International Journal of Geosciences, 2011, 2, 214-226
doi:10.4236/ijg.2011.23023 Published Online August 2011 (
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. IJG
An Example for Arc-Type Granitoids along Collisional
Zones: The Pertek Granitoid, Taurus Orogenic Belt,
Sevcan Kürüm1*, Bünyamin Akgül1, Ayten Öztüfekçi Önal2, Durmuş Boztuğ2, Yehudit Harlavan3,
Melek Ural1
1University of Fırat, Engineering Faculty, Department of Geleogy, Elazığ, Turkey
2University of Tunceli, Engineering Faculty, Department of Geleogy, Tunceli, Turkey
3Geological Survey of Israel, Jerusalem, Israel
E-mail: *
Received April 5, 2011; revised June 8, 2011; accepted July 14, 2011
The Pertek granitoid consisting dominantly of diorite, quartz diorite, quartz monzodiorite, tonalite and lesser
granite, adamellite and syenite, is considered to form the easternmost continuation of the Central Anatolian
Crystalline Complex. Diorite and monzonites of this granitoid complex are cut by the granitic dykes. The
Pertek granitoid, in the study area, is found in the Permo-Triassic Keban metamorphic sequence along intru-
sive and tectonic contacts. Along the intrusive contacts metasomatic mineralizations are common. Granitoids
are, depending on the mineralogical composition, low-, middle- high-K subalkaline features. Major oxide-
SiO2 variation diagrams show that fractionation (particularly plagioclase, hornblend, pyroxene and olivine
fractionation) played an important role on the granitoid formation during a continuous crystallization process.
Distribution of the samples from the Pertek granitoid in the tectonic setting diagrams, and their chondrite-
and primordial mantle-normalized trace element patterns resemble to the of arc-type granitoids. Trace
element and rare earth element compositions indicate that the magma, from which the Pertek granitoid
crystallized, derived from a mantle that was enriched by the fluids derived from the subducted slab, however
this magma was contaminated by the crust during its intrusion. These geochemical characteristics are also
supported by the field observations. The field and geochemical characteristics of the Pertek Granitiod
suggest that they are similar to the other granitoids cropping out in the central and eastern Anatolia and they
form the lateral continuation of the same magmatic belt.
Keywords: Pertek, Tunceli, Island Arc, Granitoid, Geochemistry
1. Introduction
E-SE Anatolia Orogenic Belt was formed along the colli-
sion zone between Afro-Arabic and Aurasian plates during
the Middle Miocene [1,2]. Palaeozoic-Mesozoic platform-
type carbonates, supra-subduction zone ophiolites and
granitoids are found together and form the tectono-
magmatic unites of this belt. Isotopically dated granitoids
of this belt yield a Cretaceous-Eocene age [3,4,2]. These
granitoids are considered to be formed along the south-
ern Neo-Tethyan subduction in the larger-scale Neo-
Tethyan Conversion System and expose in three different
areas. From west to east, in the collision zone, Afşin-
Elbistan (Kahramanmaraş), Doğanşehir (Malatya) and
Baskil-Keban (Elazığ) granitoids have been studied in
detail and results have been published [5-17,3,18].
The Pertek granitoid, in a similar fashion to the other
granitoids along this belt, show intrusive contacts with
the Palaeozoic-Mesozoic Keban metamorphics (Keban
platform-type carbonates). Platform-type carbonates were
thrust onto the granitoids by the Eocene aged and younger
tectonic activity to form the tectonic contact observed
between the granitoids and the older metamorphic se-
quence [19]. Both the basement units and the Pertek
Granitoid, in the study area, are overlain by the Teriary
marine sediments, terrestrial volcanic rocks and equiva-
lent terrestrial sediments [20] (Figure 1).
In this study, field occurences, petrographical and geo-
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. IJG
Figure 1. Location map of the study area and Geological map of the Pertek granitoid (simplified) [21].
chemical characteristics of the Pertek granitoid are
documented for the first time. Results of this study will
discuss the tectonic setting and source of the magmatic
rocks in the area and contribute to the understanding of
the geological evolution of the region. This contribution
would also explain to the future researchers that using
only geochemical data in order to evaluate the geological
evolution of the region may result in erroneous inter-
2. Analytical Techniques
The geological maps [21] covering the area where Pertek
granitoid crops out were used in this study and they were
revised whenever needed. Samples were taken from
different rock units in relatively fresh parts of the units.
