Vol.3, No.7, 600616 (2011) Natural Science http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ns.2011.37083 Copyright © 2011 SciRes. OPEN ACCESS The wavecorpuscle properties of microscopic particles in the nonlinear quantummechanical systems Xiaofeng Pang Institute of Life Science and Technology, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054, China and International Centre for Materials Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shenyang, China; *Corresponding Author: pangxf2006@yahoo.com.cn Received 12 December, 2010; revised 20 February, 2011; accepted 3 March 2011. ABSTRACT We debate first the properties of quantum me chanics and its difficulties and the reasons re sulting in these diffuculties and its direction of development. The fundamental principles of nonlinear quantum mechanics are proposed and established based on these shortcomings of quantum mechanics and real motions and interactions of microscopic particles and backgound field in physical systems. Subse quently, the motion laws and wavecorpuscle duality of microscopic particles described by nonlinear Schrödinger equation are studied completely in detail using these elementary principles and theories. Concretely speaking, we investigate the waveparticle duality of the solution of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, the mechanism and rules of particle collision and the uncertainty relation of particle’s mo mentum and position, and so on. We obtained that the microscopic particles obey the classical rules of collision of motion and satisfy the minimum uncertainty relation of position and momentum, etc. From these studies we see clearly that the moved rules and features of mi croscopic particle in nonlinear quantum me chanics is different from those in linear quan tum mechanics. Therefore, nolinear quantum mechanics is a necessary result of development of quantum mechanics and represents correctly the properties of microscopic particles in nonlinear systems, which can solve difficulties and problems disputed for about a century by scientists in linear quantum mechanics field. Keyw ords: Microscopic Particle; Nonlinear Interaction; Quantum Mechanics; Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation; Basic Principle; Nonlinear Theory; WaveParticle Duality; Motion Rule 1. INTRODUCTION, WAVE FEATURE OF MICROSCOPIC PARTICLES AND DIFFICULTIES OF QUANTUM MECHANICS It is well known that several great scientists, such as Bohr, Born, Schrödinger and Heisenberg, etc. estab lished quantum mechanics in the early 1900s [19], which is the foundation and pillar of modern science and provides an unique way of describing the properties and rules of motion of microscopic particles (MIP) in mi croscopic systems. The elementary hypotheses of quan tum mechanics can be described as Eq.1. The states of microscopic particles is described by a wave func tion ,t r or wavevector, ,t r, which represents the state of the particle at position rand time t and sat isfies the following superposition principle: 112 2 ,,,tc tct rrr or 112 2 CC (1) where 1 or 1 and 2 or 2 are two states of the microscopic particle, C1 and C2 are constants relating to its states of a microscopic particle. The superposition principle manifests that the linear superposition of two different states of the particle describes still it’s a state. Therefore, it is referred to as the linear superposition principle of states of the microscopic particle. The changed rules of the state of microscopic particle with varying of time and space satisfy the following Schrö dinger equation: 2 2, 2 iVt tm r (2) where 22 2m is the kinetic energy operator, ,Vtr is the externally applied potential operator, m is the mass of particles, In this theory the Hamiltonian op erator of the system corresponding dynamic Eq.2 is 22 ˆ2, tmVt r (3) (2) The mechanical quantity, which denotes the prop erties of microscopic particle, is represented by an op
X. F. Pang / Natural Science 3 (2011) 600616 Copyright © 2011 SciRes. OPEN ACCESS 601 erator. The value of a physical quantity A in an arbitrary state is given by some statistic averagevalues, which are denoted by AA , or AA . (4) Only if the particle is in its eigenstate, then its me chanical quantities have determinant values. Thus a pair conjugate mechanical quantities cannot be simultane ously determined in a same state, i.e., their fluctuations satisfy the following Heisenberg uncertainty relation: 2 22 ˆˆ4 with, and AB CiCAB AAA (5) The quantum mechanics has achieved a great success in descriptions of motions of microscopic particles, such as, the electron, phonon, exciton, polaron, atom, mole cule, atomic nucleus and elementary particles, and in predictions of properties of matter based on the motions of these particles. For example, energy spectra of atoms (such as hydrogen atom, helium atom), molecules (such as hydrogen molecules) and compounds, electrical, op tical and magnetic properties of atoms and condensed matters can be calculated based on linear quantum me chanics and the calculated results are in basic agreement with experimental measurements. Thus considering that the quantum mechanics is thought of as the foundation of modern science, then the establishment of the theory of quantum mechanics has revolutionized not only physics, but also many other science branches such as chemistry, astronomy, biology, etc., and at the same time created many new branches of science, for instance, quantum statistics, quantum field theory, quantum elec tronics, quantum chemistry, quantum optics and quan tum biology, etc. Therefore, we can say the quantum mechanics has achieved a great progress in modern sci ence. One of the great successes of linear quantum me chanics is the explanation of the fine energy spectra of hydrogen atom, helium atom and hydrogen molecule. The energy spectra predicted by the quantum mechanics are in agreement with experimental data. Furthermore, new experiments have demonstrated that the results of the Lamb shift and superfine structure of hydrogen atom and the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron predicted by the theory of quantum electrodynamics are in agreement with experimental data. It is therefore be lieved that the quantum electrodynamics is one of the successful theories in modern physics [918]. Studying the above postulates in detail, we can find [713] that the quantum mechanics has the following characteristics. 1) Linearity. The wave function of the particles, ,t r, satisfies the linear Schrödinger Eq.2 and linear superposition principle (1). In the meanwhile, the opera tors are some linear operators in the Hilbert space. This means that the quantum mechanics is a linear theory, thus it is quite reasonable to refer to the theory as the linear quantum mechanics. 2) The independence of Hamiltonian operator on the wave function. From Eq.3 we see clearly that the Ham iltonian operator of the systems is independent on the wave function of state of the particles, in which the in teraction potential contained relates also not to the state of the particles. Thus the potential can change only the states of the particles, such as the amplitude, but not its natures. Therefore, the natures of the particles can only be determined by the kinetic energy term, 22 2Tm in Eqs.2 and 3. 3) Simplicity. We can easily solve arbitrary compli cated quantum problems in the systems, only if their potential functions are obtained. Therefore, to solve quantum mechanical problems becomes almost to find the representations of the external potentials by means of various approximate methods. This theory states that once the externally applied potential field and initial states of the microscopic particles are given, the states of the particles at any time later and any position can be determined by the Schrödinger Eq.1 in the case of non relativistic motion. 4) The wave feature. The Schrödinger Eq.2 is in es sence a wave equation and has only wave solutions, which do not include any corpuscle feature. In fact, let the wave function be exp iEt and substitute it into Eq.2, we can obtain 2222 00fx knf , where 222 0 nEUECkk , C is a constant, 22 02kmEU. This equation is nothing but that of a light wave propagating in a homogeneous medium. Thus, the linear Schrödinger Eq.2 is unique one able to describe the wave feature of the microscopic particle. In other words, when a particle moves continuously in the spacetime, it follows the law of linear variation and disperses over the spacetime in the form of a wave of microscopic particles. Therefore, the linear Schrödinger Eq.2 is a wave equation in essence, thus the microscopic particles are only a wave. This is a basic or essential nature of the microscopic particles in quantum mechan ics. This nature of the particles can be also verified by us ing the solutions of Eq.2 [718]. In fact, at ,0Vt r, its solution is a plane wave: ,exptA it rkr (6) where k, , and are the wavevector, frequency,
