Journal of Environmental Protection, 2011, 2, 750-760
doi:10.4236/jep.2011.26087 Published Online August 2011 (
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. JEP
Methodology of Integrated Coastal Zone
Management Plan Preparation—Case
Study of Andaman Islands, India
Devaraj Asir Ramesh1, Arumugam Senthil Vel2
1Training Officer, Society of Integrated Coastal Management, Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India, New
Delhi, India; 2Director, Society of Integrated Coastal Management, Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India, New
Delhi, India.
Received January 1st, 2011; revised April 28th, 2011; accepted June 14th, 2011.
Generally, approaches of coastal issues a re sectoral basis and solu tions have been form ed in adhoc fashions wh ich are
not long lasting. Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) is conceived as a holistic management tool working
across sectoral, disciplinary, and institutional boundaries. ICZM planning is a continuous process to achieve the goals
and objectives by using alternative decisions. ICZM plan is providing boundary conditions for limitation, negotiation
and implementation. Planning for coasta l managemen t is essentia lly requires integration of resour ces, uses, issues, an d
tools for achieving the management objectives. The ultimate goal of ICZM is to improve the quality of life of human
communities. Coastal area management needs integrated, interdisciplinary and multi-sectoral approaches for sustain-
able utilization of resources, which is the fundamental objective of the resource planners and managers. Methodology
for ICZM planning is differing in relation to the regional culture, society, economics, politics, nature, technology, sci-
entific, human behavior , etc. Planning for coastal management is very easy by following the methodology or framework
developed for the planning process. A case study of ICZM Plan for Andaman has been prepared by using the participa-
tory methodology, which is the source of consensus for all stakeholders of the Andaman Islands. The tasks of ICZM
Plan preparation for Andaman Islands includes, knowledgebase development, selection of ICZM plan preparation
methodologies, conflict identification, risk analysis, cost benefit analysis, strategic and actio n plans, recommendations
and institutional ch anges. This ICZM methodology could be used for compa ring and understanding the boundary con-
ditions of union or federal developing nations towards comparative planning.
Keywords: ICZM, Methodology, Database, Planning, Strategy, Andaman
1. Need of ICZM
The coastal areas are assuming greater importance in
recent years, owing to increasing human population, ur-
banization and accelerated dev elopmental activities. These
anthropogenic activities have put tremendous pressure on
the fragile coastal env ironment. In all th e coastal states of
India, coastal zone management has got growing impor-
tance. The reasons for this are several: the density of
people residing in the coastal zone is high and increasing
and conflicts between coastal communities are obvious.
Conflicts among user-groups competing for space are
becoming more and more common [1]. The Coastal Zone
is strategically important from environmental, economic
and societal points-of-view. Therefore, solving or miti-
gating some of its problems is of vital consideration when
shaping policy for sustainable development, and needs
integrated an d co-ordinated management policies [2].
General l y approac h of c oa s tal issues on a sectora l basis
and solutions are formed in an adhoc fashion and inven-
tories are not long lasting. Integration of knowledge, skills
and information etc., at different levels within the ad-
ministration and different stakeholders are neglected. The
problem in policy coordination is a standard and recog-
nized one in developed and developing countries. In all
cases, where government is organized in sectoral minis-
tries there is difficulty in coordinating issues. Hence, it
could be argued that there is also a need for structural
reforms if there is to be capacity for ICZM as a sustainable
developm ent tool. I ntegrated coa stal managem ent (ICZM)
Methodology of Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plan Preparation—Case Study of Andaman Islands, India751
is conceived as a holistic m anagement tool w orking across
sectoral, disciplinary, and institutional boundaries [3].
The key challenge for ICZM is lack of integrated coastal
policies and effective implementation, due largely to the
difficulty of coordinating among several government
agencies responsible for managing coastal activities [4].
Collaborative and integrated approach for decision mak-
ing is required to secure the sustainable development of
marine areas in a healthy envir onment [5]. IC ZM has been
practiced in both developed and developing countries for
decades [6].
There are large numbers of researches and contribu-
tions for the development of ICZM plan for coastal zone
towards sustainable development. However, resource
managers are facing pressure to act positively in estab-
lishing measures that will maintain sustainable develop-
ment of the environment [7]. Many marine ecosystems
have faced some degree of exploitation and any data
compiled from them reflects a degree of alteration from
human impacts, it is however important to establish cur-
rent levels of diversity as a starting point for future man-
agement plans. Sustainability has been given consequence
by national governments through institu tional reform [8].