Of those, 45 samples were examined under polirizan
microscope. Totally 34 samples were geochemically an-
alysed 29 of them in ACME Laboratories (Canada) and 5
of them in ACTLAB (Canada) and their major element
oxide, trace element and rare earth element contents were
3. Regional Geology
SE Anatolian Orogenic Belt was controlled by the opening
of southern branch of the Neo-Tethys Ocean from Late
Triassic to Early Cretaceous between the Keban Paltform
and Pütürge metamorphics [22] and following northward
subduction under the Keban Plate during Senomanian-
Turonian. Yazgan and Chessex [8] suggested that Eastern
Tauride tectonism developed as an arc-continent collision
between Keban and Arabic microcontinents that started
in Late Cretaceous-Early Mastrichtian and continued
until Early Eocene. Magmatic rocks observed in this
orogenic belt formed along an arc that developed on
oceanic and continental crust in Malatya Province and
westward [22,6]. A number of researchers [8,1,9,12,4,14]
documented that this magmatic belt consists of calc-
alkaline volcanic and plutonic rocks.
Palaeozoic-Mesozoic Keban metamorphics form the
oldest units in the study area. The Keban metamrophics
consist of marble, chalk schist and amphibolites and
bound the magmatic rocks along their northern side
(Figure 1) in the studey area. Kipman [23], suggested
that the Keban metamorphics are Jurassic-Early Creta-
ceous in age and metamorphosed under low P-T con-
ditions. Yazgan [22] on the other hand suggested that the
platform-type carbonates in this metamorphic sequence
metamorphosed under gren schist methamorphism con-
ditions during Senomanian along the subducion zone.
Özgül and Turşucu [24] also suggested green schist
conditions for the metamrophism of the Keban meta-
morphics supporting Yazgan’s view [22]. Some resear-
chers [6,9] on the other hand proposed that the arc
magmatism caused the metamorphism. Intrusive contact
between the arc magmatics and metamorphics and mine-
ralizations along this intrusive contact has been pre-
viously documented by various researchers. [22,10,18,
The Pertek granitoid crops widely crop out in the
northern and southern part of the Keban Dam to the
north of Elazığ. The Pertek granitoid is overlain by the
Eocene-Oligocene marine sediments and Miyo-Pliocene
terrestrial volcanic and sedimentary sequences.
4. Field Characteristics
The Pertek pluton crops out widely along two opposite
sides of the Keban Dam Lake situated to the North of
Elazığ, therefore appears like two different plutons in the
field. In this study is focused on the northern side of the
dam lake (Figure 1) where the magmatic rocks consist of
diorite-gabbro, quartz diorite, tonalite, monzonites and
cross-cutting dykes of acidic composition. These diffe-
rent units are not indicated in geological map, however
diorites crop out widely along the study area, whreas
tonalites have wide outcrops in western parts of the study
area. Monzonites, on the other hand, volumetrically do-
minates the outcrops to the south of Pertek.
In the field, diorites are weathered, medium-grained,
competent, dark gray-black in appearence and form a
smooth topography. Tonalites consist of large quartz
crystals, less amount of mafic minerals and more mafic
microgranular enclaves (MME). To the west of Pertek,
close to the carbonates of the surrounding metamorphic
association, strong hydrothermal alteration and oxidi-
zation in mafic minerals are common. Prolonged amphi-
boles which are found along the intrusive contacts may
indicate a skarn zone. Presence of skarn metamorphism
in the region has previously been noted by Altunbey and
Çelebi [25]. Mafic microgranular enclaves, preserved in
the main pluton, are generally rounded and ellipsoidal in
shape and reach up to 50 cm in diameter. Dioritic main
body is cross cut by the harder, felsic, fine grained,
acidic and strongly altered porphyres that are exhumed
widely in the north of Pertek and its thickness vary from
a few meters to few hundreds meters. In the southeastern
part of Pertek, close to the Keban Dam Lake, monzonites
are less altered then the other magmatic lithologies.
Monzonites are easily distinguished in the field because
of containing pink K-feldspar crystals which display
lengths from a few milimeter to a few centimeters. Mon-
zonites are not mappable in scale and generally found as
small stocks cutting diorites and tonalites in the lower
parts and a few tens of meter-thick dykes, in the upper
parts. At the 30th km of Pertek-Tunceli highway, in a
valley, up to 3 m-thick, hard, NW-SE-trending, almost
vertical aplite dykes are also found in the upper part of
the magmatic body. In the uppermost part of these dykes
cataclastic enclaves are commonly found.
The Kırkgeçit formation cropping out in the study area
is represented by sandstone-mudstone alternation and
channel-fill conglomerates [19]. The Late Miocene-Plio-
cene aged Karabakır formation which is dominated by
the pyroclastic rocks and lava flows in the study area,
forms the youngest unit and crops out in the N-NW part
of the study area.