X. F. Pang / Natural Science 3 (2011) 600616 Copyright © 2011 SciRes. OPEN ACCESS 602 and amplitude of a wave, respectively. This solution de notes the state of a freely moving microscopic particle with an eigenenergy: 2 222 1,,, 22xyz xyy p Epppppp mm This is a continuous spectrum. It states that the prob ability of the particle to appear at any point in the space is same, thus a microscopic particle propagates freely in a wave and distributes in total space, this means that the microscopic particle cannot be localized and has nothing about corpuscle feature. If a free particle can be confined in a small finite space, such as, a rectangular box of dimension a, b and c, the solution of Eq.1 is standing waves as follows: 3 12 π ππ ,,, sinsinsine iEt nz nxn y xyztAabc where n1, n2 and n3 are three integers. In this case, the particle is still not localized, it appears also at each point in the box with a determinant probability. In this case the eigenenergy of the particle in this case is quantized as follows: 2 22 22 3 12 222 π 2 n nn Emabc where n1, n2 and n3 are some integers. The corresponding momentum is also quantized. This means that the wave feature of microscopic particle has not been changed because of the variation of itself boundary condition. If the potential field is further varied, for example, the microscopic particle is subject to a conservative timeindependent field, ,0VtVrr, then the microscopic particle satisfies the timeindependent linear Schrödinger equation 2 2 2VE m r where 'e iEt r. When VFr, here is a constant field force, such as, a one dimensional uniform electric field E’ , then eVx Ex , thus its solution is 32 1 12 2, 3 x AH l where 1 x is the first kind of Hankel function, A is a normalized constant, l is the characteristic length, and is a dimensionless quantity. The solution remains a dispersed wave. When , it approaches 32 14 23 'eA ,which is a damped wave. If 2 Vx ax, the eigenenergy and eigenwave fun ction are 222ax nn NeH x with 1, 2 n En (n = 0,1,2,…), respectively, here n x is the Hermite polynomial. The solution obviously has a decaying feature. If the potential fields are successively varied, we find that the wave nature of the solutions in Eq.2 does not change no matter what the forms of interaction potential. This shows clearly that the wave nature of the particles is intrinsic in quantum mechanics. 5) Quantization. The properties of microscopic parti cles are quantized in the microscopic systems. Con cretely, the eigenvalues of physical quantities of the par ticles are quantized. For instance, the eigenenergy at ,0Vt r is quantized as mentioned above, when 2 Vx ax, its eigenenergy, 12 , n En is also quantized, and so on. In practice, the momentum, mo ment of momentum and spin of the microscopic particles are all quantized in quantum mechanics. These quantized effects refer to as microscopic quantum effects,which occur on the microscopic scale. Very sorry, the wave nature of the particles obtained from this theory is not only incompatible with de Broglie relation, Eh and pk,of wavecorpuscle duality for microscopic particles and Davisson and Germer’s experimental result of electron diffraction on double seam in 1927 [913], but also contradictory to the traditional concept of particles. Thus a lot of difficulties and problems occur in quantum mechanics, among them the central problem is how we represent the corpuscle feature of the microscopic particles. Aimed at this issue, Born introduce a statistic explanation for the wave func tion, and use 2 ,t r to represent the probability of the particles occurring the position r at time t in the spacetime. However, the microscopic particles have a wave feature and can disperse over total system, thus the probability 2 ,t r has a certain value at every point, for example, the probability of the particle denoted by Eq.5 is same at all points. This means that the particle can occur at every point at same time in the space. In this case, a fraction of particle must appear in the sys tems, which is a very strange phenomenon and is quite difficult to understand. However, in experiments, the particles are always captured as a whole one not a frac tional one by a detector placed at an exact position. Therefore, the concept of probability representing the corpuscle behavior of the particles cannot be accepted [1518]. On the other hand, we know from Eqs.2 and 3 that the quantum mechanics requires to incorporate all interac tions among particles or between particles and back ground field, such as the lattices in solids and nuclei in atoms and molecules, including nonlinear and compli cated interactions, into the external potential by means of various approximate methods, such as, the free elec tron and average field approximations, BornOppenhei
X. F. Pang / Natural Science 3 (2011) 600616 Copyright © 2011 SciRes. OPEN ACCESS 603 mer approximation, HartreeFock approximation, Tho mas Fermi approximation, and so on. This is obviously incorrect. The method replacing these real interactions by an average field amounts to freeze or blot out real motions and interactions of the microscopic particles and background fields, which was often used in the quantum mechanics to study the properties of the particles in the systems of many particles and many bodies [1518]. This indicates that the quantum mechanics is only an approximate theory and therefore quantum mechanics cannot be used to solve the properties of the microscopic particles, such as electrons in atoms. In contrast, since the electron denoting by ,t r in atoms is a wave, then it does not have a determinant position in quantum mechanics, but the vector r is use to denote the posi tion of the electron with charge e and mass m in the wave function and the Coulemb potential, V(r) = –Ze2/r. Thus it is difficult to understand correctly these contra dictory representations in quantum mechanics. These difficulties and problems of the quantum me chanics mentioned above inevitably evoked the conten tions and further doubts about the theory among physi cists. Actually, taking a closer look at the history of physics, we could find that not so many fundamental assumptions were required for a physical theory but the linear quantum mechanics. Obviously, these assumptions of linear quantum mechanics caused its incompleteness and limited its applicability. However, the disputations continued and expanded mainly between the group in Copenhagen School headed by Bohr representing the view of the main stream and other physicists, including Einstein, de Broglie, Schrödinger, Lorentz, etc. [718]. Why does quantum mechanics have these questions? This is worth studying deeply and in detail. As is known, dynamic Eq.2 describes the motion of a particle and Hamiltonian operator of the system, Eq.3, consist only of kinetic and potential operator of particles; the poten tial