Identification of major interactions between CZM com-
ponents and their dynamics allows the type of problem(s)
to be assessed in conjunction with their impacts on
stakeholders. Understanding the scale of influence of
components of system and risk associated to changes
taking plac e for m im portan t c onsiderations t o t he solution
formulation process. Identification of a preferred solution
is made from consideration of all the alternative solu tions
and balances the possible outcomes of each solution
against three objectives: sustainable development, mini-
mizing risk to people and property, and minimizing the
cost of sust a inable deve lopmen t [ 9].
ICZM is a continuous and dynamic process that unites
governments and the communities, science and manage-
ment, sectoral and public interests for developing and
implementing an integrated plan. The ultimate goal of
ICZM is to improve the quality of life of human commu-
nities. Coastal area management needs an integrated,
interdisciplinary and multisectoral approaches for sus-
tainable utilisation of resources, which is the fundamental
objective of the resource planners and managers. ICZM
practices can enhance the nature’s contribution to human
welfare and preventing undesirable effects. ICZM can
suggest suitable legislation s, strategies and policies to the
managers for conserving and managing the natural re-
sources. ICZM can m inimise the costs and co stly delays in
project implementation; minimise the losses to the various
users; minimi se da m a ge t o th e marine en vi ro nm e nt; make
the most efficient use of infrastructure and avoids con-
flicting use of coastal and marine e nvironment. Successful
ICZM depends on effective participation of government
agencies, Non GovernmentalOrganisations (NGO’s), and
all institutions of th e society.
The tasks of ICZM plan preparation for Andaman Is-
lands initiated by Government of India by conduction of
case study in Andaman Islands to prepare an ICZM plan.
The ICZM plan process of the Andamansincludes, data-
base and knowledgebase development, framework of
methodology, conflict identification, risk analysis, alter-
native opportunities, cost benefit analysis, strategic and
action plans, and recommendations of institutional changes
etc. ICZM plan has been prepared and submitted to Gov-
ernment of India. This manuscript describes the back-
ground of methodology of preparation of ICZM plan in
Andaman Islands of Government of India.
2. ICZM Plan and Requirements
Coastal zone ma nagemen t has bee n practi ced fro m 1960 ’s
as a managerial activity implemented through its regional,
national, and sub-national programs [10]. ICZM has be-
come the standard approach to coastal planning and
management throughout the world. Planning is the im-
portant consequence of ICZM. ICZM cannot be imple-
mented unless clear planning processes with opportunities
for community input are designated. Development and
implementation of ICZM plan combines; 1) establishment
of an ove rall p olicy fo r the su stainabl e devel opment of the
coastal zone, 2) formulation of sectoral development
policies and plans that are compatib le with the objectives
of the overall policy, 3) integration of sectoral plans into
statewide development plan and 4) coordination of de-
velopment initiatives at th e state, district and local levels.
A key principle that should also be adopted is the opti-
misation of long-term productivity of resources. This
requires greater cooperation among different sectors and
levels of government, adjustment to legislation and im-
provement of basic management skills. An institutional,
organizational, legal, and financial framework is required
for an integrated appro ach to materialize the management
objectives. Creation of an enabling environment is a
precondition for successful cooperation among different
organizations for execution of multi-sector projects. The
participating organizations or the stakeholders must have
full control over the management of all aspects of their
components, leaving only central coordination to the lead
agency for participatory management planning [11].
ICZM plan process provides opportunities to find out
the local communities needs and initiate participation in
natural resource management. The key to comprehensive
participation is not only to ensure public participation
through consultation but also to have community repre-
sentatives sitting directly on the decision-making bodies
[12]. The planning model provides an essential first step
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. JEP
Methodology of Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plan Preparation—Case Study of Andaman Islands, India
in integrated management. There is no universal design
for a marine-integrated management system. Different
regions will have different suites of human activities
drawing on different ecosystems on different scales [13].
