halin applied PRE has also been shown to cause as little as 1% crop injury and no yield reduction in white bean [25] .

4. Conclusion

This study concludes that UAN can be used as the carrier solution for dimethenamid-p, pendimethalin, imazethapyr and halosulfuron applied PPI or PRE and does not cause any incompatibility problems in respect to the spray solution. Herbicide carrier (water or UAN at 200 L∙ha−1) has minimal effect on the tolerance of white bean to dimethenamid-p, pendimethalin, imazethapyr and halosulfuron applied preplant incorporated or pree-mer- gence under Ontario environmental conditions.

Table 2. Main effects and interaction for white bean injury, plant stand, dry weight, height, seed moisture at harvest and yield with various herbicides applied PRE in water or UAN. Means followed by the same letter within a column are not significantly different according to Fisher’s Protected LSD at P < 0.05. Means for a main effect were separated only if there was no significant interaction involving that main effect.a

aAbbreviations: C, herbicide carrier; H, herbicide treatment; NS, not significant at P = 0.05 level; PRE, preemergence. bSignificance at P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 levels denoted by * and **, respectively.


The authors would like to acknowledge Todd Cowan for his expertise and technical assistance in these studies. Funding for this project was provided by the Ontario Bean Growers and the Growing Forward II of the Agricultural Adaptation Council.

Cite this paper

NaderSoltani,ChristyShropshire,Peter H.Sikkema, (2016) Influence of Herbicide Carrier on the Tolerance of White Bean to Preplant Incorporated and Preemergence Herbicides. American Journal of Plant Sciences,07,63-68. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2016.71007


  1. 1. Breuer, T. (2002) The Emerging Bean, Harvest 2002 Edition. Ontario White Bean Producers, London, 16 p.

  2. 2. Kumuduni, K. (2014) Estimated Area, Yield, Production and Farm Value of Specified Field Crops, Ontario, 2011-2014. Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food and Rural Affairs.

  3. 3. Chikoye, D., Weise, S.F. and Swanton, C.J. (1995) Influence of Common Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) Time of Emergence and Density on White Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Weed Science, 43, 375-380.

  4. 4. Malik, V.S., Swanton, C.J. and Michaels, T.E. (1993) Interaction of White Bean (Phaselous vulgaris L.) Cultivars, Row Spacing, and Seeding Density with Annual Weeds. Weed Science, 41, 62-68.

  5. 5. Urwin, C.P., Wilson, R.G. and Mortensen, D.A. (1996) Responses of Dry Edible Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Cultivars to Four Herbicides. Weed Technology, 10, 512-518.

  6. 6. Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (2014) Guide to Weed Control. Publication 75, Toronto.

  7. 7. Senseman, S.A. (2007) Herbicide Handbook. 9th Edition, Weed Science Society of America, Champaign, 458 p.

  8. 8. Stahlman, P.W., Currie, R.S. and El-Hamid, M.A. (1997) Nitrogen Carrier and Surfactant Increase Foliar Herbicide Injury in Winter Wheat. Weed Technology, 11, 7-12.

  9. 9. Claassen, M.M. and Peterson, D.E. (1993) Cheat Control in Winter Wheat with Triasulfuron and Chlorsulfuronp Lus Metsulfuron. Proc. North Cent.Weed Sci. Soc., 48, 33-34.

  10. 10. Klein, R.N. and Thrailkill, D.J. (1994) Wild Buckwheat Control in Winter Wheat with Triasulfuron. Proc. West. Soc. Weed Sci., 47, 69-70.

  11. 11. Lutcher, L.K. and Mahler, R.L. (1985) Evaluation of Urea-Ammoniumn Nitrate (UAN) Topdress Applications on Winter Wheat in Northern Idaho. Journal of Fertilisers, 2, 74-79.

  12. 12. Lutcher, L.K. and Mahler, R.L. (1988) Sources and Timing of Spring Topdress Nitrogen on Winter Wheat in Idaho. Agronomy Journal, 80, 648-654.

  13. 13. Wicks, G.A., Martin, D.A. and Mahnken, G.W. (1995) Cultural Practices in Wheat (Triticum aestivum) on Weeds in Subsequent Fallow and Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). Weed Science, 43, 434-444.

  14. 14. Wicks, G.A. and Hergert, G.W. (1992) Effect of Fertilizer plus Herbicide Solution on Winter Wheat. Proceedings of the North Central Weed Science Society, 47, 29-33.

  15. 15. Soltani, N., Nurse, R.E., Shropshire, C. and Sikkema, P.H. (2009) Effect of Halosulfuron Applied Preplant Incorporated, Preemergence, and Postemergence on Dry Bean. Weed Technology, 23, 535-539.

  16. 16. Soltani, N., Shropshire, C. and Sikkema, P.H. (2012) Response of Dry Beans to Halosulfuron Applied Postemergence. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 92, 723-728.

  17. 17. Soltani, N., Nurse, R.E., Shropshire, C. and Sikkema, P.H. (2012) Weed Control, Environmental Impact and Profitability of Pre-Plant Incorporated Herbicides in White Bean. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 3, 846-853.

  18. 18. Soltani, N., Nurse, R.E., Shropshire, C. and Sikkema, P.H. (2013) Weed Control in White Bean with Pendimethalin Applied Preplant Followed by Postemergence Broadleaved Herbicides. The Open Plant Science Journal, 7, 24-30.

  19. 19. Soltani, N., Nurse, R.E., Shropshire, C. and Sikkema, P.H. (2014) Weed Control in White Bean with Various Halosulfuron Tankmixes. The Advances in Agriculture, 2014, 1-7.

  20. 20. Stewart, C.L., Nurse, R.E., Gillard, C. and Sikkema, P.H. (2010) Tolerance of Adzuki Bean to Preplant-Incorporated, Pre-Emergence, and Post-Emergence Herbicides in Ontario, Canada. Weed Biology and Management, 10, 40-47.

  21. 21. Soltani, N., Nurse, R.E., Shropshire, C. and Sikkema, P.H. (2014) Sensitivity of Dry Bean to Dimethenamid-p, Saflufenacil and Dimethenamid-p/Saflufenacil. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 5, 3288-3294.

  22. 22. Soltani, N., Nurse, R.E., Shropshire, C. and Sikkema, P.H. (2014) Weed Control with Halosulfuron Applied Preplant Incorporated, Preemergence or Postemergence in White Bean. Agricultural Science, 5, 875-881.

  23. 23. Poling, K.W., Renner, K.A. and Penner, D. (2009) Dry Edible Bean Class and Cultivar Response to Dimethenamid and Metolachlor. Weed Technology, 23, 73-80.

  24. 24. Soltani, N., Shropshire, C., Cowan, T. and Sikkema, P.H. (2004) White Bean Sensitivity to Preemergence Herbicides. Weed Technology, 18, 675-679.

  25. 25. Soltani, N., Nurse, R.E., Shropshire, C. and Sikkema, P.H. (2013) Response of Dry Bean to Pendimethalin Applied Preplnat Incorporated or Preemergence. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 8, 4827-4832.


*Corresponding author.

Journal Menu >>