is only determined by an externally applied field, and not related to the state or wavefunction of the particle, thus the potential can only change the states of MIP, and cannot change its nature and essence. Therefore, the na tures and features of MIP are only determined by the kinetic term. Thus there is no force or energy to obstruct and suppress the dispersing effect of kinetic energy in the system, then the MIP disperses and propagates in total space, and cannot be localized at all. This is the main reason why MIP has only wave feature in quantum mechanics. Meanwhile, the Hamiltonian in Eq.3 does not represent practical essences and features of MIP. In real physics, the energy operator of the systems and number operator of particles are always associated with the states of particles, i.e., they are related to the wave function of MIP. On the other hand, Eq.2 or 3 can de scribe only the states and feature of a single particle, and cannot describe the states of many particles. However, a system composed of one particle does not exist in nature. The simplest system in nature is the hydrogen atom, but it consists of two particles. In such a case, when we study the states of particles in realistic systems com posed of many particles and many bodies using quantum mechanics, we have to use a simplified and uniform av eragepotential unassociated with the states of particles to replace the complicated and nonlinear interaction among these particles [1925]. This means that the mo tions of MIP and background field as well as the interac tions between them are completely frozen in such a case. Thus, these complicated effects and nonlinear interac tions determining essences and natures of particles are ignored completely, to use only a simplified or average potential replaces these complicated and nonlinear in teractions. This is obviously not reasonable. Thus nature of MIP is determined by the kinetic energy term in Eq.2. Therefore, the microscopic particles described by quan tum mechanics possess only a wave feature, not corpus cle feature. This is just the essence of quantum mechan ics. Then we can only say that quantum mechanics is an approximate and linear theory and cannot represent completely the properties of motion of MIPs. However, what is its direction of development? From the above studies we know that a key shortcoming or defect of LQM is its ignoring of dynamic states of other particles or background field and the dependence of the Hamiltonian or energy operator of the systems on the states of particles as well as nonlinear interactions among these particles. As a matter of fact, the nonlinear interactions always exist in any physics systems includ ing the hydrogen atom, if only the real motions of the particles and background as well as their interactions are completely considered [1730]. At the same time, it is also a reasonable assumption that the Hamiltonian or energy operator of the systems depend on the states of particles [1932]. Hence, to establish a correct new quantum theory, we must break through the elementary hypotheses of LQM, and use the above reasonable as sumptions to include the nonlinear interactions among the particles or between the particles and background field as well as the dependences of the Hamiltonian of the systems on the state of particles. Thus, we must es tablish nonlinear quantum mechanism (NLQM) to study the rules of motion of MIPs in realistic systems with nonlinear interactions by using the above method [1932]. 2. ESTABLISHMENT OF NONLINEAR QUANTUM MECHANICS Pang worked out the NLQM describing the properties
X. F. Pang / Natural Science 3 (2011) 600616 Copyright © 2011 SciRes. OPEN ACCESS 604 of motion of MIPs in nonlinear systems [1730]. The elementary principles, theory, calculated rules and ap plications of NLQM are proposed and established based on the relations among the nonlinear interaction and soliton motions and macroscopic quantum effect through incorporating modern theories of superconductors, su perfluids and solitons [2327]. In these physical systems the Hamiltonian, free energy or Lagrangian functions of the systems are all nonlinear functions of the wave func tion of the microscopic particles which break down the hypotheses for the independence of the Hamiltonian of the systems on the states of the particles and the linearity of the theory in the LQM, the dynamic equations of microscopic particles, such as superconductive electrons and superfluid heliem atoms which were depicted by a macroscopic wave function, , ,,e it tt r rr , are the timeindependent and timedependent GinzburgLan dau equations (GL) and GrossPitaerskii (GP) equation [3338], which are in essence the nonlinear Schrödinger equation and have a soliton solution with a wavecorpuscle duality because the nonlinear interac tions can balance and suppress the dispersive effect of the kinetic energy in these dynamic equations [2327]. Therefore, the investigations of essences and properties of macroscopic quantum mechanics, superconductivity and superfluid provide direction for establishing nonlin ear quantum mechanics [2327]. Based on the above discussions, the fundamental principles of nonlinear quantum mechanics (NLQM) proposed by Pang can be summarized as follows [19 32]. 1) Microscopic particles are represented by the fol lowing wave function, , ,,e it tt r rr (7) where both the amplitude ,t rand phase ,t r of the wave function are functions of space and time, and satisfy different equation of motion. 2) In the nonrelativistic case, the wave function ,t r satisfies the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE), i.e., 22 2, 2 ibVtA tm r (8) or 22 2, 2bVtA tm r (9) where μ is a complex number, V is an external potential field, A is a function of ,t r, and b is a coefficient indicating the strength of nonlinear interaction. In the relativistic case, the wave function ,t r satisfies the nonlinear KleinGordon equation (NLKGE), including the generalized SineGordon equation (SGE) and the 4 field equation, i.e., 22 22 sin j A t tx (j = 1, 2, 3) (10) and 22 2 22 j A tx (j = 1, 2, 3) (11) where γ represents a dissipative or frictional effects, is a constant, β is a coefficient indicating the strength of nonlinear interaction and A is a function of ,t r. The Lagrange density function corresponding to Eq.8 at 0A is given by [2327]: 2 tt 2 i L= 22m Vx (b/2) (12) where L’ = L is the Lagrange density function. The mo mentum density of the particle system is defined as P . Thus, the Hamiltonian density of the sys tems is as follows tt 22 i 2 2 2m HL Vb x (13) where H’ = H is the Hamiltonian density. Eqs. 12 and 13 show clearly that the Lagrange density function and Hamiltonian density of the systems are all related to the wave function of state of the particles and involve a nonlinear interaction, (b/2) 2 * . From the above fundamental principles, we see clearly that the NLQM breaks through the fundamental hypotheses of LQM in two aspects, namely the linearity of dynamic equations and independence of the Hamiltonian operator with the wave function of the particles. In the NLQM, the dy namic equations are all some nonlinear partial differen tial equations, in which nonlinear interactions, 2 b , related to state wave function are involved; the Hamiltonian and Lagrangian operators in Eqs.12 and 13 corresponding to these equations also are all related to the state wave function . Hence, so far as this point is concerned, the NLQM [2327] is really a breakthrough or a new development in quantum mechanics. In nonlinear quantum mechanics the natures of microscopic particles are simultaneously determined by the kinetic and nonlinear interaction terms. Thus we expect [3840] that the nonlinear interaction could suppress and balance the dispersive effect of kinetic energy of the particles in dynamics equations and make the particles be localized as soliton with wavecorpuscle feature. However, the nonlinear Schrödinger equation and nonlinear Klein