3. Andaman Islands—Significance of ICZM
The Andaman and Nicobar Islands comprise about 306
Islands of volcanic origin situated on a submerged moun-
tainous hill range arching from ArakanYoma in Burma in
the north and Sumatra in the south between 6˚ to 14˚ N
Lat and 92˚ to 94˚ E Long, occupying an area of about
8249 sq·km in Bay of Bengal. The origin of the islan ds is
believed to be from a single eruption, tentatively dated
on late Pliocene period [14]. The coastline is about 1962
km long, which is highly irregular. Total length of the
islands from north to south is 700 kms. The highest ele-
vation of the island is Saddle Peak in North Andaman,
which is elevated 732 meters above the sea level. Being
oceanic islands, the continental shelf areas along these
islands are limited to about 16,000 sq·km. The island
have a tropical climate and the temperature ranges from
18˚C to 34˚C. The islands receive precipitation during
both southeast and northwest monsoons, which together
amount for 9 to 10 months/year and the annual rainfall in
this area is 3180mm. Of the total islands only 38 Islands
are inhabited, 11 in the Andaman group and rest in the
Nicobar group. Number of named Island is 188 and
un-named are 118; the number of named rocks in this
island groups are 61 and the un-named rocks are 205
Primary production in Andaman and Nicobar coastal
waters are ranging between 0.07 g C/sq·m/day. All the
islands have variety of terrestrial ecosystems and fringed
by mangroves, coral reefs, and sea-grass and seaweed
ecosystem in the coastal and marine areas. The Exclusive
Economic Zone (EEZ) (0.6 million mk2) of the island
extending upto 200 nautical miles from the shoreline is
75 times larger than the islands. The flora of Andaman is
predominately resembled with that of Burma and the
Nicobar is resembling with Sumatra and Malaysia [16].
Dense forest covered 76% of the islands, 1.5% were open
forests and 12% of the geographical area are mangroves.
Forest type ranged from the giant evergreen to tropical
evergreen moist, deciduous and littoral forests. Forests
occupy 7606 km2 (92.2%) of the total geographical area,
of this Andaman and Nicobar group of Islands possess-
ing 5883 km2 and 1723 km2 respectively. Of the total
forest cover, dense forests, open forest and mangroves
constitutes 40%, 40% and 12.7% respectively [1 7]. Lega l
forest area is 7170.69 km2, which constitutes 86.93% of
the geographic area of these Islands. Out of this, 4242
km2 are protected forests and 2929 km2 are reserved for-
ests [18].
The Islands are the third most significant area for bio-
diversity in India. Andaman and Nicobar Islands are rich
in endemic species because of their long isolation from
the adjoining landmass. In total about 10,159 species of
fauna and flora have been recorded from this island
group, of this 856 are endemic to this islands [18]. Coral
reefs of Andaman and Nicobar are the second biodiver-
sity rich zone found in the world. Coral reef surrounded
in this islands are about 11,939 sq·kms, possessing 197
coral species and 80% of coral diversity [19]. Mangrove
distribution in this island groups are about 1011 sq·kms
in Andaman Islands and 37 sq·km in the Nicobar islands
[20]. The estimated fishery potential available in the
coastal waters are 160,000 tons, of which tuna and tuna
like fishes comprises about 1,00,000 tons. Of the total
fish stock of this region only 13,200 tons have been har-
vested. Tourism sector presently shares 2.03% turnover
of the Andaman and Nicobar Union territory. Based on
the Andaman Tourism Department report, the tourist
arrival to the island was found to have increased by
776% for domestic tourists and 321% for international
tourists in 18 years period [17].
Andaman and Nicobar Islands are opened for penal
settlement during 1857. The activ ities of the early settlers
were confined to some area around Port Blair. Due to the
biological richness and conservation importance in the
Islands, 94 sanctuaries, and 9 national parks have been
established. Total human population of the island is
356,265. Andaman and Nicobar Islands have six varieties
of indigenous people and tribal reserve area is 3265.87
km2. About 60% populations of the settlers are engaged
in agriculture and allied activities. Of the available reve-
nue land, only 21% is under intense cultivation, another
11% is classified as fallow and cultivable waste (land
that is cultivable, but currently lies fallow). Plantation
crops cover 45% of the revenue land. Licenced fishermen
number in this island grou p is around 2,524 and they ply
1,983 craft on the sea. The gross domestic product GDP
of the island has increased from Rs. 532.9 million (Years.
1980-1981) to 5,152.3 million (Years. 1996-1997) [21].
