2011. Vol.2, No.6, 568-573
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. DOI:10.4236/psych.2011.26087
Development of a Swedish Version of the Scale of
Ethnocultural Empathy
Chato Rasoal1*, Tomas Jungert2, Stephan Hau3, Gerhard Andersson1
1Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden;
2 Department of Psychology, McGill University, Montreal, Canada;
3 Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
Email: *
Received May 20th, 2011; revised July 3rd, 2011; accepted August 4th, 2011.
The development and establishment of a Swedish translation of the Scale of Ethnocultural Empathy (SEE) was
investigated in a sample of 788 participants. The SEE is a self-report instrument and is used to measure empathy
directed toward people from ethnic cultural groups who are different from the respondent’s own ethnocultural
group. Principal components factor analyses and confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) provided evidence for a
four-factor structure. The factors were Acceptance of Cultural Differences, Communicative Ethnocultural Em-
pathy, Ethnocultural Empathic Awareness, and Intellectual Ethnocultural Empathy. The factors were moderately
intercorrelated, and additional correlational analyses showed convergent validity in high correlations between
the four factors and the two subscales Empathic Concern and Perspective Taking of the Interpersonal Reactivity
Index (IRI). Possible applications of this scale in a healthcare context are discussed.
Keywords: Ethnocultural Empathy, Confirmatory Factor Analysis, Empathy, Explorative Factor Analysis
The word empathy comes from the Greek word empathiea,
which means sensing other people’s reactions and entering their
world (Campbell & Babrow, 2004). Empathy is a profound
human characteristic and a fundamental feature of helping be-
haviour. In the psychological literature, empathy as a personal-
ity trait and as a learned ability has been assessed by quantita-
tive measures (Davis, 1996; Hogan, 1969; Mehrabian & Ep-
stein, 1972). The ability to empathize and identify with others
is essential to all human relationships and can be understood as
a bond that makes social life possible (Hogan, 1969; Eisenberg
& Strayer, 1987). Empathic individuals have a better capacity
to orientate themselves in a variety of interpersonal relation-
ships in their lives, in professional life, and in family life as
well as in contact with people from other cultural and ethnic
groups (Batson & Ahmed, 2001; Hoffman, 2000).
Ethnocultural empathy is defined as empathy directed to-
wards people from racial and ethnic cultural groups who are
different from one’s own ethnocultural group, and is a rela-
tively new concept that has not yet become established in the
psychological literature and theory. Wang et al. (2003) coined
the term ethnocultural empathy from theories on general and
cultural empathy, and operationalized the concept by develop-
ing a scale of ethnocultural empathy. According to them, the
Scale of Ethnocultural Empathy (SEE) is the first measure that
provides support for the theoretical construct of empathy in
multicultural settings. Furthermore, they assume that it is im-
portant to identify measures and afterwards find ways to de-
velop the ability of ethnocultural empathy between different
ethnic groups in order to reduce conflicts and to increase the
level of tolerance, openness, and respect in human relations.
According to Wang et al. (2003), ethnocultural empathy in-
volves four components. 1) Communicative empathy (empathic
feeling and expression), which focuses on concern about com-
munication of discriminatory or prejudiced attitudes or beliefs
as well as emotional or affective responses to the emotion
and/or experiences of people from ethnic groups different from
one’s own. 2) Intellectual empathy, which means the ability to
understand the experiences and emotions of people from dif-
ferent ethnic backgrounds by trying to take their perspective in
viewing the world. 3) Ethnocultural empathetic awareness,
which focuses on the awareness or knowledge that one has
about the experiences of people from ethnic groups different
from one’s own. This awareness of the emotions and experi-
ences of others is particularly related to their experiences of
discrimination or the unequal treatment of different groups. 4)
Acceptance of cultural differences, which means accepting,
understanding, and valuing the cultural traditions and norms of
those with a different background (e.g. understanding why peo-
ple from other ethnic groups like to dress in traditional clothes
or speak in their own language). Wang et al. (2003) based the
SEE on these four components in order to measure the extent of
ethnocultural empathy. The SEE shows acceptable internal
consistency and construct validity. Test-retest reliability ob-
tained from the US sample was high (Cronbachs alpha = 0.91).
In fact, SEE is the first empirical measure to investigate cultural
empathy in multicultural relations (Wang et al., 2003). To our
knowledge the SEE has not been translated and used in other
countries, which would provide further support for the con-
struct and facilitate cross-cultural research.
