Int. J. Communications, Network and System Sciences, 2011, 4, 590-600
doi:10.4236/ijcns.2011.49071 Published Online September 2011 (
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. IJCNS
Measurement Process of MOSFET Device Parameters
with VEE Pro Software for DP4T RF Switch
Viranjay M. Srivastava1, K. S. Yadav2, G. Singh1
1Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering,
Jaypee University of Information Technology, Solan, India
2VLSI Design Group, Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute (CEERI), Pilani, India
Received July 9, 2011; revised August 13, 2011; accepted August 26, 2011
To design a Double-Pole Four-Throw (DP4T) RF switch, measurement of device parameters is required. In
this DP4T RF switch CMOS is a unit cell, so with a thin oxide layer of thickness 628 Å which is measured
optically. Some of the material parameters were found by the curve drawn between Capacitance versus
Voltage (C-V) and Capacitance versus Frequency (C-F) with the application of Visual Engineering Envi-
ronment Programming (VEE Pro). To perform the measurement processing at a distance, from the hazardous
room, we use VEE Pro software. In this research, to acquire a fine result for RF MOSFET, we vary the volt-
age with minor increments and perform the measurements by vary the applying voltage from +5 V to –5 V
and then back to +5 V again and then save this result in a data sheet with respect to temperature, voltage and
frequency using this program. We have investigated the characteristics of RF MOSFET, which will be used
for the wireless telecommunication systems.
Keywords: Capacitance-Frequency Curve, Capacitance-Voltage Curve, DP4T Switch, LCR Meter, MOS
Device, Radio Frequency, RF Switch, Testing, VEE Pro, VLSI
1. Introduction
To understand the capacitance-voltage and capacitance-
frequency effect, we design a process to measure the
characteristics curve at different frequencies. The fre-
quency dependence occurs primarily in inversion. A cer-
tain time is needed to generate the minority carriers in
the inversion layer. Therefore, the thermal equilibrium is
therefore not obtained immediately [1]. Since the minor-
ity carriers within the inversion layer of an inverted MOS
capacitor can move in response to a radio-frequency AC
signal even though the total minority carrier charge is
fixed at the value set by the DC bias. The resulting ca-
pacitance is restricted to the case where minority-carrier
trapping by defects in the inversion layer or at the inter-
face does not significantly hinder the AC response of the
minority carriers. Comparisons of this new result with
only curve (not with formula) are discussed with the
calculations of Sah and Pierret theorems [2].
The organization of this paper is as follows: Section 1
provides the introduction of VEE Pro, Antenna system,
LCR Meter and capacitance-voltage and capacitance-
frequency effect. In the Section 2 we discussed the
measurements process of device parameters. In the Sec-
tion 3 results are discussed and finally Section 4 con-
cludes the work.
1.1. Visual Engineering Environment
Programming (VEE Pro)
Visual Engineering Environment Programming (VEE
Pro) is a graphical programming environment optimized
for use with electronic instruments. The simplest way to
state its value is the phrase, “Better measurements faster”.
Software prototyping is noticeably faster with VEE Pro
than with the lower-level languages, and hundreds of
powerful functions are available to help for analyze the
measurement data [3]. The VEE programming environ-
ment strongly supports electronic instrument and meas-
urement tasks. For those early prototyping stages, VEE
Pro provides simulated signal sources and displays. We
design an experiment set-up with program flow and data
processing without any external hardware. VEE Pro pro-
vides an instrument manager and a dynamic input/output
server to simplify the tasks of discovering, configuring,
and managing external instruments. The VEE Pro sup-
ports several types of instrument drivers and has the op-
tion to choose the driver that best suits the preferences
and/or the characteristics of an instrument. For those
times when the instruments are not available, just press
one button in the Instrument Manager of the program-
ming to take a driver “off line” and continue to develop-
ing the measurement [4-6].
Virtual instruments exist within the VEE Pro program
whereas the real (actual) instruments are attached via
special plug-in cards. Often, a separate card is required
for each instrument. Instruments now coming online
contain USB links that can go directly to a computer, and
some have LAN connections which do not need any spe-
cific cards. The VEE Pro test program controls [7]:
1) The virtual or actual instrument are connected via
VEE Pro,
2) The parameters are to be monitored,
3) The data has to be processed,
4) The data are stored—as either raw data or processed
data, and
5) The data are processed for spreadsheets, reports,
and databases.