X. F. Pang / Natural Science 3 (2011) 600616 Copyright © 2011 SciRes. OPEN ACCESS 605 Gordon equation are evolved from linear Schrödinger equation and linear KleinGordon equation in linear quantum mechanics. Therefore, nonlinear quantum me chanics is a development of linear quantum mechanics. The superconductivity, superfluidity, macroscopic quan tum effects of materials are the experimental foundation of nonlinear quantum mechanics, its theoretical basis is modern superconductive, superfluid and soliton theo ries [3340], the mathematical foundation is the nonlin ear partial differential equations and the soliton theory. Based on the elementary principle Pang [2327] estab lished the theory of nonlinear quantum mechanics, which includes the superposition theorem of state of the particles, relation of nonlinear Fourier transformation, nonlinear perturbation theory, theory of nonlinear quan tization, eigenvalue theory of nonlinear Schrödinger equation, calculated method of eigenenergy of Hamilto nian operator and relativistic theory of nonlinear quan tum mechanics, collision and scattering theory of mi croscopic particles, and so on [2527]. Thus a complete nonlinear quantum mechanics was established. Then we can investigate the rules and properties of motion of mi croscopic particles in any physical systems using these principle and theories of nonlinear quantum mechanics. 3. THE WAVECORPUSCLE PROPERTIES OF MICROSCOPIC PARTICLES 3.1. WaveCorpuscle Duality of Solution of Simple Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation As it is known, the microscopic particles have only the wave feature, but not corpuscle property in the quantum mechanics. Thus, it is very interesting what are the properties of the microscopic particles in the nonlin ear quantum mechanics? We now study firstly the prop erties of the microscopic particles described by nonlinear Schrödinger equation in Eq.8. In the onedimensional case, the Eq.8 at V(x,t)= A( )=0 becomes as 20 txx ib (14) where 22 xm , tt . We now assume the solution of Eq.11 to be of the form 0 ,e ik xxit xt (15) where 0e xvt . Inserting Eq.16 into Eq.15 we can obtain 22 2()0, 0 e ikvk b b (16) If the imaginary coefficient of vanishes, then 2 e kv . Let 2 Ak we get from Eq.16 30bA （17） This equation can be integrated, which results in 224 2DA b (18) where D is an integral constant. The solution of Eq.18 is obtained by inverting an elliptic integral: 024 d 2DA b (19) Let 1/2 22 42 12 2PAbD , where 1/4 2b , from Eq.19 we can get ,Kk Fk , where K(k) and , k are the first associated elliptic integral and incomplete elliptic integral, respectively, and 1/2 121 k , 1/2 1/2 2 1,2 22Ab DAb . Using these and ,2 1,2 , we have 1/4 1 1/2 222 1/4 12 2 11 (2), b sn bk (20) when 1/4 100 0 0,,1,sec( 2)Dk hb , where 1/4 2 02 b , the soliton solution of Eq.14 can be obtained and represented finally by 00 2 , sec []exp s e A xt b hAxxvtikxx t (21) Pang [19,2332] represented eventually the solution of nonlinear Schrödinger equation in Eq.14 in the coordi nate of (x,t) by 0 []/ 0 00 ,sec e imvx xEt Abm xtAhx xvt (22) where 2 022 mvE b , v is the velocity of mo tion of the particle, E . This solution is completely different from Eq.6, and consists of a envelop and car rier waves, the former is 00 0 ,secxtAh Abmxxvt and a bell type nontopological soliton with an amplitude A0, the
X. F. Pang / Natural Science 3 (2011) 600616 Copyright © 2011 SciRes. OPEN ACCESS 606 latter is the 0 exp imvx xEt . This solution is shown in Figure 1(a). Therefore, the particles de scribed by nonlinear Schrödinger Eq.14 are solitons. The envelop φ(x, t) is a slow varying function and is a mass centre of the particles; the position of the mass centre is just at x 0, A0 is its amplitude, and its width is given by 0 2π2WAm .Thus, the size of the particle is 02π2 Wm and a constant. This shows that the particle has exactly a determinant size and is local ized at x0. Its form resemble a wave packet, but differ in essence from both the wave solution in Eq.6 and the wave packet mentioned above in linear quantum me chanics due to invariance of form and size in its propa gation process. According to the soliton theory [3940], the belltype soliton in Eq.22 can move freely over macroscopic distances in a uniform velocity v in spacetime retaining its form, energy, momentum and other quasiparticle properties. However, the wave pac ket in linear quantum mechanics is not so and will be decaying and dispersing with increasing time. Just so, the vector r or x in the representation in Eq. 22 has definitively a physical significance, and denotes exactly the positions of the particles at time t. Thus, the wave function ,t ror φ(x,t) can represent exactly the states of the particle at the position r or x at time t. These features are consistent with the concept of particles. Thus the microscopic particles depicted by Eq.14 dis play outright a corpuscle feature. Using the inverse scattering method Zakharov and Shabat [41,42] obtained also the solution of Eq.14, which was represented as 12 0 22 2 ,2 sec28 exp 42' thxxt b itixi (23) in the coordinate of (x’,t’), where is related to the amplitude of the microscopic particle, relates to the velocity of the particle，arg , i , 1 02log 2,x is a constant. We now re write it as following form [2329]: 2 0 2 ,2sec2 'e ec ivxxv t e xtkh k xxvt b (24) where v e is the group velocity of the electron, vc is the phase speed of the carrier wave in the coordinate of (x’,t’). For a certain system, ve and vc are determinant and do not change with time. We can obtain 23/2k/b1/2 = A0, 2 0 2 2 ece vvv Ab . According to the soliton theory, the soliton in Eq.24 has determinant mass, momentum and energy, which are represented by [2329] 2 0 d22 s NxA , ** 0 d22 xe se pix Av Nv const , (25) 24 2 0 11 d 22 sol e ExEMv (26) where 0 22 sol s NA is just effective mass of the particles, which is a constant. Thus we can confirm that the energy, mass and momentum of the particle cannot be dispersed in its motion, which embodies concretely the corpuscle features of the microscopic particles. This is completely consistent with the concept of classical particles. This means that the nonlinear interaction, 2 b , related to the wave function of the particles, balances and suppresses really the dispersion effect of the kinetic term in Eq.14 to make the particles become eventually localized. Thus the position of the particles, r or x, has a determinately physical significance. However, the envelope of the solution in Eqs.2224 is a solitary wave. It has a certain wave vector and fre quency as shown in Figure 1(b), and can propagate in spacetime, which is accompanied with the carrier wave. Its feature of propagation depends on the concrete nature of the particles. Figure 1(b) shows the width of the fre quency spectrum of the envelope φ(x,t) which has a lo calized distribution around the carrier frequency ω0. This shows that the particle has also a wave feature [2329]. Thus we believe that the microscopic particles described by nonlinear quantum mechanics have simultaneously a wavecorpuscle duality. Eqs.222 4 and Figure 1(a) are just the most beautiful and perfect representation of this property, which consists also of de Broglie relation, Eh and pk, wavecorpuscle duality and Davisson and Germer’s experimental result of electron diffraction on double seam in 1927 as well as the tradi tional concept of particles in physics [1115]. Thus we have reasons to believe the correctness of nonlinear quantum mechanics proposed by Pang.[2329] 3.2. Classical Natures of Collision of Microscopic Particles with Attractive Nonlinear Interactions (1). The features of collision of microscopic parti cles As a matter of fact, Zakharov and Shabat [41,42] dis cussed firstly the properties of collision of two particles depicted by the nonlinear Schrödinger Eq.14 at b = 1 > 0 and b < 0.