Swedish society is becoming more ethnically and culturally
diverse (Daun, 1998; Ekblad, Janson & Svensson, 1996; Mle-
kov & Widell, 2003; Rasoal, 2009; Rasoal, Eklund & Hansen,
2010; Rasoal, Jungert, Hau, Stiwne & Andersson, 2009; Svan-
berg & Runblom, 1989). For a long time, Sweden was a coun-
try with a relatively homogeneous population of Germanic
origin, whereas currently approximately 15% of the population
has a non-Swedish origin (Statistics Sweden, 2005). According
to the Swedish Integration Board, it is not uncommon for indi-
viduals of other ethnic groups than Swedish to feel discrimi-
nated by different public authorities, private companies, and
other institutions, such as schools (Integration Board, 2005).
The findings mentioned above imply that Swedish men and
women, who are actively working in Swedish authorities,
companies, and institutions, may show less cultural empathy
towards other ethnic groups than their own. In addition, they
may be less open and show less respect and tolerance for these
groups. By deliberately showing empathy individuals might
increase their capacity to identify and understand other indi-
viduals’ intellectual states, situations, feelings, and motives
(Chang & Bemak, 2002; Ivey, Ivey & Simek-Downing, 1993;
Kuhn, 2001). Batson et al. (1997) showed that when an em-
pathic perspective was established by induction, this was effec-
tive in changing individuals’ attitudes towards stigmatized
groups. However measuring empathy in general would not
adequately portray an individual’s empathy towards persons
who are culturally different (Wang et al., 2003).
In the present study we translated and used the SEE in a
sample of undergraduate students. The aim was to develop and
establish a Swedish version of the SEE and to compare its in-
ternal structure and convergent validity with other constructs
which measure basic empathy. Developing a SEE for Swedish
settings could give a valuable boost to better understanding of
the structure of cultural empathy and thereby make it possible
to measure this ability and apply it in different contexts (e.g.
institutions, healthcare system, etc.) where people come into
contact with individuals from other ethnic backgrounds.
Participants and Procedures
A sample of 799 undergraduate students was drawn from
courses and programmes at Linköping University and secon-
dary schools in Sweden. Measures were administered in person
(11 missing or invalid).The data set used for this analysis con-
sisted of 788 observations. Participants completed the scale in
large groups of 30 to 60 students. There were 553 female (70%)
and 235 male (30%) secondary and undergraduate students.
Their ages ranged from 15 to 47 (M = 24.3, SD = 5.8). Most of
the respondents described themselves as ethnic Swedish (92.8%,
N = 731), 1.4% were ethnic Bosnian, 1.1% were ethnic Finnish,
and the remainder were from other ethnic backgrounds. In the
questionnaire package we asked the participants about their
gender, age, and ethnicity. Participants were assured of their
anonymity and were informed that they were free to withdraw
from the study at any time. Approximately 15 to 20 minutes
were needed to complete the questionnaire package.
The questionnaire package used in this study consisted of
four parts: a questionnaire on demographics, the SEE, and the
two subscales of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index, i.e. Em-
pathic concern, and Perspective-taking (IRI: Davis, 1996). The
SEE is a 31-item forced choice self-report measure that gener-
ates a total score and four subscale scores (Wang et al., 2003).
The subscales reported by the developers of the SEE reflected
the following factor structures: factor 1, Empathic Feeling and
Expression (EFE), consisted of 15 items (e.g. ‘I share the anger
of those who face injustice because of their racial and ethnic
backgrounds’); factor 2, Ethnocultural Empathy Awareness
(EA), consisted of four items (e.g. ‘I feel irritated when people
of different racial or ethnic background speak their language
around me’); factor 3, Acceptance of Cultural Differences (AC),
consisted of five items (e.g. ‘I am aware of institutional barriers
[e.g. restricted opportunities for job promotion] that discrimi-
nate against racial or ethnic groups other than my own’) and
factor 4, Empathy Perspective-Taking (EP), consisted of seven
items (e.g. ‘It is easy for me to understand what it would feel
like to be a person of another racial or ethnic background other
than my own’). In addition, respondents also completed the two
subscales of Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI: Davis, 1996)
Empathic concern (seven items), and Perspective-taking (seven
items) designed to tap two separate dimensions on basic empa-
thy (Davis, 1996). All of the items were listed in random order
and rated on a five-point Likert-type scale (1 = strongly dis-
agree to 5 = strongly agree). The items were phrased both posi-
tively and negatively to offset any potential response bias.