The thrust fault along which the Keban metamorphics
are found tectonically overlying the Pertek magmatics,
form the main tectonic structure in the study area
(Figure 1). [19] suggested that this approximetely 10°
north dipping fault is Late Cretaceous - Late Palaeocene
in age. NW-SE trending strike-slip fault which is observed
in the west of Pertek, is another significant tectonic
structure in the area (Figure 1).
5. Petrography
Petrographically the Pertek granitoid consists of quartz
diorite, tonalite-granite/granodiorite, monzonite, diorite/
gabbro. Samples are dominantly plotted in quartz diorite,
diorite quartz monzodiorite and tonalite areas in nomen-
clature diagram [26] and only one sample is found in
granite, ademellite and syenite areas respectively (Figure
2). Places of the samples in the geochemical nomen-
clature diagrams are in accordance with the petrographic
nomenclature. Sample PR-20 is plotted in the geoche-
mical nomenclature diagram in granite area, PR-31 in
syenite area and PR-26 in ademellite area and they are
found in Streckeisen [27] triangle diagram in monzo-
granite area.
Diorites and quartz diorites are fine to medium grained
granular and poikilitic in texture and are dominated by
plagioclase and hornblende crystals. In some of the
samples hornblends are greater in amount than the pla-
gioclases. Plagioclases in diorites commonly show une-
quilibrium textures of oscillatory zoning and polysyn-
thetic twinning indicating open system processes like
magma mixing [28]. Subhedral or skeleton shaped horn-
blends with green pleocroism are commonly chloritized.
Poikilitic texture is characterized in hornblends by pla-
gioclase and opaque mineral inclusions. In some horn-
blende crystals relic pyroxenes are observed indicating
that hornblends were formed by uralitization in pyro-
Tonalite, granite and granodiorites are coarse grained
hypidiomorphic granuler in texture. Plagioclase, quartz,
amphibole, K-feldspar, apatite, zircon, sphene and opaque
minerals form the mineral association. Plagioclases are
the dominant felsic minerals and show albite twinning,
zoneing and overgrowth texture. Quartz crystals are vary-
ing in size, unhedral and show wavy extinction. Amphi-
boles show green pleochroism. Chloritization and opaci-
tation in amphiboles and argillic alteration in K-feldspars
are the common alteration types. Sphenes are found as
coarse idiomorph cystals and apatites as acicular crystals
in accessory phase. Zircon is rarely observed.
In monzonites plagioclase, amphibole, quartz and K-
feldspar form the main mineral phase. Amphiboles with
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Figure 2. QP plot [26] for samples from the Pertek granitoid.
slight, pale gren pleochroism are rarely found as coarse
crystals but commonly as pseudomorphic acicular crystals.
Chloritization is the common alteration type.
Sample PR-31 is distinguishable from the remaining
sample even as hand specimen. Large amount of perthitic
K-feldspar crystals give a pink color to the syenites in
hand specimen. The main minerals forming the rock are
perthitic K-feldspars. Quartz content of the Syenites is
6. Geochemistry
Whole rock geochemical composition of 34 samples
from the Pertek granitoid is given in Table 1 and results
are plotted in total alkalies-Silica (Figure 3(a)) and AFM
(Figure 3(b)) diagrams. All samples, except for syenite
(PR 31), are gathered in subalkaline area in total alkalies-
silica diagram. Diorite/gabbro and quartz diorite samples
are mostly tholeiitic-high Mg and other samples are
calk-alkaline in nature. In AFM diagram quartz monzo-
diorites and granites are found in high K area and other
samples are found in low K area. According to Shand
index samples are metaluminous in character (A/CNK=
–0.5 - 1; A/NK < 1) and I-type in nature (A/CNK < 1.1)
[29]. The I-type nature of the samples is in accordance
with the mafic mineral assemblage.
In Harker-type variation diagrams, it is distinguished
that the Pertek granitoid evolved from a single magma
phase during continuous normal fractional crystallization
stage. During this crystallization stage mineral fractio-
nation did not develope in diorites, less developed in
quartz diorites and well developed in tonalites. Addi-
tionally, while, depending on the mafic composition,
enrichment in FeO*, MgO, CaO
2 and Ti2O ratios is
observed in diorites (Figure 4(b), (c), (d), (g)); enrich-
ment in Na2O ratio are observed depending on the K-
feldspar (Figure 4(e)) in tonalites and quartz monzo-
In the chondrite-normalized spider diagams (Figure
5(a), (c), (e)), diorites and quartz diorites show similar
patterns (Figure 5(a), (c)). In both groups, some of the
samples are depleted in LREEs and others are enriched.