X. F. Pang / Natural Science 3 (2011) 600616 Copyright © 2011 SciRes. OPEN ACCESS 607 Figure 1. The solution of Eq.14 and its features. According to Lax method [43], if two linear operators L and B corresponding to Eq.14,which depend on , satisfy the following Lax operator equation: ˆˆˆˆˆ ˆ , t iLBLLBB L where B is a selfadjoint operator, then the eigenvalue k and eigenfunction of the operator L satisfy the equation: ˆ Lk with 1 2 ,xt , (27) but B satisfies the equation: ˆt Bi . Zakharov and Shabat [41,42] found out that the con crete representations of L and B for Eq.14, which are as follows 2 2 22 10 0 ˆ01 0 10 1 ˆ01 1 x x s Li sx i s Bs x i , (28) where 212 b ， ,t rsatisfies Eq.14. We rep resent in Eq.28 in onedimensional case by expSikx (29) where 12 12 01 10 s S s ，22 1 k kbk s . Inserting Eq.91 and L in Eq.90 into Eq .2 7 the ZakharovShabat (ZS) equation [41,42] can be obtained as follows: 12 1xqi (30) 212xqi (31) where 1 2 12 22 1 ib qi s , ks . Zakharov and Shabat found out the soliton solution of Eq.14 using the inverse scattering method from ZS Eqs. 30 and 31, which is denoted in Eq.22, and studied fur ther the properties of collision of these soliton solutions in these cases. In the studies of b = 1 > 0, they gave first this single soliton solution of this equation, where 22 is the amplitude of the soliton, 22 denotes its velocity, i is the eigenvalues of the linear operator L in Eq.90, 0 and are the mass centre and phase of microscopic particle. In such a case they found further out the Nsoliton solution of Eq.15 and studied thus the collision features of two solitons in the system. We here adopted their results of research to explain the rules and properties of collision between the microscopic particles in the nonlinear quantum mechan ics. They [41,42] find from calculation that the mass centre and phase of particle occur only change after this collision. The translations of the mass centre 0m and phase m of mth particles, which moves to a positive direction after this collision, can be represented, respec tively, by 00 * 1 * 1 10, and 2arg Nmp mm pm mmp Nmp mm pm mp xx (32) where m and m are some constants related to the amplitude and eigenvalue of mth particles, respectively. The equations show that shift of position of mass centre of the particles and their variation of phase are a con stants after the collision of two particles moving with different velocities and amplitudes. The collision process of the two particles can be described from Eq.32 as fol lows. Before the collision and in the case of t the slowest soliton is in the front while the fastest at the rear, they collide with each other at t’=0, after the colli sion and t , they are separated and the positions just reversed. Thus Zakharov and Shabat[ 4142] obtained that as the time t varies from to , the relative change of mass centre of two particles, 0m , and their relative change of phases, m , can, respectively, de
X. F. Pang / Natural Science 3 (2011) 600616 Copyright © 2011 SciRes. OPEN ACCESS 608 noted as 000 1 ** 11 1ln ln mmm Nm mpmp km k mmpmp xxx (33) and 1 ** 11 2arg2arg mmm mN mp mp kkm mp mp (34) where 0m and phase m are the mass centre and phase of mth particles at inverse direction or initial posi tion, respectively. Eq.34 can be interpreted by assuming that the microscopic particles collide pair wise and every microscopic particle collides with others. In each paired collision, the faster microscopic particle moves forward by an amount of 1* ln mmkmk , mk , and the slower one shifts backwards by an amount of 1* ln kmkmk . The total shift is equal to the algebraic sum of their shifts during the paired collisions. So that there is no effect of multiparticle collisions at all. In other word, in the collision process in each time the faster particle moves forward by an amount of phase shift, and the slower one shifts backwards by an amount of phase. The total shift of the particles is equal to the algebraic sum of those of the pair during the paired col lisions. The situation is the same with the phases. This rule of collision of the microscopic particles described by the nonlinear Schrödinger Eq.14 is the same as that of classical particles, or speaking, meet also the collision law of macroscopic particles, i.e., during the collision these microscopic particles interact and exchange their positions in the spacetime trajectory as if they had passed through each other. After the collision, the two microscopic particles may appear to be instantly trans lated in space and/or time but otherwise unaffected by their interaction. The translation is called a phase shift as mentioned above. In one dimension, this process results from two microscopic particles colliding headon from opposite directions, or in one direction between two par ticles with different amplitudes or velocities. This is possible because the velocity of a particle depends on the amplitude. The two microscopic particles surviving a collision completely unscathed demonstrate clearly the corpuscle feature of the microscopic particles. This property separates the microscopic particles (solitons) described by the nonlinear quantum mechanics from the particles in the linear quantum mechanical regime. Thus this demonstrates the classical feature of the microscopic particles. (2). The results of numerical simulation of collision of microscopic particles Pang et al..[23 29,44] who further simulated numeri cally the collision behaviors of two particles described nonlinear Schrödinger Eq.8 at V(x) = constant and 0A using the fourthorder Runge_Kutta me thod[4546]. For the purpose we now divide Eq.8 at 0A and b > 0 in onedimensional case into the following twoequations 22 2, 2 u itm x x (35) 22 2 0 22 . uu Mv x tx (36) Eqs.35 and 36 describe the features of motion of studied soliton and another particle ( such as, phonon) or background field (such as, lattice) with mass M and ve locity v0, respectively, where u is the characteristic quan tity of another particle (as phonon) or of vibration (such as, displacement) of the background field. The coupling between the two modes of motion is caused by the de formation of the background field through the studied soliton – background field coupling, such as, di poledipole interaction, is the coupling coefficient between them and represents the change of interaction energy between the studied soliton and background field due to an unit variation of the background field. The relation between the two modes of motion can be ob tained from Eq.36 and represented by 2 22 0 u xMv v (37) If inserting Eq.37 into Eq.35 yields just the nonlinear Schrödinger Eq.8 at V(x) = constant, where 2 22 0 b vv is a nonlinear coupling coefficient, VxA , A is an integral constant. This result shows clearly that the nonlinear interaction 2 b comes from the coupling interaction between the studied soliton and background field. This is the reason what 2 b is referred to as nonlinear interaction. In order to use fourth–order RungeKutta method[4546]. to solve numerically Eqs.35 and 36 we must further dis cretize them, thus they are now denoted as . 11 01 1 2 nnnn nnn ittJ tt ru tu tt (38) .. 11 22 01 1 2 2 nnnn nn utWutut ut r (39)
X. F. Pang / Natural Science 3 (2011) 600616 Copyright © 2011 SciRes. OPEN ACCESS 609 where n n t tt , 2 .. 2 n n ut ut t and the follow ing transformation relation between continuous and dis crete functions are used ,n tt and ,n uxtu t, 2 2 100 2 1 2! nn nn tt ttr r xx 2 2 100 2 1 2! nn nn ut ut ututr r xx (40) where 22222 0000 ,2,mrAJmrWM vr , 0 r is distance between neighboring two lattice points. If using transformation: exp nn it we can eliminate the term nt in Eq.38. Again making a transformation: nnn n tatatriati , then Eqs.38 and 39 become 11 011 2 nnn nnn arJaiairuuai (41) 11 011 2 nnn nnn aiJararruuar (42) . nn uyM (43) 11 22 22 01111 2 2 nnnn nnnn yWuuu raraiar ai (44) 2222 nnnn aarai (45) where arn and ain are real and imaginary parts of an. Eqs.4145 can determine states and behaviors of the microscopic particle. Their solutions can be found out from the four equations. There are four equations for one structure unit. Therefore, for the quantum systems con structed by N structure units there are 4N associated equations. When the fourthorder RungeKutta method [45,46] is used to numerically calculate these solutions we must further discretize them, in which n is replaced by j and let the time be denoted by n, the step length of the space variable is denoted by h in the above equations. An initial excitation is required in this calculation, which is chosen as, an(o)=ASech[(nn0) 2 0 24JWr ] (where A is the normalization constant) at the size n, for the applied lattice, un(0) = yn(0) = 0. In the numerical simulation it is required that the total energy and the norm (or particle number) of the system must be con served. The system of units, ev for energy, 0 A for length and ps for time are proven to be suitable for the numerical solutions of Eqs.4144. The one dimensional system is composed of N units and fixed, where N is chosen to be N = 200, and a time step size of 0.0195 is used in the simulations. Total numerical simulation is performed through data parallel algorithms and MALAB language. If the values of the parameters, ,,, ,MJW and 0 r in Eqs.38 and 39 are appropriately chosen we can calculate the numerical solution of the associated Eqs.4144 by using the fourthorder RungeKutta method [45,46], thus the changes of 22 nn tat , which is probability or number density of the particle occurring at the nth structure unit, with increasing time and position in timeplace can be obtained. This result is shown in Figure 3, which shows that the amplitude of the solution can retain constancy in motion process, i.e., the solution of Eqs.38 and 39 or Eq.8 at V(x) = constant is very stable while in motion. In the meanwhile, we give the propagation feature of the solutions of Eqs.41 44 in the cases of a long time period of 250ps and long spacings of 400 in Figure 3, which indicates that the states of solution are also stable in the long propagation. According to the soliton theory [39,40] we can obtain that Eqs.38 and 39 have exactly a soliton solution, which have a feature of classical particles. In order to verify the corpuscle feature of the solution of nonlinear Schrödinger Eq.8 we study their collision property in accordance with the soliton theory[3940]. Thus we further simulated numerically the collision behaviors of two solitonn solutions of Eq.8 at V(x) =2 0 mr A = constant using the fourthorder RungeKutta method[4546]. This process resulting from two particles colliding headon from opposite directions, which are set up from opposite ends of the channel, is shown Figure 4, where the above initial conditions si multaneously motivate the opposite ends of the channels. From this figure we see clearly that the initial two parti cles having clock shapes and separating 50 unit spacings in the channel collide with each other at about 8 ps and 25 units. After this collision, the two solitons in the channel go through each other without scattering ob tained by Zakharov and Shabat [41,42] as mentioned above. Clearly, the property of collision of the and retain their clock shapes to propagate toward and separately along itself channels. The collision properties of the solitons described by the nonlinear Schrödinger Eq.8 are same with those solutions of Eq.8 is same with the rules of collision of macroscopic particles. Thus, we can con clude that microscopic particles described by nonlinear Schrödinger Eq . 8 have a corpuscle feature. However, we see clearly that there is a wave peak with large amplitude in the colliding process in Figure 4. Obviously, this is a result of complicated superposition of solitary waves of two particles. This result displays the wave feature of the particles. Therefore, the collision process shown in Figure 3 represent obviously that the soliton solutions of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation have a both corpuscle and wave feature, which is due to the nonlinear interaction 2 b .