About 223,93 7 m3 of sand was officially quarried from
the allotted 72 beaches of the island during between 1998
and 2001 to meet out the demand of con struction materi-
als which influence over the coral population. These ar-
eas are designated as one among the India’s bioregion,
and have a variety of coastal ecosystems. Government of
India has classified this area as “Class A”, “No Industrial
Zone”. This policy protects the environment from large-
scale industries, polluting the environment of Andaman
and Nicobar Islands. Tourist arrival to the island is in-
creasing year by year hence, Department of Environment
and Forests, and Department of Tourism, of Andaman
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. JEP
Methodology of Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plan Preparation—Case Study of Andaman Islands, India753
and Nicobar Islands are interested in utilizing the re-
sources. The departments of the island have various de-
velopmental plans related to the tourist attraction to the
island. Department of Tourism is interested in high value
tourism and the Department of Environment is interested
in low value tourism. But, both departments are focusing
on coastal tourism, which require CRZ relaxation from
most of the areas and relaxation from forest and wild life
Acts of Government of India. Fishery resources are under
exploited in this island due to lack of man power in-
volved in fishing sector. Aquaculture and mariculture
development activities have significant potentials in this
island and the fishery department is ready to assist
through techniques, subsidies and incentives. Marketing
of capture fisheries is the limitation for intensive coastal
fishing and deep-sea fishing. Public Welfares such as
transport, communication, drinking water, water storage,
health and sanitation, education are important sectoral
areas require developmental plans.
Islands of Andaman are rich in natural resources,
which have national conservation interest and importance
in relation to forestry, wild life, bioactive components,
marine flora and fauna, tourism, fishery, etc. The island
natural resources are phasing threats due to the increase
(4%/annum) of population and over harvest of natural
resources. Inhabited population of the islands is totally
dependent on the forest area and its resources. Since the
demand has been increased by the population pressure,
supply of natural resources are stagnant or limited by
government actions through legislations which leading to
violations and conflicts over various sectors of the com-
munity. Illegal resource exploitation such as sand mining,
forest felling, and habitat alteration are the major threats
to the sustainability of the resources in this Islands.
Poaching, human animal conflicts, tourism and inappro-
priate management practices are the important conse-
quences due to human pressure. Govern ment is initiating
various developmental and conservation projects, the rate
of benefits that, and reach to the focuss group is very
meagre. Most of the natural resources in this island are
under exploited, and few of them are over-exploited In-
tegrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) Plan prepa-
ration is getting great significance.
The fundamental purpose of all coastal management
initiatives is to maintain, restore, or improve specified
qualities of coastal ecosystems and their associated hu-
man societies [3]. All the Government Departments of
Andaman and Nicobar islands have sectoral plans, but
they are not integrated with the other segments. The pre-
sent ICZM Plan has success in integrating the activities
of the departments. One dimension of integration is inte-
gration among different levels of government. This typi-
cally requires national mandates for ICZM and incentives
that encourage appropriate action at lower levels in the
governance hierarchy [22]. Benefits of ICZM is relevant
to the plan area such as development of economic and
environmental quality management programs and plans,
integration of sectoral policies (f isheries, tour ism, energy ,
transport, agriculture, natural risks, waste disposal, etc.),
integration of different levels of government, from local
to internation al, integration of all in terest groups into the
management process, integration of all management tools
(the drawing up of plans, their implementation and eva-
luation), integration of different disciplines (legal, eco-
logical, geo-morphological, economic and social aspects,
among others), integration of the administration’s re-
sources in all the departments involved [23].
The Leutinon Governor (LG) governs the Islands with
the help of a Secretariat headed by a Chief Secretary. The
secretaries of the department’s head over the programs
and policies with relate to the sectors. An elected Mem-
ber of Parliament is representing the Andaman and Ni-
cobar Islands in the lower house of Parliament (Lok-
Sabha). The lowest administrative tier is composed of the
Gram Panchayat at the village level. Above them is the
Panchay at Samiti, which represents a group of villages.
The highest tier is the Zilla Parishad or District Council,
and is made up of members elected at the district level.
4. ICZM Planning Framework
In general planning processes requires a framework
methodology to include, consider, evaluate and reject the
composition of resources, uses, issues and draft plan
preparation for ICZM. ICZM Plan preparations for An-
daman Islands have the following process in developing
the planning methodology. Define the ProblemStaffing
Data collection and storageDevelopment of know-
ledgebaseCost benefit analysisRisk analysisDraft
strategic plan preparation including decisionsWork-
shop for managers and executives of the areaReport
modificationsPublic hearing on ICZM reportRec-
ommended ICZM plan. Methodology of planning frame-
work is described in Chart 1.