In these diagrams, in some of the diorite and quartz
diorite samples, depletion in LREEs is more significant
than the others. In these samples depletion in HREEs is
also more distinguishable compared to the others. In de-
pleted LREEs samples a significant enrichment of Eu is
observed. In addition to the similar REE patterns of
diorite and quartz diorite samples, a concave pattern
from the enriched LREEs to depleted HREEs is observed
(Figure 5(a), (c), (e)). The REE composition of samples
indicate a fractionation processes in these rocks [30].
In the Primordial mantle-normalized spider diagrams
(Figure 5(b), (d), (f)) diorites and quartz diorites show
two different patterns in LILEs (K, Rb, Ba, Th) (Figure
5(b), (d)). An enrichment in LILEs in the other rock
groups, on the other hand, is clear (Figure 5(f)). Signi-
ficant enrichment in LILEs may indicate an E-MORB or
within plate setting for the basic rocks [31]. In the acidic
rocks, however, enrichment in LILEs may indicate either
crustal contamination [32] or enrichment by fluids derived
from the oceanic crust [33]. In these diagrams, Nb show
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Table 1. Major (%) and trace element (ppm) contents of the Pertek granitoides.
SiO2 56.11 63.14 62.94 48.26 44.40 46.2246.4346.8046.34 44.95 46.60 48.1247.65 54.89 49.98 50.85 56.68
Al2O3 13.73 17.84 17.69 17.36 16.44 16.5021.7817.9314.73 17.29 14.24 15.5314.70 17.86 18.05 20.33 17.69
Fe2O3 7.09 4.13 4.58 11.44 11.24 8.665.645.8012.877.54 8.82 7.547.46 7.24 10.10 7.09 6.85
MgO 3.52 1.16 1.25 6.24 7.45 8.866.6710.847.8411.5112.279.9911.46 4.31 5.60 4.50 3.14
CaO 7.79 4.36 4.70 11.08 12.6 15.7315.5915.1314.1912.6913.3113.8814.80 7.99 9.66 10.95 7.07
Na2O 2.86 4.85 4.47 2.18 2.21 1.391.491.241.36 1.45 1.41 1.731.25 4.10 2.64 2.97 4.12
K2O 2.67 3.18 3.10 0.49 0.52 0.12 0.10 0.19 0.110.07 1.42 1.22 0.90 2.40
TiO2 0.32 0.28 0.30 0.84 0.58 0.420.160.181.42 0.36 0.43 0.340.36 0.52 0.72 0.47 0.48
P2O5 0.10 0.09 0.09 0.06 0.06 0.02<0.01<0.010.03 0.01 0.02<0.010.01 0.08 0.09 0.06 0.11
MnO 0.16 0.09 0.007 0.18 0.19 0.16 0.12 0.180.14 0.13 0.13 0.15 0.12 0.13
LOI 5.5 0.7 0.6 1.6 4.6 1.7 1.9 1.7 1.2 3.7 2.2 2.3 1.7 1.3 1.5 1.5 1.1
Total 99.84 99.80 99.78 99.74 99.78 99.79 99.8499.7999.71 99.78 99.75 99.7899.73 99.78 99.70 99.79 99.76
K2O/P2O5 26.70 35.33 34.44 8.17 8.67 10.00 9.5011.001.00 17.75 13.56 15.0021.82
A/CNK 0.51 0.59 0.59 0.56 1.07 0.49 1.21 0.96 0.990.91 1.32 1.34 1.37 1.30
A/NK 2.48 2.22 2.34 6.50 6.02 10.9313.9613.9010.0911.158.908.4411.14 3.24 4.68 5.25 2.71
Ni (ppm) <20 21 <20 22 <20 62 41 78 41 148133109196 22 78 <20<20
Sc 7 5 4 35 26 52 41 40 57 27 37 58 51 16 31 26 10
Cs 2.1 2.8 1.2 0.1 0.8 0.1 <0.1<0.10.2 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.3 2.0 3.2 5.9 1.0
Ga 14.8 16.8 16.6 16.4 14.5 12.8 13.910.315.3 11.8 10.0 12.110.5 17.3 17.1 16.3 16.8