X. F. Pang / Natural Science 3 (2011) 600616 Copyright © 2011 SciRes. OPEN ACCESS 610 One words, the above properties of propagation and collision of particles described by the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with an external applied potential show that the particles are stable in propagation, and they can go through each other retaining their form after the collision of headon from opposite directions, This fea ture is the same with that of the classical particles. However, a wave peak with large amplitude, which is a result of complicated superposition of two solitary waves, occur in the colliding process. This displays the wave feature of the solitons. Therefore, the collision property of the solitons shows clearly that the solutions of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation have a both corpuscle and wave feature. Obviously, this is due to the nonlinear Figure 2. Motion of soliton solution of Eqs.38 and 39. Figure 3. State of motion of microscopic particle described by Eqs.38 and 39 in the cases of a long time period and long spacings. Figure 4. the features of collision of microscopic particles.
X. F. Pang / Natural Science 3 (2011) 600616 Copyright © 2011 SciRes. OPEN ACCESS 611 interaction 2 b ,, which suppresses the dispersive effect of kinetic energy in the dynamic equation. Thus the microscopic particles have a wavecorpuscle duality in this case. 3.3. The Uncertainty Relationship for the Position and Momentum (1). Correct form of uncertainty relation in the linear quantum mechanics As it is known, the microscopic particle has not a de terminant position, disperses always in total space in a wave form in the linear quantum mechanics. Hence, the position and momentum of the microscopic particles cannot be simultaneously determined. This is just the wellknown uncertainty relation. The uncertainty rela tion is an important formulae and also an important problem in the linear quantum mechanics that troubled many scientists. Whether this is an intrinsic property of microscopic particle or an artifact of the linear quantum mechanics or measuring instruments has been a long lasting controversy. Obviously, it is closely related to elementary features of microscopic particles. Since we have established the nonlinear quantum mechanics, in which the natures of the microscopic particles occur considerable variations relative to that in the linear quan tum mechanics, thus we expect that the uncertainty rela tion in nonlinear quantum mechanics could be changed relative to that in the linear quantum mechanics. Then the significance and essence of the uncertainty relation can be revealed by comparing the results of linear and nonlinear quantum theories. The uncertainty relation in the linear quantum me chanics can be obtained from [2529,47] 2 ˆˆ I'A+iB,td0 rr or *ˆ ˆˆ F=,t FA,t ,B,t,t d rrrrr (46) In the coordinate representation, and B are op erators of two physical quantities, for example, position and momentum, or energy and time, and satisfy the commutation relation ˆˆ ˆ , BiC , ,t r and ,t rare wave functions of the microscopic particle satisfying the Schrödinger equation 1.7 and its conju gate equation, respectively, 2 ˆ F=A'+ B, (ˆˆˆˆ A=AA, B=BB, A and B are the average values of the physical quantities in the state denoted by ,t r), is an operator of physical quantity related to A and B , is a real parameter. After some simplifica tions, we can get from Eq.46 22 2 22 2 ˆˆ ˆˆ I=F=A2ABB0or ˆˆˆ A'C'B0 (47) Using mathematical identities, this can be written as 22 2 ˆˆ ˆ AB C4 (48) This is the uncertainty relation which is often used in the linear quantum mechanics. From the above deriva tion we see that the uncertainty relation was obtained based on the fundamental hypotheses of the linear quan tum mechanics, including properties of operators of the mechanical quantities, the state of particle represented by the wave function, which satisfies the Schrodinger Eq.2, the concept of average values of mechanical quan tities and the commutation relations and eigenequation of operators. Therefore, we can conclude that the uncer tainty relation in Eq.48 is a necessary result of the quantum mechanics. Since the linear quantum mechan ics only describes the wave nature of microscopic parti cles, the uncertainty relation is a result of the wave fea ture of microscopic particles, and it inherits the wave nature of microscopic particles. This is why its coordi nate and momentum cannot be determined simultane ously. This is an essential interpretation for the uncer tainty relation Eq.48 in the linear quantum mechanics. It is not related to measurement, but closely related to the linear quantum mechanics. In other words, if the linear quantum mechanics could correctly describe the states of microscopic particles, then the uncertainty relation should also reflect the peculiarities of microscopic parti cles. Eq.48 can be written in the following form [2529,47]: 2 22 2 22 ˆˆˆ ˆˆ F=A'AB /A ˆˆ ˆˆ BABA0 (49) or 22 2222 ˆˆ ˆˆˆ ˆ A4AB4A0CC (50) This shows that 2 ˆ A0 , if 2 ˆˆ AB or 2 ˆ4C is not zero, else, we cannot obtain Eq.48 and 2 22 ˆˆ ABAB because when 2 ˆ0 A , Eq.50 does not hold. Therefore, 2 ˆ0A is a necessary condition for the uncertainty relation Eq.48, 2 ˆ can approach zero, but cannot be equal to zero. Therefore, in the linear quantum mechanics, the right uncertainty rela tion should take the form: 2 22 2 ˆˆ ˆ4AB C (51)
X. F. Pang / Natural Science 3 (2011) 600616 Copyright © 2011 SciRes. OPEN ACCESS 612 (2). Uncertainty relation of microscopic particle in nonlinear quantum mechanics We now return to study the uncertainty relation of the microscopic particles described by the nonlinear quan tum mechanics. In such a case the microscopic particles is a soliton and have a wavecorpuscle duality. Thus we have the reasons to believe that the uncertainty relation in this case should be different from equation (115) in the linear quantum theory. Pang [2629,67] derived this relation for position and momentum of a microscopic particle depicted by the nonlinear Schrödinger Eq.14 with a solution, , as given in Eq.22. The function , s t is a square in tegral function localized at 00x in the coordinate space. The Fourier transform of this function is given by 1 ,,ed 2π ip x ss ptxtx (52) Using Eq.22 , then the Fourier transform is explicitly represented as 22 ' 0 ππ ,sech 22 242 exp42 2)' 2 2 spt p iptipxi (53) It shows that , spt is also localized at p in mo mentum space. Eqs.22 and 53 show that the microscopic particle is localized in the shape of soliton not only in position space but also in the momentum space. For convenience, we introduce the normalization coefficient 0 in