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forces or dynamic gravitation [1,2].

The thermal acceleration aT as a factor affecting the

nucleus was estimated. At the lattice vibration frequency

1013 Hz and harmonic vibrations, we have aT 1016

g which is insignificant for objects of nuclear scale [2].

The last statement for heavy radioactive and/or unstable

deformed nuclei does not seem convincing; however,

observations confirm this statement. Therefore, the exis-

tence of unexpected physical mechanisms “preserving”

the nucleus can be assumed. For example, the electron

shell is similar to a damping system at external accelera-

tions of the atom and internal accelerations of the nu-

cleus with respect to the electron shell. At times of

~10–12 s, the force constant at a relative displacement of

neutron and proton components in the 57Fe nucleus is

3·1023 dyn/cm; at an acceleration of 1016 g, the maxi-

mum displacement in the nucleus is ~10–13 of the nu-

cleus radius [4]. Even shorter times correspond to the

elastic interaction of particles with nucleus. Therefore,

the consideration of the nucleus as a purely mechanical

system (shell model) determines its mechanical charac-

teristics as a superstrength nuclear matter. In all experi-

ments when a -ray source was under conditions of dy-

namic gravitation, some radiation anomalies were ob-

served, which, unfortunately, were unnoticed by the au-

thors of [1-5].

2.1. Dynamic Gravitation and Features of

Atomic Nucleus Physics

2.1.1. Oscillator under Conditions of Dynamic

Gravitation [6,7]

Let us mainly consider only frequency properties. For

the classical oscillator, the oscillation frequency is

km

, where k and m are the oscillator stiffness

and mass. For the quantum-mechanical oscillator, the

features follow from the solution to the Schrödinger

equation, i.e., there exists a discrete set of energy eigen-

values En = ħ(12),km n n = 0, 1, 2,; ħ = h/2,

h is Planck’s constant; energy levels are arranged at

equal distances, the selection rule allows transitions only

between adjacent levels, the quantum oscillator emits

only at one frequency coinciding with the classical one

km

. The zero-point energy ħ

/2(

= 2/T, Т is

the oscillation period) exists for the quantum oscillator.

The zero-point oscillation amplitude is lm

, i.e.,

under conditions of dynamic gravitation, the quantum

oscillator emission frequency and the zero-point oscilla-

tion amplitude decrease. The harmonic oscillator Ham-

iltonian is expressed in terms of creation ˆ

and anni-

hilation ˆ

operators,

ˆˆ

ˆ12HhA A

.

All modern models of the quantum field theory are

determined on the multivariate generalization of this

expression, i.e., dynamic gravitation can have many ef-

fects, including those on the quantum oscillator transi-

tions from one energy level (n) to others (m) under an

external force. This is also true for oscillations of ele-

mentary particles and selection rules between energy

levels of quantum systems (elementary particle, atomic

nucleus, atom, molecule, crystal). Let us consider in

more detail the behavior of the atomic nucleus.

2.1.2. Atomic Nucleus under Conditions of

Dynamic Gravitation [8]

The atomic nucleus 10–12 - 10–13 cm in size has a posi-

tive electric charge multiple of the electron charge e

magnitude, Q = Ze, Z is the integer number, i.e., the

atomic number of the element in the periodic system.

The atomic nucleus consists of nucleons. The total

number of nucleons is the mass number A, the nucleus

charge Z is the number of protons, the number of neu-

trons characterizes the isotope; isotopes with different Z,

but equal N are isotones; isotopes with equal A, but dif-

ferent Z and N are isobars. Nucleons consist of quarks

and gluons; the nucleus is a complex system of quarks

and interacting gluon and meson fields. (The meson is a

complex system constructed of a pair of particles with

spin 1/2, i.e., quark and antiquark (qq

) and a small frac-

tion of gluons; the gluon is a neutral particle with spin 1

and zero mass; it is a carrier of the strong interaction

between quarks). However, the nuclear state cannot be

described within quantum chromodynamics because of

significant complexity. At not too high excitation ener-

gies or under normal conditions, deviations from the

nucleus steady state are minor and manifest themselves

as follows. During the interaction, nucleons can transit to

excited states (resonances) or nucleon isobars (1% in

time). In the nucleus, a quark-gluon matter bunch can

arise for a short time due to nonabsolute blocking of

quarks in nucleons. Nucleon properties in the nucleus

can differ from properties in the free state. In nuclei,

(virtual) mesons periodically (10–23 - 10–24) appear. The

study of non-nucleon degrees of freedom of the nucleus

is the problem of relativistic nuclear physics; however,

proceeding from the general nature of resonances and

instabilities, these processes will be suppressed under

conditions of dynamic gravitation.

Nucleons as hadrons exhibit the strong interaction

(nuclear forces) which confines them in the nucleus (the

result of the interaction between quarks and gluons; the

theory is not completed). The interaction via meson ex-

change is characterized by the interaction radius, i.e., the

Compton wavelength

с = h/µc, µ is the meson mass.

During the µ-meson exchange,

с = 1.41 ФМ (1 ФМ =

10–13 cm). In the case of heavier mesons (

,

, and oth-

ers), the interaction of nucleons is affected at shorter