Hf 3.5 4.6 4.1 1.7 0.9 0.7 0.3 0.3 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.3 0.3 2.7 2.2 1.7 3.0
Sn 1 1 <1 <1 <1 1 <1 <1 <1 <1 <1 4 <1 1 <1 1 1
Ba 361 835 1019 137 98 23 14 8 9 12 20 13 7 471 512 288713
Rb 77.8 88.2 79.8 6.0 16.1 2.4 1.0 1.0 1.11.4 6.4 1.2 1.1 48.3 24.8 19.665.0
Sr 243 464 548 257 289 193222174226 150 179156 145 487 467 677 631
Nb 9.9 17.6 11.6 3.1 3.2 0.8 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.5 0.5 0.2 <0.1 7.8 8.6 8.810.6
Zr 124.6 190.0 184.9 60.9 32.4 15.68.5 3.6 19.1 14.8 17.87.9 8.5 112.0 76.2 59.3130.4
Ta 0.5 1.4 1.1 0.2 0.2 <0.1<0.1<0.1<0.1<0.1<0.1<0.1<0.1 0.3 0.8 0.8 0.6
Th 4.5 19.6 11.3 1.8 0.7 0.2 <0.2<0.2<0.2<0.2<0.2<0.2<0.2 10.2 3.7 6.89.0
U 1.9 3.9 3.4 0.8 0.4 0.1 0.1 <0.1<0.10.1 0.2 <0.1<0.1 3.1 1.8 2.8 3.9
V 44 38 51 374 247 239150115715 115 160185197 151 317 151 116
W 50.5 3.3 2.0 <0.5 37.1 5.1 1.8 1.1 <0.56.1 1.7 3.3 <0.5 1.5 <0.5 3.3 1.1
Y 21.5 16.0 11.7 14.1 14.8 12.04.7 4.4 12.17.6 9.1 7.6 9.7 11.9 17.1 11.6 12.9
La 14.5 28.0 17.6 5.8 6.1 1.4 0.6 0.5 0.8 1.0 2.3 0.6 0.5 17.2 12.8 10.620.4
Ce 27.9 47.1 31.9 12.5 12.9 3.7 1.2 0.9 2.42.7 3.9 1.4 1.5 25.8 25.2 18.7 31.3
Pr 3.42 5.00 3.54 1.61 1.78 0.630.180.160.44 0.45 0.53 0.270.28 2.75 3.06 2.27 3.35
Nd 12.9 16.9 12.4 7.0 7.3 3.6 1.1 0.8 2.9 2.4 2.7 1.7 2.0 10.6 12.0 8.711.0
Sm 2.73 2.74 2.14 1.75 1.73 1.09 0.360.361.08 0.74 0.88 0.620.85 1.91 2.61 1.86 2.11
Eu 0.98 0.72 0.68 0.62 0.68 0.440.220.250.57 0.37 0.39 0.350.47 0.61 0.82 0.58 0.78
Gd 3.05 2.42 1.88 2.17 2.19 1.57 0.570.631.77 1.02 1.22 1.041.36 2.01 2.73 1.88 2.25
Tb 053 0.44 0.36 0.40 0.40 0.30 0.21 0.26 0.220.27 0.35 0.47 0.37 0.40
Dy 3.39 2.59 1.96 2.38 2.51 1.890.850.782.16 1.24 1.47 1.361.71 1.97 2.83 2.11 2.31
Ho 0.72 0.51 0.41 0.51 0.52 0.440.180.160.46 0.28 0.34 0.300.36 0.41 0.58 0.41 0.46
Er 2.05 1.73 1.34 1.48 1.53 1.27 0.500.461.34 0.74 0.99 0.830.99 1.32 1.66 1.23 1.45
Tm 0.35 0.33 0.26 0.23 0.24 0.14 0.23 0.25 0.22 0.26
Yb 2.29 2.10 1.54 1.55 1.52 1.210.500.461.24 0.75 0.91 0.780.93 1.43 1.66 1.25 1.59
Lu 0.34 0.36 0.26 0.23 0.23 0.12 0.24 0.25 0.21 0.26
Ba/Nb 36.46 47.44 87.84 44.19 30.63 28.75 70.0040.0045.00 24.00 40.00 65.0077.78 60.38 59.53 32.73 67.26
La/Nb 1.46 1.59 1.52 1.87 1.91 1.75 3.002.504.00 2.00 4.60 3.005.56 2.21 1.49 1.20 1.92
La/Ta 29.0 20.0 16.0 29.0 30.5 14.06.7 6.3 11.4 11.1 25.67.5 5.0 57.3 16.0 13.3 34.0
Zr/Nb 12.59 10.80 15.94 19.65 10.13 19.5042.5018.0095.529.60 35.6039.50 94.44 14.36 8.86 6.7412.30
Nb/U 5.21 4.51 3.41 3.88 8.00 8.00 5.00 2.502.004.00 2.52 4.78 3.14 2.72
Rb/Sr 0.32 0.19 0.15 0.02 0.06 0.01 0.01 0.04 0.010.01 0.10 0.05 0.03 0.10
;quartz monzodiorite, ,diorite, ;quartz diorite, ; tonalite, ;granite, ;adamellite, ;syenite
Figure 3. Major element geochemical discrimination diagrams of the Pertek granitoid. (a) Total alkalis vs silica [47]; dividing
line between alkaline and subalkaline fields [48] (b) AFM triangular diagram [47].