1.2. Antenna System
In the wireless communication system, the signals from a
subset of the antennas are processed at any time by the
limited bandwidth of radio frequency (RF), which is
available for the receiver. Hence, the transmitter needs to
send pilots multiple times to enable the receiver to esti-
mate the channel state of all the antennas and select the
best subset. In the RF transceiver system, multiple an-
tenna system circuitries are used to substitute conven-
tional single antenna circuitry, which improves the
transmission capability and reliability of the communica-
tion systems. With the multiple antennas, data transfer
rate is increased by the same factor as the numbers of
antenna are used. Antenna selection system and switch-
ing mechanism is essential to circumvent the uses of
several RF chain associated with the various antennas
Due to the single operating frequency, a simple switch
has a limited data transfer rate. Therefore, a Double-Pole
Double-Throw (DPDT) switch is designed to solve the
problem and increase the data transfer rate “two times”.
The DPDT switch has dual antenna and dual ports, one
port for transmitting and the other for receiving, which is
not sufficient for MIMO systems. Hence, DP4T switch is
designed to enhance the switching performance of the
MIMO applications. This DP4T switch can send or re-
ceive two parallel data streams simultaneously means
data transfer rate increases “four times” [10-12].
1.3. E4980A Precision L-C-R Meter
Designed for measurement precision and ease of use, this
Agilent family of LCR (Inductor, Capacitor, and Resistor)
meter fits for both research and production applications.
The LCR meter does not have all the sophisticated fea-
tures as impedance analyzers. It offers excellent per-
formance at an affordable cost. The arrangment for hea-
ting system, RF MOS device and probe through which
device and LCR meters are connected, as shown in
Figure 1. The purpose of heating the device is to get
accurate measurment of parameters due to the effect of
charges in oxide layer [4]. The properties of LCR meter
is as following [13],
1) Wide selection of frequency range from 20 Hz to 3
GHz (includes RF range).
2) Frequency list sweep for continuous testing at mul-
tiple frequency points.
3) Used for general purpose testing of surface-mount
components, leaded components and materials.
4) GPIB and handler interface for easy test automation
in production environment.
5) It has 0.05% basic accuracy
6) Measurement parameters: impedance (Z), admit-
tance (Y), resistance (R), Inductance (L), capacitance (C),
transconductance (X), magnetc field (B), quality factor
(Q), DC resistance (Rdc), DC currnt (Idc), DC voltage
1.4. Capacitance-Voltage and
Capacitance-Frequency Characteristics
The real importance of Capacitance-Voltage and Ca-
pacitance-Frequency curve measurement techniques in
RF MOS switch is that a large number of device pa-
Figure 1. Agilent E4980A LCR meter.
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. IJCNS
rameters can be extracted from two simple curves: the
high frequency (Radio frequency range) C-V curve and
the quasi-static C-V curve. These parameters can provide
critical device and process information which is useful
for the decreasing MOS length technology. Here the
purpose is to achieve a minimal work-function difference
between the gate and the semiconductor, while main-
taining the conductive properties of the gate. Based on
the C-V characterization of a RF MOS capacitor with
VEE Pro software, which resulted in flawed values of
device parameters [11,12], mainly the substrate dopant
concentration, on which most of the other parameters are
based. The readings stored in excel sheet can be used for
further processing and we can utilize this process for
DP4T switch.
Capacitance-voltage (C-V) and Capacitance-frequency
(C-F) measurement of MOS capacitors provides infor-
mation about the structure, which is of direct interest
when we evaluate a MOS process. For a capacitor formed
of MOS device using Metal-silicon dioxide-silicon layers
with an oxide thickness of 628 Å (measured optically),
some of the material parameters were found from the
curve drawn through VEE Pro software. To perform the
measurement, process by a distance, from the hazardous
room, we use the VEE Pro software in the BEL laboratory.
In this paper, to find good result, vary the voltage with
smaller increments and perform the measurements by
varying the voltage from +5 V to –5 V and then back to +5
V again and then save this result in a data sheet with re-
spect to temperature, voltage and frequency using this
programming [14,15].
2. Process for Measurements of Device
The real importance of capacitance-voltage curve (C-V)
measurement techniques is a large number of device pa-
rameters can be extracted from two apparently simple
curves: high frequency (Radio frequency range) C-V
curve and quasistatic C-V curve. These parameters pro-
vide the critical device and process information. We can
divide the parameters into three groups [16,17].
1) Includes typical MOS device parameters such as
flatband voltage, threshold voltage.
2) Oxide charge parameters, includes interface trap
charge density, mobile ion charge density, etc.
3) Consists of doping-related parameters.