Eqs.22 and 53, then obviously 242 o B , the position of the mass center of the microscopic particle, , and its square, 2, 0xatt are given by 22 22 d, d ss xxxxx xx . (54) We can thus find that 22 22 22 0 000 0 π 42, 42 12 2 A AxxA x (55) respectively. Similarly, the momentum of the mass cen ter of the microscopic particle, p, and its square , 2 p, are given by 22 22 ˆˆ d, d ss pp pppppp (56) which yield 2223 23 000 322 16, + 322 3 pA pAA (57) The standard deviations of position 2 2 xxx and momentum 2 2 ppp are given by 22 2222 00 0 2 223322 00 ππ 4142 , 12 96 18 32 214 2, 33 xA xA pAA (58) respectively. Thus Pang [2729,47] obtain the uncer tainty relation between position and momentum for the microscopic particle depicted by the nonlinear Schrödinger equation in Eq.15 π6xp (59) This result is not related to the features of the micro scopic particle (soliton) depicted by the nonlinear Schrödinger equation because Eq.59 has nothing to do with characteristic parameters of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. π in Eq. 59 comes from of the integral coefficient 12π. For a quantized micro scopic particle, π in Eq.59 should be replaced by π,because Eq.52 is replaced by 1 ,d,e. 2π ipx ss ptx xt (60) Thus the corresponding uncertainty relation of quan tum microscopic particle is given by[2427,47] π612xp h (61) This uncertainty principle also suggests that the posi tion and momentum of the microscopic particle can be simultaneously determined in a certain degree. It is pos sible to estimate roughly the sizes of the uncertainty of these physical quantities. If it is required that s,tx in Eq.22 or s ,t in Eq.53 satisfies the admissibility condition i.e., s00 ,we choose 140, =3000.25322 and 00 x in Eq .22 (In fact, in such a case we can get 7 s010 , thus the admissibility condition can be satisfied). We then get 0.02624 x and 19.893,p according to Eqs.59 and 60. This result shows that the position and momen tum of the microscopic particles in the nonlinear quan tum mechanics could be determined simultaneously within a certain approximation, one of these cannot ap proach infinite. Also, the uncertainty relation in Eq.61 or Eq.59 differ from the 2xp in Eq.61 in the linear quantum mechanics. However, the minimum value 2xp has not been obtained from both the solutions of linear Schrödinger equation and experimental measurement up to now, except for the coherent and squeezed states of
X. F. Pang / Natural Science 3 (2011) 600616 Copyright © 2011 SciRes. OPEN ACCESS 613 microscopic particles. Therefore we can draw a conclu sion that the minimum uncertainty relationship is a nonlinear effect, instead of linear effect, and a result of wavecorpuscle duality. From this result we see that when the microscopic particles satisfy 2xp , then their motions obey laws of the linear quantum mechanics, the particles are some waves. When the uncertainty relationship of 12 or π6 xp is satisfied, the microscopic par ticles should be described by nonlinear quantum me chanics, and have a wavecorpuscle duality. If the posi tion and momentum of the particles meets 0xp , then the particles have only a corpuscle feature, i.e., they are the classical particles. Therefore, the minimum un certainty relation in Eqs.61 and 59 exhibits clearly the wavecorpuscle duality of microscopic particles de scribed by nonlinear quantum mechanics, which bridges also the gap between the classical and linear quantum mechanics. This is a very interesting result in physics. (3). The uncertainty relations of the coherent states As a matter of fact, we can represent onequantum coherent state of harmonic oscillator by[48] 22 0 ˆˆˆ exp0 e0 1 n n n bb b n , in the number picture, which is a coherent superposition of a large number of quanta. Thus ˆˆ , 2 xpim m , and 222 222 ˆ21, 2 ˆ21 2 xm m p , where ˆˆˆˆ ˆ ˆ, p=i, 22 m bbbb m and ˆˆ bb is the creation (annihilation) operator of microscopic particle (quantum), and are some unknown functions, is the frequency of the particle, m is its mass. Thus we can get 2 2222 m ,p,x p 22 4 xm (62) This is a minimum uncertainty relationship for the coherent state. For the squeezed state of the microscopic particle: +2 2 expbb0 , which is a two quanta cohe rent state, we can find that 242 4 m e, pe 2m 2 x , using a similar approach as the above. Here is the squeezed coefficient and 1 . Thus, 8 1 , e, 2 x xp pm or 8 epxm (63) This shows that the squeezed state meets a minimum uncertainty relationship, the momentum of the micro scopic particle (quantum) is squeezed in the twoquanta coherent state compared to that in the onequantum co herent state. The above results show that both onequantum and twoquanta coherent states satisfy the minimal uncer tainty principle. This is the same with that of the micro scopic particles in the nonlinear quantum mechanics. This means that coherent and squeezed states are a nonlinear quantum state, the coherence and squeezing of quanta are a kind of nonlinear quantum effect. Just so, the states of a microscopic particles described by the nonlinear Schrödinger Eq.8 , such as the Davydov’s wave functions [49], both 12 ID> and ID>, and Pang’s wave function of excitonsolitons[5053] in protein mole cules and acetanilide; the wave function of proton trans fer in hydrogenbonded systems and the BCS’s wave function in superconductors [34], etc., are always repre sented by a coherent state. Hence, the coherence of par ticles does not belong to the systems described by linear quantum mechanics, because the coherent state cannot be obtained by superposition of linear waves, such as plane wave, de Broglie wave, or Bloch wave. Then the minimal uncertainty relation Eq.61 , as well as Eqs.59 and 63, are only applicable to microscopic particles de scribed by the nonlinear quantum mechanics. Thus it reflects the wavecorpuscle duality of the microscopic particles. Also, the above results indicate not only the essences of nonlinear quantum effects of the coherent state or squeezing state but also that the minimal uncertainty relationship is an intrinsic feature of the nonlinear quan tum mechanics systems including the coherent and squeezing states. Pang et al. [5053] also calculated the uncertainty re lationship and quantum fluctuations and studied their properties in nonlinear electronphonon systems based on the Holstein model by a new ansatz including the correlations among onephonon coherent and twopho non squeezing states and polaron state. Many interesting results were obtained, such as the minimum uncertainty relationship is related to the properties of the micro scopic particles. The results enhanced the understanding of the significance and essences of the minimum uncer tainty relationship.