Figure 4. Major oxides vs. SiO2 variation diagrams for rock samples from the Pertek granitoid.
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Figure 5. (a) Chondrite (b-c) PRIM normalized spider diagrams for the Pertek granitoid. (PRIM and Chondrite normalizing
values after [49]).
7. Petrogenesis
a significant negative anomaly whereas Sr show, parti-
cularly in diorites and quartz diorites, a strong positive
anomaly. Ti, in all different lithologies but parti- cularly
in tonalites, show a strong negative anomaly (Figure
5(f)). Medium and heavy REEs (Sm-Lu) are depleted in
all rock types. When all the geochemical characteristics
of the geographically close and minera- logically similar
diorites are taken into consideration, this significant
difference observed in spider diagrams do not seem to be
caused by fractionation or fractional crystallization from
a single magma source. Mixing of two different magma
sources may explain these geoche- mical chracteristics
Fractional crystallization processes during crystallization
of the Pertek granitoid is defined in Harker type major
oxides-silica diagrams (Figure 4). In these diagrams a
negative correlation in FeO*, MgO, CaO, Ti2O ve MnO
ratios and a positive correlation in Na2O and K2O ratios
with the increasing SiO2 indicate the fractional crystalli-
zation. Particularly MgO ratios of 3% - 14 % in diorites
and quartz diorites indicate that olivine and pyroxene
played important role during the fractionation phase. In
the other rock groups amphiboles accompanied olivine
and pyroxene during fractionation. This fractionation
could be defined also in LILE and HFSE vs silica dia-
grams (Figure 6). For example, in quartz and quartz
diorites Rb and Ba contents increase with the increasing
silica (Figure 6(a) and (b)) indicating assimilation-
fractional crystallization processes. Similarly in Sr-SiO2,
Y-Rb variation diagrams (Figure 6(c) and (d)), amphi-
bole and bio- tite effect in diorites, quartz diorites and
tonalites is clear.
Samples from the Pertek granitoid are plotted in che-
mical affinity diagram of Debon Le Fort [26] (Figure 7)
(I, II, III are peraluminous, IV, V, VI are metaluminous
in character), our samples in this diagram are plotted in
areas of IV and V indicating metaliminous-cafemic cha-
racter. However some samples including diorites, are
found in leucogranites area. Autochthonous or intrusive
granitoids of peraluminous character are related to the
crustal source in collisional or post collisional tectonic
setting. Metaluminous more basic rocks, on the other
hand, are related to crust-mantle (hybrid) source in
collisional or post collisional tectonic setting. Debon Le
Fort [26] noted that aluminous magma suites generally
were formed by the partial melting of sialic material and
cafemic suites may evolve from mantle or, more com-
monly, a hybrid magma of mantle-sialic material mixing.
Debon Le Fort [26] suggests cafemic character of magma
suites indicate depletion in mantle source.
Ni composition is an important indicator in plutonic
rocks in order to determine if the source was primitive or
originated from depleted mantle. In tonalites and quartz
monzodiorites of the Pertek granitoid, Ni composition
varies from 15 to 24 ppm indicating that their source was
not primitive mantle but may be a fractionally crysta-
llized depleted mantle [34]. However, in diorites Ni ratio
varies from 18 to 178 ppm and in quartz diorites from 17
to112 ppm (Table 1) indicating that the more basic rocks
might have evolved from primitive mantle. In addition to
that, most of the acidic and basic samples are gathered in
an area between MORB and subduction melt areas in
La/Nb-Ti variation diagram (Figure 8(a)). In Th/Yb-
Ta/Yb variation diagram they are found in subduction
zone and N-type MORB areas and effect of fractional
crystallization could be defined in diagram (Figure 8b).