Negatively phrased items were reverse-scored. The question-
naire package consisted of 45 items in total. Scores for the SEE
were obtained by adding up the item scores. Higher scores in-
dicated a higher level of ethnocultural empathy. Integrity of the
Swedish translation was verified by the back translation tech-
nique. Discrepancies in meaning from the original English ver-
sion were noted and the Swedish translation was adjusted by an
assistant professor in social psychology and by experts fluent in
both English and Swedish.
Factor loadings, means, and standard deviations of the four
factor solutions are presented in Table 1.
Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA)
An initial CFA was used to test if the four-factor structure
specified as the four subscales of the SEE (Wang et al., 2003)
would be obtained. We used EQS 6.1 (Byrne, 2006) to specify
the expected factor loadings of the 31 items. The results
showed that these factor loadings failed to validate the original
version of the SEE. Thus, to determine the number of factors, a
principal components analysis with an oblique rotation was
conducted. We used a scree plot in PASW statistics 18, which
suggested retaining four components as in the original version
of the SEE. Moreover, we used the following criteria: four
components with eigenvalues of greater than 1.00 were retained
and items possessing factor loadings of 0.40 or greater were
assigned to each factor. This analysis showed that two items did
not load on any of the four factors. These two items were items
2 (‘I don’t know a lot of information about important social and
political events of racial and ethnic groups other than my own’)
and 4 (‘I know what it feels like to be the only person of a cer-
tain race or ethnicity in a group of people’) of the original ver-
sion of the SEE. They were consequently removed from further
analyses. An additional principal components analysis of the
remaining 29 items was chosen because it resulted in the most
sound factor loadings. The factor structure had four compo-
nents with eigenvalues greater than 1.00 and all items possessed
factor loadings of 0.40 or greater. The total variance of these
four factors was 52%.
A second CFA was then used to specify the factor loadings
obtained in the final principal components analysis. The analy-
sis was twofold, examining the adequacy of the exploratory
principal components analysis and assessing whether this
model would provide a good fit with the data. A maximum
likelihood method and robust independence model in the EQS
program were used to estimate goodness of fit of the new
four-factor model. In this analysis seven indices were used to
assess the goodness of fit of the models: Satorra-Bentler scaled
chi-square, chi-square/df ratio, comparative fit index (CFI; Hu
& Bentler, 1999; best if 0.90 or greater), Bollen’s fit index (IFI)
nd root-mean-square error of approximation (RMSEA; Browne a
Table 1.
Factor loadings, item means, and standard deviations of the Swedish version of SEE.
Item Factor loading M SD
Factor 1: Acceptance of Cultural Differences
5. I get impatient when communicating with people from other racial or ethnic backgrounds, regardless of how well
they speak English. .90 3.321.64
21. I don’t care if people make racist statements against other racial or ethnic groups. .89 3.361.57
26. I share the anger of people who are victims of hate crimes (e.g. intentional violence because of race or ethnicity). .89 3.22 1.57
15. I get disturbed when other people experience misfortunes owing to their racial or ethnic background. .87 3.281.42
8. I don’t understand why people of different racial or ethnic backgrounds enjoy wearing traditional clothing. .82 3.311.44
1. I feel annoyed when people do not speak standard Swedish. .82 3.301.50
7. I am aware of institutional barriers (e.g. restricted opportunities for job promotion) that discriminate against racial or
ethnic groups other than my own. .71 3.111.30
16. I rarely think about the impact of a racist or ethnic joke on the feelings of people who are targeted. .66 3.231.32
10. I feel irritated when people of different racial or ethnic background speak their language around me .63 3.201.35
17. I am not likely to participate in events that promote equal rights for people of all racial and ethnic backgrounds. .63 3.151.30
20. I can see how other racial or ethnic groups are systematically oppressed in our society. .62 3.131.10
Factor 2: Communicative Ethnocultural Empathy
12. I share the anger of those who face injustice because of their racial and ethnic backgrounds. .70 3.840.97
18. I express my concern about discrimination to people from other racial or ethnic groups. .66 3.430.92
22. When I see people who come from a different racial or ethnic background succeed in the public arena, I share their
pride. .58 4.100.83
3. I am touched by films or books about discrimination issues faced by racial or ethnic groups other than my own. .56 3.910.99