5. Data Collection and Knowledgebase
Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) requires
accurate and replicable scientific data sets which can be
used as a basis for informed decision making [24]. The
planners need all kind of reliable data for synthesizing
and justifying his ideas developed for every aspects or
sectors. The decision makers and policy planners need
data and tools to monitor and assess natural resource in-
ventories, environmental change, and social change for
sustainable development [25]. Satellite remote sensing
techniques can routinely observe the coastal area and
provide information about conditions and changes over
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. JEP
Methodology of Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plan Preparation—Case Study of Andaman Islands, India
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. JEP
Chart 1. Methodology for ICZM plan pr e par ation of andaman islands.
time. It has long been recognized that remote sensing is
one of the most important approaches to the coastal
problems, the other being in situ measurement programs
and modeling studies. Coastal environmental change
monitoring in China is particularly focused on the river
deltas and coastlines. Remote sensing has been an im-
portant component of those monitoring systems [26].
Science and practical ecological, social, and cultural
knowledge may combined be able to fill in most of the
data needs of ICZM plan preparation. Microlevel issues
and their data shall be kept outside from the main ICZM
database. Because, database could suffer by information
overload and form a pile of junk data. More information
is therefore not always better, if it is neither processed
nor put to use [27]. Data are the raw material from which
information is produced. Information is a collection of
data relevant to a recipient at a given point in time. In-
formation is data in context: it has meaning, relevance
and purpose. An important con sequ ence of this definitio n
is that information is seen as one element of a hierarchy
through which sustainable management of the coast may
be achieved, thus: Data + Context = Information, Infor-
mation + Analysis = Understanding, Understanding +
Management = Possibility of sustainable action [28].
Database development and information sharing is viewed
as an important way to improve the state of the coastal
areas [29]. Hardly any problem in the coastal zone is
delimited by academic disciplines, coastal zo n e managers
must tap on insights of multiple disciplines, as well as
from informal, local sources of knowledge [30]. For the
NOAA restoration center project, internet web sites of
partner organizations, phone interviews with project
managers, USGS maps, and progress reports for the pro-
jects were used for collect ion of data [3 1] .
Although the grant and allocations for Andaman and
Nicobar islands are comparatively higher than the
mainland states of India, the scientific activities and
documentation were not sufficient to develop an ICZM
plan. Available natural resources data for Andaman Is-
lands were mostly qualitative, but ICZM plan requires
site specific, thematic and time scale data. Primary and
secondary data of Andman Islands were collected for
ICZM plan preparation by 1) census and sampling meth-
ods, 2) investigator and mail enquiries, 3) registration
and 4) information from correspondence, 5) remote sens-
ing data. The sources of secondary data are published
materials usually 1) offcial publications of the central
and state governments, 2) reports and official publica-
tions of international bodies, 3) private publications, 4)
publications, 5) remote sensing data brought out by the
research people or scientists, universities, etc. All kind of
historic data such as maps, texts, video clipping, ques-
Methodology of Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plan Preparation—Case Study of Andaman Islands, India755
tionnaires, audiotapes etc., were collected to develop an
ICZM database. Data available in library, individuals,
departments, newspapers, journals, textbooks, etc., were
collected and compiled for easy retrieval and evaluation.
The data were verified for its quality, relevance and con-
sistency toavoid duplications or replications. The com-
piled data were computerized by developing a RDBMS
database. Oracle is the suitable Relational Database
Management System (RDBMS) experienced for ICZM
plan process.
The Andaman Islands database contains the parame-
ters such as physical, chemical, revenue areas, island
morphology, geology and geomorphology, mechanical
analysis of sediment, island and global warming, re-
sources, population, settlements, agriculture, civ il supp ly,
secondary group, family, marriage institutions, economic
status, tourism, fishing, livestock, housing, technology
and development, communication and transport, indus-
tries, heritage sites, near-shore\offshore structures, edu-
cation and curriculum, health and san itation, disaster and
mitigation, social control and security, legal control, lo-
cal administration, NGO’s of the area, and research and
development. In general the data-outputs are numerical,
text and maps.