Also by using C-t data, carrier generation lifetime and
recombination lifetime can be extracted [18]. This re-
search addresses the following parameters that can be
extracted from a high-frequency C-V (RF-CV) curve:
1) Oxide thickness.
2) Flat band capacitance and flat band voltage.
3) Threshold voltage.
4) Calculating the metal-semiconductor work function
To perform this experiment, for measurement of ca-
pacitances at different voltages, mainly for a predefined
voltage range [7,19], we programmed, using the pro-
gramming tools in VEE Pro software which is interface
with the LCR meter as shown in Figure 1. Following
steps are processed for the measurement of device pa-
Step 1: Fabrication of RF MOSFET Device
Similar size MOS capacitors were fabricated on a 4
inch diameter and 800 μm thick n-type silicon wafer and
the grown layers were characterized by C-V, C-F and
sheet resistance measurements [20-22]. To fabricate
metal-oxide-semiconductor, the silicon wafers were cl-
eaned by following the standard cleaning procedure to
remove insoluble organics and metallic contaminants.
After that, a layer of oxide, approximately 650 Å thick,
was grown on the silicon wafers using a dry oxidation
process at 950˚C for 2 hour, with a pre-ramp and
post-ramp of 800˚C with N2 (12) and O2 (32). For top
layer we will use Aluminum due to its ease of processing,
ability to reduce native SiO2, which is always present in
silicon wafers, exposed to atmosphere and its low resis-
tivity. About 2000 Å of Aluminium was then deposited
over the oxide layer using the sputtering process [16,18].
Various techniques are used to increase the sputtering
rates, use of magnetic field near the target to increase the
generation of ions. Introduction of electrons by the use of
an electron gun as a third electrode was also tried.
The fabricated capacitors electrically tested to charac-
terize the material and to inspect the device performance.
The variation of the capacitance (C) with gate voltage
(VG) ranging from –5 to +5 Volts and the capacitance
with frequency ranging from 10 KHz to 1.2 MHz of a
100 μm × 100 μm capacitor are shown in Figures 2-8,
curves are taken before heating and after heating the
MOS device.
For a relatively thick oxide (>600 Å), extracting the
oxide thickness is fairly simple. The oxide capacitance
(Cox) is the high-frequency capacitance when the device
is biased for strong accumulation. In the strong accumu-
lation region, the MOS capacitor (MOS-C) acts like a
parallel plate capacitor and the oxide thickness is calcu-
lated from Cox and the gate area using the following
equation [23-25]:
 (1)
Here A is the gate area of metal (10–2 cm2), εox is
34.515*10–14 F-cm–1 and then Cox is oxide capacitance
measured by C-V curve for Accumulation region = 5.202
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. IJCNS
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. IJCNS
pF by Figure 2, So by calculation of above (1), the value
of Tox comes 675 Å. However, the measured oxide
thickness using the UV method was 628 Å. So the ca-
pacitance measurement seems to be low thus giving a
thickness value greater than the actual value.
Step 2: Programming for Readings
Since for the measurement, first select the input range
of voltages at which curve for the capacitances at differ-
ent voltage is required [17]. Procedure of this program-
ming is shown in Figure 9. For this purpose the pro-
gramming is done on basis that to set the no. of divisions,
take the difference of maximum and minimum voltage
(for voltage range), and divide them by the number of
division, at which capacitances are to be measured. After
that addition, this small division to the minimum voltage
as in Figure 9, one by one, until we reach to maximum
voltage, this is done in programming using loop bearing
name “for count and division” as shown in Figure 9 and
a switch is added (bearing block named “click for each
reading”), by which two readings can be taken, one be-
fore heating and other after heating, so that better per-
formance can be observed. To set the frequency at which
reading of capacitances are required (low frequency or
quasistatic and high frequency or radio frequency) [2,
26-29] here is a block with name “frequency” is added.
This frequency can vary from 10 Hz to 1 MHz. For the
frequency we have to write only the value of frequency.
Figures 2 and 3 show the high-frequency (1 MHz) and
low-frequency (10 KHz) C-V curve for n-type MOS.
As in Figure 9, the reading is taken at 1 MHz and it is
written as 1 M. After setting the volage range and fre-
quency, we can take the reading on excel sheet as well as
on window of programme, Also the graph of capacitan-
ces at these voltages and frequencies are drawn by using
this programme on the graph sheet which are shown in
Figures 2-8, before heating and after heating (reading
and graphs) respectively. The purpose of heating the de-
vice is to get accurate measurment of parameters [30,31].