13. When I interact with people from other racial or ethnic backgrounds, I show my appreciation of their cultural norms. .53 3.46 0.87
11. When I know my friends are treated unfairly because of their racial or ethnic backgrounds, I speak up for them. .47 4.230.77
30. When I hear people make racist jokes, I tell them I am offended even though they are not referring to my racial or
ethnic group. .46 2.861.15
Factor 3: Ethnocultural Empathic Awareness
25. I am aware of how society differentially treats racial or ethnic groups other than my own. .66 4.230.82
24. I recognize that the media often portray people based on racial or ethnic stereotypes. .57 3.990.91
6. I can relate to the frustration that some people feel about having fewer opportunities owing to their racial or ethnic
backgrounds. .53 4.200.89
27. I do not understand why people want to keep their indigenous racial or ethnic cultural traditions instead of trying to
fit into the mainstream. .44 3.871.04
Factor 4: Intellectual Ethnocultural Empathy
28. It is difficult for me to put myself in the shoes of someone who is racially and/or ethnically different from me. .72 3.291.06
19. It is easy for me to understand what it would feel like to be a person of a racial or ethnic background other than my
own. .71 3.011.15
31. It is difficult for me to relate to stories in which people talk about the racial or ethnic discrimination they experience
in their everyday lives. .58 3.331.04
N = 788; there are 25 items.
& Cudeck, 1993; best if 0.05 or less). A consequence of the
first CFA based on the 29 items was that four additional items
were deleted because the model did not provide a good fit with
the data owing to excessively weak loadings of these four items.
These deleted items were items 9, 14, 23, and 29 of the original
SEE. A final four-factor solution was obtained (see Table 1).
The variance of the factors was initially fixed at 1.0. The
model had good fit with the data, as indicated by the following
indices: Satorra-Bentler scaled 2
= (N = 788) =742, p < .001
χ2/df ratio = 2.5; NNFI= 0.94; NFI = 0.92; CFI = 0.95; IFI =
0.95; RMSEA = 0.05. The first factor Acceptance of Cultural
Differences (11 items) accounted for 28 % of the total variance
(eigenvalue = 7.1). The second factor Communicative Eth-
nocultural Empathy (seven items) accounted for 16% of the
total variance (eigenvalue = 4.0). The third factor Ethnocultural
Empathic Awareness (four items) accounted for 6% of the total
variance (eigenvalue = 1.6), and the last factor Intellectual
Ethnocultural Empathy (three items) accounted for 5% of the
total variance (eigenvalue = 1.2). These four factors are speci-
fied as the four subscales of the SEE (Wang et al., 2003).
To measure internal consistency, we calculated Cronbach’s α
coefficients (see Table 2). The Cronbachs α coefficient for the
Swedish version of the SEE subscales was 0.94, 0.76, 0.62, and
0.71, and for the total SEE it was 0.88, whereas the Cronbachs
α coefficient for the US version of the SEE subscales was 0.89,
0.75, 0.73, and 0.76, and for the total SEE the coefficient was
0.91. Both the Swedish and the US versions of the SEE showed
acceptable levels of internal consistency (Table 3).
Convergent Validity
To measure convergent validity correlation analyses were
performed on each of the four factors and the total SEE scale
scores with the Empathic concern and Perspective-taking sub-
scales of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (Davis, 1996). The
intercorrelations between the factors suggest that the four fac-
tors are somewhat interrelated but still represent distinct con-
structs. There were significant correlations in the low to moder-
ate range for IRI subscales and each factor of the SEE and the
total SEE score (see Table 3).
The aim of the study was to translate the US version of the
Scale of Ethnocultural Empathy (SEE) and develop and estab-
lish a Swedish version. We were interested in determining the
factor solution of a Swedish version of SEE that had the best
goodness of fit with the data, and investigating whether the
SEE is associated with the two subscales Empathic concern and
Perspective-taking of the IRI. We also examined the internal
consistency, and discriminate as well as convergent validity of
the new version of the SEE.
The Swedish factor solution revealed four distinct factors
underlying the scores of the SEE. This four-factor solution was
chosen because it resulted in the most robust factor structure
with stronger item loadings and factor internal consistency and
was the most conceptually interpretable factor structure. The
US version also offered a four-factor solution, but the item
loadings on the factors of the Swedish version were somewhat
different and were adapted to the Swedish context in terms of
the history of immigration, culture, policies on immigration and
integration, and language.
