bSignificance of contrasts comparing bromoxynil/MCPA alone with bromoxynil/MCPA + Crop Booster denoted by * for P < 0.10 and ** for P < 0.05 beside the means.

Table 6. Comparison of visual weed control 4 and 8 WAA, and yield for bromoxynil/MCPA alone vs bromoxynil/MCPA + Crop Booster in winter wheat. Values for the weedy check were not included in the analysisa.

aAbbreviations: AMBEL, common ragweed; CHEAL, common lambsquarters; WAA, weeks after herbicide application. bSignificance of contrasts comparing bromoxynil/MCPA alone with bromoxynil/MCPA + Crop Booster denoted by * for P < 0.10 and ** for P < 0.05 beside the means.

3. Results and Discussion

Prominent weed species in this study included velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti Medic.; ABUTH), redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.; AMARE), common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.; AMBEL), common lambsquarters (Chenopdium album L.; CHEAL); green foxtail (Setaria viridis L.; SETVI) and annual grasses. Weed control for each species were analyzed only when they existed in at least 50% of field plots (Tables 1-6).

3.1. Corn

There was no injury in corn with any of the herbicides evaluated (data not shown). The addition of Crop Booster or RR SoyBooster to glyphosate, glyphosate + topramezone + atrazine and glyphosate + thiencarbazone-mrthyl/ tembotrione had no effect on corn injury at rates evaluated (data not shown).

The addition of Crop Booster to glyphosate did not cause any effect on the control velvetleaf, pigweed species, common ragweed, common lambsquarters and annual grasses except at 4 WAA when control of pigweed species was increased by 1% and at 4 and 8 WAA when control of lambsquarters was reduced by 1% (Table 1). The addition of RR SoyBooster to glyphosate did not affect control of velvetleaf, pigweed species, common ragweed, common lambsquarters, green foxtail and annual grasses (Table 2). The addition of Crop Booster to glyphosate + topramezone + atrazine also did not affect control of velvetleaf, pigweed species, common ragweed, common lambsquarters, green foxtail and annual grasses in corn except at 4 WAA when control of common ragweed was reduced by 1% (Table 3). The addition of Crop Booster to glyphosate + thiencarbazone- methyl/tembotrione did not affect control of pigweed species, common ragweed, common lambsquarters, green foxtail and annual grasses in corn except at 4 WAA when control of green foxtail and annual grasses were reduced by 2% and 1%, respectively (Table 4).

The addition of Crop Booster or RR SoyBooster to corn increased yield as much as 2.5% with glyphosate and glyphosate + topramezone + atrazine and decreased yield as much as 1.5% with glyphosate + thiencarbazone/tembotrione but the differences were not statistically significant (Tables 1-4). Hanson [8] studying a biostimulant (Humates) found significant increases in yield of vegetable crops with biostimulants. Corn yields have been shown to increase significantly in other studies with other biostimulants [9] .

3.2. Oats

There was minimal injury (1% or less) injury in oats with the herbicides evaluated alone or when co-applied with Crop Booster (data not shown). The addition of Crop Booster to bromoxynil/MCPA had no effect on oats injury at rates evaluated (data not shown).

Bromoxynil/MCPA controlled redroot pigweed 98% - 100%, common ragweed 92% - 96%, common lambsquarters 97% - 100%, wild buckwheat 93% - 98%, green smartweed 98% - 100% and wild mustard 99% - 100% in oats (Table 5). The addition of Crop Booster to bromoxynil/MCPA did not affect the control of redroot pigweed, common ragweed, common lambsquarters, wild buckwheat, green smartweed and wild mustard compared to the herbicide applied alone (Table 5).

Oats yield ranged from 3.41 - 3.8 MT ha1 among treatments evaluated. The addition of Crop Booster to bromoxynil/MCPA had no effect on oats yield (Table 5).

3.3. Winter Wheat

There was minimal injury (1% or less) injury in winter wheat with herbicides evaluated alone or in tank mix combination with Crop Booster (data not shown). The addition of Crop Booster to bromoxynil/MCPA had no effect on winter wheat injury at rates evaluated (data not shown).

Bromoxynil/MCPA provided as much as 97% control of common ragweed and 99% control of common lambsquarters in winter wheat (Table 6). The addition of Crop Booster to bromoxynil/MCPA did not affect the control of common ragweed and common lambsquarters in winter wheat (Table 6).

Winter wheat yield ranged from 5.03 - 5.16 MT ha1 among treatments evaluated. The addition of Crop Booster to bromoxynil/MCPA increased winter wheat yield 2.6% however the difference was not statistically significant (Table 6). In other studies, Al-Majathoub [11] studying four different biostimulants (Vigro, Biomin, Humiplus and Humacare) found as much as 21% increase in tiller numbers and as much as 8.2% increase in wheat yield.

4. Conclusion

Based on these results, there was no increase in visible injury with the addition of Crop Booster to glyphosate, glyphosate + topramezone + atrazine and glyphosate + thiencarbazone-methyl/tembotrione in corn. The addition of Crop Booster to glyphosate, glyphosate + topramezone + atrazine and glyphosate + thiencarbazone/tembot- rione had minimal effect (2% or less) on weed control. There was a small numeric increase in corn yield with the addition of Crop Booster or RR SoyBooster to glyphosate and Crop Booster to glyphosate + topramezone + atrazine, but this increase in yield was not statistically significant at the p = 0.05 level. Additionally, there was minimal visible injury (1% or less) with the addition of Crop Booster to bromoxynil/MCPA in oats and winter wheat. The addition of Crop Booster to bromoxynil/MCPA also did not affect weed control in oats and winter wheat. There was a small numeric increase in oat and winter wheat yield with the addition of Crop Booster to bromoxynil/MCPA, but this increase in yield was not statistically significant at the p = 0.05 level.

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to acknowledge Todd Cowan and Lynette Brown for their expertise and technical assistance in these studies.

References

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Abbreviations

ABUTH, velvetleaf; AMASS, green or redroot pigweed; AMBEL, common ragweed; CHEAL, common lambsquarters; GGGAN, annual grass; SETVI, green foxtail; WAA, weeks after herbicide application.

NOTES

*Corresponding author.

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