In the Zr/Yb-Nb/Yb diagram (Figure 8c) diorites are
found in an area between depleted mantle (DM) or
Oceanic Island Basalt (OIB) areas. Quartz diorites, in the
same diagram, are gathered in Enrich-Ocean Ridge Basalt
Figure 6. (a-c) Rb, Ba and Sr vs. silica semi-logarithmic variation diagrams of Pertek granitoid. (d) Y vs Rb. AFC;
assimilation-fractional crystallisation, opx; orthopyroxene, cpx; clinopyroxene, amp; amphibole, plg; plagioclase, bio; biotite,
K-feld; K-feldspar, hb; hornblende, gt; garnet, zr; zircon, ol; olivine.
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. IJG
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. IJG
Figure 7. Chemical trends representing the main magma
associations of the Pertek granitoid in the A-B characteri-
stic minerals diagram [26]. I, II, III and IV, V, VI regions
represent the peraluminous and metaluminous domains. Bi;
biotite, mu; muscovite, hb; hornblende, opx; orthopyroxene,
cpx; clinopyroxene, ol; olivine, ALUM; aluminous, ALCAF;
aluminocafemic, CAFEM; cafemic association.
(E-MORB) area, and tonalites are found between DM
and E-MORB areas. All samples are plotted in volcanic
arc granitoid area in Nb-Y and Rb-Y/Nb variation dia-
grams (Figure 9). In Sm/Yb-Ce/Sm diagram, diorites are
found in MORB area, and the others are in between
MORB-OIB areas. Pearce et al. [35] noted that gathering
in these areas might be caused by subduction zone en-
richments of crustal contamination. Distribution of sam-
ples from the Pertek granitoid in Rb/Y-Nb/Y and Ba/Nb-
La/Nb diagrams (Figure 10(a)-(c)) also show a crustal
contributions into the magma.
As mentioned above, increasing in Rb/Sr and K2O/
P2O5 ratios with increasing SiO2 is a clear indicator of
crustal contamination (Table 1) [36]. However, this con-
tamination should be considered with the assimi-
lation-fractional crystallization (AFC) and partial melting
[37]. Low La/Ta ratio also indicates crustal contami-
nation [31]. When these interpretations are taken into
consideration, these La/Ta ratios in diorites (La/Ta =
19.1), quartz diorite ((La/Ta = 20.7) and quartz monzo-
diorite (La/Ta = 21.7) indicate effects of crustal contami-
nation for these groups but tonalites (La/Ta = 38.7).
In some diagrams, given above, Pertek granitoid show
similar geochemical composition to the mantle wedge.
Considerably high Ba/Nb (11-139) and Zr/Nb (6-79)
ratios (Table 1) indicate that these rocks were subjected
to a mantle-sourced depletion [38]. Similarly, except for
syenite (PR-31) and one quartz diorite sample, La/Nb
ratios are higher than 1 and this also indicates that these
groups evolved from a lithospheric mantle source [39]. It
Figure 8. (a) La/Nb vs. Ti (ppm) [35]. (b) Th/Yb vs. Ta/Yb,
[35] and (c) Zr/Yb vs. Nb/Yb plots of the rock samples from
the Pertek granitoides. SMZ; subduction zone magmatites,
MORB; Ocean Ridge Basalt, OIB; Ocean Island Basalt, FC;
Fractional Crystallisation, DM; Depleted Mantle, N, E-
MORB; Normal - Enrich Ocean Ridge Basalt.
is widely accepted that in subcontinental lithospheric
mantle-sourced magma La/Nb is higher (La/Nb > 1) than
asthenospheric mantle-sourced ones (La/Nb < 1) [39]. In
Pertek granitoid samples La/Nb ratio varies from 1, 2 to
4, 6 indicating a lithospheric melt. However, some re-
searchers also suggest that relative depletion in Nb and
Ta might be caused by interaction between subconti-
nental litfospheric and astenospheric melts [40].
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. IJG
Figure 9. (a) Nb – Y and (b) Rb - Y+Nb [50] geotectonic discrimination diagrams for the Pertek granitoid. Syn COLG;
Syn-Collisional Granitoid, WPG; Within-Plate Granitoid, VAG; Volcanic-Arc Granitoid, ORG; Ocean-Ridge Granitoid.