Out of the 31 items of the original SEE, six items were elimi-
nated from the Swedish version. Items 2 and 4 were deleted.
There were three main arguments for deleting them. First, these
two items loaded as a fifth factor of the exploratory principal
components analysis despite the indication by the scree plot
that four factors were the most appropriate and meaningful
Table 2.
Subscale means, standard d ev i a t i o n s and alpha level for US a n d S w e di s h versions of SEE.
Swedish US
Factor Alpha α M SD Alpha α M SD
1 Empathic Feeling and Expression .76 3.7 .60 .89 4.3 0.86
2 Empathic Perspective-Taking .71 3.2 .86 .75 3.4 1.0
3 Acceptance of Cultural Differences .94 3.2 1.13 .73 4.6 0.98
4 Empathic Awareness .62 4.1 .63 .76 4.6 0.99
5 SEE Total .88 3.5 .60 .91 4.2 0.75
Note: The US study was conducted by Wang et al. (2003).
Table 3.
Intercorrelations between s ub s c al e an d t o t al s co r es o f Swedish version of SEE, Interpersonal Reacti vi ty Index (IRI).
Measure 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 (Acceptance of Cultural Differences) --- . 09 . 04 .12** .88** .78** .42**
2 (Communicative Ethnocultural Empathy) --- .49** .35** .38** .27** .32**
3 (Ethnocultural Empathic Awareness) --- .24 .38** .18** .29**
4 (Intellectual Ethnocultural Empathy) --- .41** .19** .30**
5 (SEE Total) --- .78** .55**
6 (IRI Empathic Concern) --- .44*
7 (IRI Perspective-Taking)
ote: SEE = Scale of Ethnocultural Empathy; Subscales of IRI = Davis Interpersonal Reactivity Index.
solution. Second, to define a factor as only two items is not
acceptable. Third, these two items were the only ones that were
phrased as ‘I know’ and it is possible that Swedish respondents
are more cautious about agreeing with such statements than US
respondents. A Swedish respondent who is highly empathetic
and/or is aware of the discrimination that occurs in society
would not claim to know what it is like to belong to an ethnic
minority, because of the Sweden notion that you should be
careful about what you claim to know. An additional four items
(9, 14, 23, and 29) were eliminated when the principal compo-
nents analysis was confirmed in EQS because they did not con-
tribute to an interpretable and strong factor structure with
goodness of fit with the data.
The four factors of the established Swedish SEE are Accep-
tance of Cultural Differences (Factor 1) with 11 items (e.g. ‘I
get impatient when communicating with people from other
racial or ethnic backgrounds, regardless of how well they speak
English’), Communicative Ethnocultural Empathy (Factor 2)
with seven items (e.g. ‘I express my concern about discrimina-
tion to people from other racial or ethnic groups’), Ethnocul-
tural Empathic Awareness (Factor 3) with four items (e.g. ‘I am
aware of how society differentially treats racial or ethnic groups
other than my own’), Intellectual Ethnocultural Empathy (Fac-
tor 4) with three items (e.g. ‘It is difficult for me to put myself
in the shoes of someone who is racially and/or ethnically dif-
ferent from me’)
The first factor, Acceptance of cultural differences, is com-
posed of items that indicate acceptance, understanding and
valuing of cultural traditions and customs of individuals from
different racial and ethnic groups. Some items also concern
feelings that relate to individuals belonging to other ethnic
groups. Most of these items belonged to the subscale Accep-
tance of Cultural Differences of the original version of SEE, but
five of the items, which pertain to feelings, belonged to the
subscale Empathic Feeling and Expression of the original SEE.
One possible explanation for this could be that Swedish re-
spondents may have regarded those items as less emotive and
that in the Swedish version the awareness aspect is more salient
than the emotional aspect.
The second factor Communicative Ethnocultural Empathy is
concerned with the communication of behaviour that reflects
prejudice and discrimination. These items also pertain to ac-
tions that are taken to prevent discriminatory behaviour or de-
fend ethnic minorities, as in ‘I show my appreciation of….’ and
‘I speak up for’. This factor only includes items that be-
longed to the subscale Empathic Feeling and Expression of the
original SEE. A possible explanation for this similarity may be
that there is not as much room for cultural interpretation of this
factor, which pertains to thoughts, feelings, and actions directly
related to ethnic discrimination.