Models were prepared for population growth, forecast
of land conversion, suitable roads, water storage struc-
tures, suitable agriculture sites, sand deposition etc., to-
wards better or alternative management option or plans.
Matrixes were developed for identification of cross sec-
toral interactions, which has used for demonstrating the
interactions at all knowledge levels. Matrix can be inter-
active in that the impact of new changes (management
interventions) can be feed back into the matrix to deter-
mine subsequent secondary-level changes and whether
they either produce or remove impacts upon stakeholders
[32]. Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA) were
conducted for ICZM plan for Andaman Islands to find
the rate of impact or influence over the other sectors, if
the activity will implemented. Impact predictions con-
tained in Environmental Impact Statement’s (EIS’s) the
main output of the EIA process are taken into account by
the decision-making body when determining the applica-
tion for deve lopmen t consent [33].
Knowledgebase provides insight about the history and
trend, which is essential for predicting and forecasting
the issues and factors for the planners. Models have
grown more sophisticated and better able to handle envi-
ronmental dynamics at the regional and even local scale
[34]. In general models were built for explaining, pre-
dicting and supporting the plans, strategies and policies.
Sometimes the models, which were applied for insuffi-
cient or inadequate time series data lead to wrong judg-
ment and failure. The models could not provide definite
answers to all clarifications required by ICZM practitio-
ners, but act as a reminder of some of the principles that
need to be considered and interactions that might occur.
6. Cost Benefit Analysis and Risk Analysis
When developing plans and especially in-relation to hard
engineering options such as seawall construction, harbor
construction, pipelines, dredging, resort development kind
of activities etc., cost benefit analysis have been accom-
plished. Cost benefit analysis is widely used for all kind
of developmental plans because of its flexibility and
broad applicability to analyze the costs and benefits of a
range of interacting environmental, social and economic
impacts. Cost benefit analysis and risk analysis have
been made for Andaman Islands to draft decisions. It has
proved its applicability for comparing the present values
of benefits with the opportunity costs.
Risk is pervasive at all stages of Andaman ICZM plan-
ning, and risk management is a key objective of ICZM it
is not a simple concept to incorporate for two main rea-
sons. Firstly risk is difficult to measure scientifically;
secondly, risk perception by individuals and communities
is ingrained within the functioning and cultural values of
their society and may not entirely confer with a scientific
assessment of risk. However, the risk evaluation matrix
can be used to support the assessment of management
options. The matrix divides risk into the probability of
the hazard and the impact of hazard (i.e. the scope of
elements at risk and their vulnerability to hazard). The
matrixes were used to demonstrate the selected manage-
ment options in the workshop s to justify the comparative
risk of the alter nati ve opt ions followed by [32].
7. Draft Plan Preparation
All the Government Departments of Andaman and Ni-
cobar islands have sectoral plans, but they are not inte-
grated with the other sectors/departments. To integrate
the sectoral plans, interactive sessions such as workshops
and meetings were conducted. Draft integrated plans
were prepared, which contains information about plan
area, status of the island, issues and benefits of the island,
recommended strategies, alternative justification of the
strategies, recommended developmental plan or action
plan for the sectors and implementation mechanism. The
draft plan was critically evaluated by the experts work ing
in the ICZM subject.
To strengthen the ideas, experts from various sectors
were invited to contribute to the plan. The draft plan is
prepared using simple and general statements for easy
understanding to all kind of readers. Maps and color
graphs were presented for easy access of information.
The draft plan was circulated to all coastal managers and
academicians for improving the structure and modifica-
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. JEP
Methodology of Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plan Preparation—Case Study of Andaman Islands, India
tion, prior to submission to the primary and secondary
stakeholders. Local authorities consensus have been ar-
rived, which was the important milestone for ICZM plan
development process. Local authorities can play in im-
plementing sustainable development is because much of
the emphasis within policy statements is placed upon the
local scale as the most relevant for action [35].