Figure 10. (a) Sm/Yb vs. Ce/Sm, (b) Rb/Y vs. Nb/Y [35], (c) Ba/Nb vs. La/Nb [51] plots of the rock samples from the Pertek
8. Discussion and Conclusions
The NW-SE-trending Pertek granitoid consists of dio-
rites, quartz diorites, quartz monzodiorites, tonalites and
crosscutting aplites and monzonitic dykes that were all
formed in similar tectonic setting. Large amount of mafic
microgranuler enclaves are found in quartz diorites,
tonalites and monzonites. All these rocks, except for a
sample (PR-31) taken from syenites, are sub-alkaline;
diorites and quartz diorites are tholeiitic and others are
calc-alkaline in nature and all of them are evolved from a
single phase magma during a normal crystallization
process. Major element-silica variation characteristics
show that fractionation particularly plagioclase, horn-
blend, pyroxene and olivine played an important role on
their formation during a continuous crystalliation period.
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. IJG
Table 2. The general features of the granitoides in the E-SE Anatolia.
Rocks Magma type Tectonic setting Age
Göksun-Afşin Granodiorite and granitic [4] Calc-alkaline [4] Volcanic Arc [4] 85.76±3.17-77.49±1.91 [4]
Doğanşehir Amphibole gabbro, diorite, quartz diorite,
tonalite, granodiorite [43, 44]
I-type, peralüminus,
calc-alkaline [43, 44] Volcanic arc [43,44] Compatible with the Baskil,
Göksun-Afşin and Keban [4]
Granite, granodiorite, tonalite, quartz
monzonite, diorite, gabbro, aplite, diabase
[2,16], granophyric, granite porphyre,
granodiorite porphyre, microdiorite,
quartz microdiorite, quartz
diorite-porphyre, orbicular gabbro [2]
I-type [13], metalüminus,
peralüminus [2,16],
calc-alkaline [2] ±
Magmatic arc [14,45]
Ensimatic ısland arc
[3, 14]
Volcanic arc granitoid
Granitoid=81.5±1.1 [2]
Diabase=78 my [16]
Granite=76 ±2.5 – 78.5±2.5 my
Keban Tonalite, quartz diorite, gabbro, dacite,
andesite, basalt [9,6,17]
I-type, metalüminus,
Diorite-gabbros; tholeiitic,
M-type, metalüminus [17]
Volcanic Arc [17]
Tonalite=59.77 ± 1.2 -75.65 ±
Diorite= 84.76 + 1.8 [17]
Pertek Diorite, quartz diorite, Q.monzodiorite,
tonalite, granite, syenite
I-type, metalüminus,
Q.monzodiorite and
tonalite; calc-alkaline,
Diorite and Q.diorite;
calc-alkaline and tholeiitic
Volcanic Arc
Granitoid 68.6±5.6
Chontrite and pimordial mantle-normalized patterns of
diorite and quartz diorites show two different path
indicating that mantle-sourced magma that later formed
the Pertek granitoid was enriched by fluids derived from
the oceanic crust in an arc setting, and contaminated by
continental crust. This result is supported by both the
petrographic and geochemical evidences that magma
formed in an arc setting, enriched by magmatic fluids
derived from a subducted oceanic crust, injected into the
crust and contaminetd in this crustal environment.
The repeated modifications in subcontinental litho-
spheric mantle by dehidration in subduction zones and
accretionary prism sediments included by subcontinental
lithospheric mantle [41] caused a relative depletion in Ti,
Nb and Ta and an enrichment in Ba. The fact that the
rocks are concentrated in classical sedimentary and
granulite areas may indicate the same thing as well.
Significant negative Nb and Ti anomalies in Pertek gra-
nitoid are probably caused by its subduction sediment
content. Negative Ti anomaly may also indicate apatite
and Fe-Ti oxides played important role on petrogenesis
In the geological map of MTA [21], the Cretaceous
magmatic rocks cropping out to the N and NE of Elazığ
are defined as “ophiolites” and “unclassified magmatic
rocks”. The Pertek granitoid crops out in a part of this
region and when our conclusions are compared with the
other granitoids cropping out in the region, it is seen that
they display similar characteristics (Table 2). Thus, it
might be concluded that the Pertek granitoid is the east-
ern continuation of Elbistan (Kahramanmaraş), Doğan-
şehir (Malatya), Baskil and Keban (Elazığ) granitoids.
The future petrographic and geochemical studies on
the cross-cutting acidic dayks would contribute in under-
standing if the magmatism was bimodal in nature or not.
In order to clarify the problems, related to the place and
importance of the Pertek granitoid within the context of
geotectonic evolution of the region, additional studies are
needed along with the detailed geochemical studies we
presented in this article. We continue studying isotop
geochronology and isotop geochemistry of the Pertek
granitoid in accordance with our purpose.
9. Acknowledgements
The authors gratefully acknowledge a grant from the
University of Fırat, Project number FUBAP-1109 (Fırat
University Scıentific Research Projects Unıt).
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