Factor 3, Ethnocultural Empathic Awareness, is about aware-
ness and knowledge about what it might be like to belong to an
ethnic minority different from one’s own. Three of the four
items belonging to this factor are clearly about awareness and
knowledge about experiences of discrimination and prejudice
against people from other ethnic groups, and loaded on the
same factor in the original version of the SEE. The last item,
however, refers more to perspective-taking than to awareness.
The last factor, Intellectual Ethnocultural Empathy, includes
items that deal with one’s efforts to understand what it is like to
belong to an ethnic minority, such as trying to put oneself in the
shoes of another person. All of these items belong to the sub-
scale Empathic Perspective-Taking of the original SEE. This
similarity may also be because there are few cultural differ-
ences between the US and the Swedish culture regarding a per-
son’s efforts to understand what it is like to belong to an ethnic
minority. The results from the exploratory factor analysis sug-
gest that the concept of ethnocultural empathy can be measured
in Sweden. The CFA replicated the original findings. It is also
possible that cultural issues may have an impact on the results.
Finally, the first CFA presented by Wang et al. (2003) was not
reliable and a higher order hierarchal model was used instead.
The intercorrelations between the four factors of the Swedish
version of SEE varied from very low to moderate. The correla-
tions between the second, third and fourth factors were signifi-
cant and stronger than the correlations between the first factor
and the other factors. The best explanation for this is probably
that the first factor, Acceptance of Cultural Differences, in-
cludes 11 items that deal more with knowledge and experience
of diverse cultures and acceptance of this. In other words, this
factor taps a broader span of what Ethnocultural Empathy is
and works on many levels. There seems to be more room for
interpretations regarding the items of this factor, i.e. what is
perceived as empathy among our respondents. This factor had a
significant, albeit small correlation with Intellectual Ethnocul-
tural Empathy. The other three factors are more precise and
concrete, which leaves less room for interpretation. Thus, they
have stronger correlations among themselves. The intercorrela-
tions between each factor and the total SEE were all significant
with moderate to strong correlations.
We also found evidence of convergent validity for the SEE
scale and its four factors. Significant correlations in the low to
moderate range were found between the subscales of IRI (Per-
spective-Taking and Empathic Concern) and the sub-factors of
SEE as well as with the total score of SEE. The Acceptance of
Cultural Differences subscale had the highest correlation coef-
ficient with the IRI subscales. The most probable explanation is
that this factor contains the greatest number of items of the
Swedish SEE, and thus taps the essence of basic empathy. A
possible explanation for the differences between the US and the
Swedish version of the SEE is that cultural differences between
the Swedish and US society exist. Another possible explanation
could be that differences came about because of different sam-
ples, e.g. the distribution of men/women or educational profiles.
It could also be that the capacity of Ethnocultural Empathy
develops later in life and is not equally present in undergraduate
students and graduates or adults with greater experience of
working life.
There are some limitations of the study. First we relied on
self-report measures and although this facilitates the collection
of large data sets, we are aware that self-report does not always
transfer to actual behaviour, in this case behaviours that would
corroborate the concept of ethnocultural empathy (Fan et al.,
2006). A second limitation of the present study might be the
primary use of undergraduate students and secondary school
students in the locality of the university. Obviously, these stu-
dents may not be representative of all individuals in Sweden.
Clark and Watson (1995) stressed the importance of examining
the factor structure of psychological assessment scales in het-
erogeneous samples. A future task would be to test the SEE in a
more diverse group (e.g., socioeconomic status, ethnicity, age,
etc.). Such data would be required to establish norms as well.
An additional future task would be to add items to the Swedish
version of the SEE that may better reflect Ethnocultural Empa-
thy in a Swedish context.
To conclude, the findings from this study indicate that the
Swedish version of the SEE is a reliable and valid measure of
empathy directed towards people from ethnic cultural groups
who are different from one’s own ethnocultural group. The next
steps will be to add items that may reflect a Swedish context
even better and to use the questionnaire in different student
courses like medicine, psychology, and social worker pro-
grammes and to apply the SEE in different contexts (e.g. insti-
tutions, healthcare system, etc.) where people are in contact
with individuals from other ethnic backgrounds.
We would like to thank Helena Dedic for her valuable sug-
gestions regarding statistical analyses.
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