The value of the capacitances is compared. If the cur-
ves are within the limit as shown in Figure 4 (yellow
coloured/solid line shows before heating curve and green
coloured/dashed line shows after heating curve of ca-
pacitance vs voltage), then MOS device is good for ap-
plication, but if it is out of limit then device will not be
used for further application. These limit can be given by
the consumer, who will use these devices. By this pro-
gramme from a remote place we can measure the cor-
rectness of MOS devices. The obtained results can be
saved in required format as in .doc or in .xls format as
shown in Figure 10.
Figure 2. Main programming block of VEE Pro for the LCR meter.
Figure 3. High-frequency (1 MHz) C-V curve for a n-type MOS.
Figure 4. Low-frequency (10 KHz) C-V curve for a n-type MOS.
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. IJCNS
Figure 5. High-frequency (1MHz) C-V curve for a p-type before heating (1st data) & after heating (2nd data).
Figure 6. Curve for C-F at applied voltage = –5 V (before heating).
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. IJCNS
Figure 7. Curve for C-F at applied voltage = +5 V (before heating).
Figure 8. Curve for C-F at applied voltage = –5 V (after heating).
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. IJCNS
Figure 9. Curve for C-F at applied voltage = +5 V (after heating).
Figure 10. Comparison of data of capacitances before heating and after heating on Excel sheet.
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. IJCNS
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. IJCNS
3. Results
By using the VEE Pro software with the above designed
programming after storing data on excel sheet, parame-
ters can be automatically calculated from test data at the
end of the C-V and C-F test. The MOS capacitances with
voltage or frequency curves have been extensively used
for the determination of the surface states. A parallel
displacement of the theoretical curve along the voltage
axis would indicate the presence of fixed charges in the
oxide, while any distortion of the shape of the experi-
mental curve compared with the theory would indicate
the presence of chargeable fast surface states at the ox-
ide-semiconductor surface. We would see that the deter-
mination of the surface states by using the constant ca-
pacitance/voltage curve instead of the more exact non-
constant capacitance/voltage curve introduces little error
[2]. Since this represents the change between two ther-
mal equilibrium situations, this capacitance should be
measured while maintaining equilibrium conditions at all
times. So there may be some error occurred.
At low frequencies the MOS structure is in thermal
equilibrium under small signal ac excitation provided
that minority carriers can respond to variations in the AC
field to prevent energy loss [32-35]. The increase in ca-
pacitance in inversion only occurs if the generation/re-
combination of electrons can keep up with the applied ac
signal. Capacitance meters generally employ a small ac
signal superimposed upon the DC gate bias to measure
the MOS capacitance. In practice, recombination/gen-
eration rates are relatively slow so that the capacitance
does not increase above a frequency of about 100 Hz for
the Si-SiO2 [36,37]. In the presence of some additional
reservoir of electrons, the low frequency behavior may
be extended up to the MHz range. This is the case for a
MOSFET where the reservoir is the source and drain n+
If both the gate bias VG and the small signal measuring
voltage vary at a faster rate than may be allowed by re-
combination/generation at the surface, then no inversion
layer forms and the MOS device goes into deep depletion.
In order to equate metal surface charge, the depletion
region must widen to expose more ionized acceptors.
Thus the capacitance decreases even further. The deple-
tion region width is now larger than the depletion width
saturation value [4].
4. Conclusions
We have demonstrated the method of automating photo-
acoustic spectrometer through Agilent VEE Pro software
with the designed program. The repeatability and reli-
ability of the measurements are well tested by this auto-
mated instrument for thermal properties of glass and
silicon wafer. Using the VEE Pro software with above
programming to store data on Excel sheet, parameters of
RF MOS switch as oxide thickness, flat band capacitance
and flat band voltage, threshold voltage and metal-
semiconductor work function difference can be auto-
matically calculated from test data at the end of the C-V
and C-F test, and then this calculated parameters can be
automatically entered back into the data worksheet for
record purpose.
In this experiment we also identified the improper
contact of the probes with the wafer surface which is
connected to LCR meter as the most probable cause of
that along with the possibility of going unintentionally
into deep depletion or having the equipment improperly
calibrated. This can give erroneous result. This work can
be used in future for measuring cleaning or sanitation of
fabrication pipes as doping machine, oxidation chamber,
furnaces and to calibrate the parameters in fabrication lab
for any type of MOS devices or any other type of elec-
tronic device [38,39]. Since the operating frequencies of
the RF switches are in the order of GHz, therefore, it is
useful for data link transmitter, radio transceiver switch,
wireless local area network and other IEEE 802.11 in-
dustrial applications including Wi-Fi system and high-
energy radiotherapy applications, and analog to digital
converters [40,41].
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