8. Workshop for Evaluation of the Plan
The draft ICZM plan was circulated to executives, man-
agement departments, primary and secoundary stake-
holders of Andaman and Nicobar islands to evaluate the
application significance of the recommended plan. Twenty
five departments such as Andaman and Nicobar Secre-
tariat, Department of Environment, Department of Tour-
ism, Department of Fisheries, Department of Industries,
Department of Agriculture, Andaman and Nicobar De-
velopmental Corporation (ANIDCO), Deputy Commis-
sioner, Port Management Board, Department of Educa-
tion, Department of Health, Department of Rural Devel-
opment, Department of Animal Husbandry, Department
of Ocean Development, etc., were invited to express their
views of the plan. “W orkshop on Evaluation of the Dr aft
Report” was conducted to extract their views and the
required modifications of the plan. Since they were
aware about the draft plan by the advance receipt of the
draft copy, their recommendations and suggestions were
considered for modifications. The information arrived
from the workshop discussions were evaluated and the
modified pages sent to the local administrative bodies of
Andaman and Nicobar islands.
Thus, coastal stakeholders encouraged to involve
themselves in the decision-making process and to con-
tribute their knowledge to participatory research. Such
interactions were responding to the experiences and
needs of the community, fosterin g collaboration between
researchers and community in research activities, and
promoting common knowledge and raising awareness
among community members [36]. Interaction must occur
at every stage, from the scoping process to strategy or
plan development to implementation. The form of inter-
action will vary at different phases, involving stake-
holders throughout the process is important because
power manifests itself during each phase. Sharing this
power not only helps address the complexity of issues
and reveals new options, but it also makes them more
viable and supp orted [37].
9. Public Hearing of the Plan
Public hearing is an important role in the total develop-
ment process for an active and dynamic public participa-
tion in ICZM plan development of the Andaman. It is an
integral part of planning process to make people free to
express their needs and encourage their participation in
ICZM plan process. The participatory planning has
helped community based management or ecosystem
management at decentralized management and governing
system of the coastal resources. It is not only provides
information to the public but, also create awareness
among them. The ICZM plan of Andaman was distrib-
uted to the mass medias to broadcast the views of the
draft plan. Best coastal practices should be reviewed and
shared among coastal managers, to promote integration
of natural and social scientific knowledge with local
knowledge in the formulation and implementation of
integrated coastal management plans [29]. Resource us-
ers and other coastal stakeholders must be encouraged to
involve themselves in the decision-making process and to
contribute their knowledge to participatory research.
Such research consists of three key elements: responding
to the experiences and needs of the community, fostering
collaboration between researchers and community in
research activities, and promoting common knowledge
and raising awareness among community members [36].
The lack of interaction between administrative and sec-
toral layers cannot be overcome by technology alone, but
by tighter coupling and an ongoing dialogue between the
research community and those with practical responsi-
bilities for the coast [38].
10. Indicative Plan Output
Establishing ICZMP strategies on small islands has the
positive thinking of starting a process, initiate dialogue,
stress the need for a new style of governance, improve
public participation on decision making, raise awareness
for coastal problems, etc. The increase demand for regu-
lations and decision support is producing a “boom” of
plans an d strateg ies at di fferent scales and levels [3 9]. The
aim of planning is to adopt rationale methods for so-
cial/institutional needs or demand of Andaman Islands.
Hence, ICZM plan for Andaman has been expected as
the remedy to all socio-economic ills. The ICZM plan
process has helped to identify the resources and supply
chain of scarce products. Planning process also indicated
distribution of resources and time frame use limits by
strategies. In Andaman ICZM planning, “strategies” have
been referred as the methods used in formulating a de-
velopment plan. As like Government of India, Andaman
ICZM plans does not have single strategy to achieve
sustainable development. Planning in India is mixture of
balanced and unbalanced growth techniques. The overall
strategy in Indias’ planning has been one of the balanced
developments of the economy. India’s five-year plans are
attempting to develop balanced economy in order to
achieve the balanced growth by priorities certain sectors
in each plan. Even if spatialplanni ng is the best instrument
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. JEP
Methodology of Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plan Preparation—Case Study of Andaman Islands, India
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. JEP
to address coastal problems in small islands, ICZM
strategies are needed, at least aiming at it, and pavethe
path to achieve it [38].
Recommended strategies developed for adopting deci-
sions in environmental governance and forest have been
discussed here to familiriaze the output of ICZM plan-
ning for sustainable development. The recommended
strategies for environmental governance are;
1) Natural resources of the inhabited island s should be
2) Encourage developmental activities in inhabited is-
3) Relax the statutes, towards development in the in-
habited island.
4) Apply participatory management technique.
To achieve the above strategies, the following deci-
sions have been recommended for activities on the natu-
ral resources.
