of the heatsink (s = 18.6 mm). H. R. GOSHAYESHI ET AL. Copyright © 2011 SciRes. EPE 531 surfaces. For stating the magnitude of fin spacing for having the best convection rates of fins, we choose the- distance between the fins big enough so that the thick-ness of boundary layer is smaller than the distance be-tween the fins and increases without any interfering. 5. References  R. J. Jofre and R. F. Baron, “Free Convection Heat Tr a ns-fer to a Rough Plate,” ASME, New York, 1967.  E. R. Eckert and T. W. Jakson, “Analysis of Turbulent Free Convection Boundary on Flat Plate,” National Aero-nautics and Space Administration, Washington, 1951.  S. H. BhavnAni and A. E. Bergles, “Effect of Surface Geometry and Orientation on Laminar Natural Convec-tion Heat Transfer from a vertical Flat Plate with Trans-fer’s Roughness Elements,” International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 44, No. 1, 1990, pp. 155-167.  P. E. 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GOSHAYESHI ET AL. 532 Nomenclature (List of Symbols) Symbol Quantity Unit A area m2 h convection heat transfer coefficient w/m2k T temperature k Cp specific heat at constant pressure kJ/kgk g gravitational acceleration m/s2 H fin height m k thermal conductivity w/mk L fin length m m mass flow rate kg/s β volumetric thermal expansion coefficient 1/k n number of fins - s fin spacing m t fin thickness m W base plate width m 1.cQ convection rate f rom fins in small-s limit w 2cQ convection rate from fins in large-s limit w cQ convection rate w Ra Rayleigh number - Tw base plate temperature k Ta ambient temperature k ν kinematic viscosity m2/s α thermal diffus ivity m2/s Copyright © 2011 SciRes. EPE