Natural resource
Tourism Fisheries AgricultureAquaculture/
Mariculture Jetties/
Harbor Energy
producti Water
Forest L R R R E E
Surface water E E E E E
Streams L L E E E E
Coral reef E L R R R
Mangroves E E R R R R
Beaches E L L
Tribe R
Fauna & Flora R E E E
L = Limit, R = Restrict, E = Encourage, X = Relax.
The recommended strategies for forests management
1) Adopt flexible protection policy in the inhabited is-
2) Regulate and relax the coastal inv estments.
3) Encourage human welfare structures in the inhab-
ited islands.
4) Encourage harvest of economically viable forest
products in the inhabited islands.
5) Increase awareness and education camps.
To achieve the above strategies, the following deci-
sions ha ve be en recommended;
Forest control
Tourism Fisheries AgricultureAqua/mari
culture Jetties/
Harbour Energy
production Water
harvest Harvest forest
Reserve Forest L L L R R E E E
Sanctuaries L L L R R E E E
Coastal Regulation Zone X X X X X X E
Forest Act X X X X X X
Wildlife Act X X R R R R X
Sensitive ecosystems X X X X X X X X
= Limit, R = Restrict, E = Encourage, X = Relax.
Methodology of Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plan Preparation—Case Study of Andaman Islands, India
11. Implementation Hint
Implementation of ICZM plan is a diplomatic phase,
which requires involvement and participation of all
stakeholders of the plan area. The stakeholders of the
area should have thorough knowledge about the plan
objectives and components. The ICZM plan should be a
common implementation framework of all departments
of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The actions of the
ICZM implementation activities should be managed and
monitored by one among the existing departments in-
volved in ICZM planning process and the regional task
force can support the implementation activities. Task
force should have the representatives of the various de-
partments of the administrative block and the people
representatives. Cross-sectoral coordination and consul-
tation towards the developmental activities of the de-
partments shall be encouraged prior to actions. To in-
crease the fund resources to implement the developmen-
tal plans of the ICZM, central government ministries
shall be approached. Local fund raising to share the de-
velopment activities cou ld encourage public participation
in management and monitoring. Sector wise develop-
mental plans may implement by case-by-case basis,
based on the access and reception of the inhabited popu-
lation. Exchange of experts/specialists within the de-
partment of different regions and between departments of
Andaman are recommended for exchanging ideas to im-
prove implementation techniques. External experts may
be invited to get knowledge in special subjects case by
case basis. Before implementing any developmental plan,
the staff and peer group of Andaman and Nicobar islands
shall be trained on ICZM plan implementation mecha-
nism. Social institution strength ening an d political will to
implement the ICZM plan shall be achieved among the
12. Conclusions
ICZM plan is an essential long term tool offers direction s
to the short term developmental and management plans
of the nation. ICZM plans have the capacity to identify
the changes in the so ciety and harmonize the institu tional
adjustment. This not only helps to meet the local re-
quirements but also offers prerequisite for the interna-
tional charters towards globalization and millennium
development goals. The recommended strategies and
decisions are based on the studies conducted between
2001 and 2003 and the decisions and strategies are suit-
able for short term. Assimilation of international pro-
grams, treaties, conventions, charters etc. in the ICZM
plans, sectoral plans and local level plans provides ad-
vantageous for long term sustainable management goals.
The case study of ICZM methodology prepared for
Andaman Islands may be used for implementation in
India and other coastal states of India. However, it is not
essential to follow the methods and approached for
ICZM plan preparation for Andaman Islands. ICZM plan
preparation methods could be varied because coastal re-
sources, issues, and manag ement options are not uniform
all over the world. ICZM Plan is mandatory for CRZ
(Coastal Regulation Zone) Notification (2011), which is
the notification under Env ironmen t Protection Act (1986),
Government of India. Hence, ICZM plan is essential le-
gal document for all development and protection plans of
all coastal states of India. Methodology of case study of
ICZM plan preparation methods of Andaman Islands and
its outputs are widely accepted by the practitioners.
Planning is a continuous process based on social and
institutional changes, since human wants are not always
been satisfied.
13. Acknowledgements
The authors wish to thank Prof. S. Ramachandran, Anna
University, Chennai, India for conductin g the ICZM Plan
preparation project and for developing this manuscript.
Further, the authors wish to thank Ministry of Environ-
ment and Forests, Government of India for the finance
support to conduct the case study.
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