X. F. Pang / Natural Science 3 (2011) 600616 Copyright © 2011 SciRes. OPEN ACCESS 614 4. CONCLUSIONS, RESOLUTION OF DIFFICULTIES OF LINEAR QUANTUM MECHANICS As it is known, the states and properties of micro scopic particle were described by the linear Schrödinger Eq.3 in the quantum mechanics, but the microscopic particles have only a wave feature, not corpuscle feature as described in Introduction. In nonlinear quantum me chanics, we have broken through the hypothesis of in dependence of Hamiltonian operator of the systems on states of microscopic particles, forsaken the above line arity hypothesis of linear quantum mechanics and taken into account the true motions of each particle and back ground field and the interactions between them, thus the microscopic particles accepted a nonlinear interaction and their laws of motion are then described by Eqs.813 Thus natures and properties of the microscopic particles appear considerable changes, when compared with those in linear quantum mechanics. The changes can be sum marized as follows [1737]. 1) In this new theory although the states of micro scopic particles are still represented as a wave function t r, in Eq.7, its absolute square, 22 ttt r,r,r, , denotes no longer the pro bability of finding the microscopic particle at a given point in the spacetime, and give just the mass density of the microscopic particles at that point. Thus we can find out the particle number or the mass of the particle from 2dN , the concept of probability is abandoned thoroughly in nonlinear quantum mechanics. Then the difficulty of statistical interpretation for the wave func tion of microscopic particle in quantum mechanics is solved . 2) The dynamic equations the particles satisfy are not the linear Schrödinger equation in Eq.2 and linear KleinGordon equation, but nonlinear Schrödinger equa tions in Eqs. 8 and 9 and nonlinear KleinGordon equa tions in Eqs.10 and 11. Their solutions have a wave corpuscle duality, which is embedded by organic com bination of envelope and carrier wave as shown in Fig ure 1. In such a case the particle has not only a wave feature, such as a certain amplitude, velocity, frequency, and wavevector, but also corpuscle natures, such as, a determinant mass centre, size, mass, momentum and energy. This is the first time to explain physically the wave corpuscle duality of microscopic particles in quantum systems. This is a great advance of modern quantum theory, thus it solved a most great difficulty of one century existed in quantum mechanics. 3) In nonlinear quantum mechanics, *dx , *dx t and *d x or H are no longer some average values of the physical quantities in linear quantum mechanics, but represent the position, velocity and acceleration of the mass center and energy of the microscopic particles, respectively, and have de terminant values. Thus, the presentations of physical quantities in the nonlinear quantum mechanics appear considerably the variations relative to those in linear quantum mechanics. This has solved the difficulty aris ing from the average values, which represent the physi cal quantities in linear quantum mechanics. 4) The microscopic particles have determinant mass, momentum and energy, and obey universal conservation laws of mass, momentum, energy and angular momen tum. This amount to bridge over the gap between the classical mechanics and linear quantum mechanics. 5)The microscopic particles meet the classical colli sion rule, when they collide with each other. Although these particles are deformed in the collision, which de notes its wave feature, they can still retain their form and amplitude to move towards after collision, where a phase shift occurs only. This denotes that the microscopic par ticles in nonlinear quantum mechanics possess both corpuscle and wave property, but the corpuscle property differs from classical particles. 6) The position and momentum of the mass centre of microscopic particles are determinant, but their uncer tainties obey only to a minimal uncertainty relation due to the wavecorpuscle duality, which differs from those in linear quantum mechanics. This means that the coor dinate and momentum of microscopic particles may be simultaneously determined at a certain degree. This amount to bridge over the gap between the classical mechanics and linear quantum mechanics. These show clearly the necessity, validity and impor tance of establishing nonlinear quantum mechanics. Thus the difficulties of linear quantum mechanics can be also solved thoroughly by nonlinear quantum mechanics. Therefore, to develop and to establish NLQM can solve problems disputed by scientists in the LQM field for about a century [79], can promote the development of physics and enhance and raise the knowledge and recog nition levels to the essences of microscopic matter. We can predict that nonlinear quantum mechanics has exten sive applications in physics, chemistry, biology, poly mers, etc. 5. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to acknowledge the Major State Basic Research Devel opment Program (973 program) of China for the financial support
X. F. Pang / Natural Science 3 (2011) 600616 Copyright © 2011 SciRes. OPEN ACCESS 615 (grate No: 212011CB503 701). REFERENCES [1] Bohr, D. and Bub, J. (1966) A proposed solution of the measurement problem in quantum mechanics. Review of morden Physics, 6, 453469. doi:10.1103/RevModPhys.38.453 [2] Schrödinger, E. (1935) Die gegenwartige situation in der quantenmechanik, Naturwissenschaften, 23, 807849. doi:10.1007/BF01491891 [3] Schrödinger, E. (1935) The present situation in quantum mechanics, a translation of translation of Schrodinger. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 124, 323338. [4] Schrödinger, E. (1926) An undulatory theory of the me chanics of atoms and molecules. Physical Review, 28, 10491070. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.28.1049 [5] Heisenberg, W. Z. (1925) Über die quantentheoretische umdeu tung kinematischer und mechanischer beziehun gen. Zeitschrift der Physik, 33, 879893. doi:10.1007/BF01328377 [6] Heisenberg, W. and Euler, H. (1936) Folgerungen aus der Diracschen Theorie des Positrons. Physics and Astronomy, 98, 714732. doi:10.1007/BF01343663 [7] Born, M. and Infeld, L. (1934) Foundations of the New Field Theory, Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 144, 425. [8] Dirac, P.A.M. (1948) Quantum Theory of Localizable Dynamical Systems, Physical Review, 73, 1092. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.73.1092 [9] Diner, S., Farque, D., Lochak, G., and Selleri, F. (1984) The waveparticle dualism. Riedel, Dordrecht. [10] Ferrero, M. and Van der Merwe, A. (1997) New devel opments on fundamental problems in quantum physics. Kluwer, Dordrecht. [11] Ferrero, M. and Van der Merwe, A. (1995) Fundamental problems in quantum physics. Kluwer, Dordrecht. [12] de Broglie, L., (1960) Nonlinear wave mechanics: A causal interpretation, Elsevier, Amsterdam. [13] de Broglie, L., (1955) Une interpretation nouvelle de la mechanique ondulatoire: Estelle possible? Nuovo Cimento, 1, 3750. [14] Bohm, D.A. (1952) Suggested interpretation of the quantum theory in terms of ‘hidden’ variables. Physical Review, 85, 166180. [15] Potter, J. (1973) Quantum mechanics. NorthHolland publishing Co. Amsterdam. [16] Jammer, M. (1989) The concettual development of quantum mechanics. Tomash Publishers, Los Angeles. [17] Einstein, A., Podolsky, B. and Rosen, N. (1935) The appearance of this work motivated the present–shall I say lecture or general confession? Physical. Review, 47, 777780. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.47.777 [18] Einstein, A.P., (1979) A centenary Volume. Harvard Uni versity Press, Cambridge. [19] Pang, X.F. (1985) Problems of nonlinear quantum me chanics. Sichuan Normal University Press, Chengdu. [20] Pang, X.F. (2008) The Schrodinger equation only descry bes approximately the properties of motion of micro scopic particles in quantum mechanics. Nature Sciences, 3, 29. [21] Pang, X.F. (1985) The fundamental principles and theory of nonlinear quantum mechanics. China Journal of Po tential Science, 5, 16. [22] Pang, X.F. (1982) Macroscopic quantum mechanics. China Nature Journal, 4, 254. [23] Pang, X.F. (1986) Bosecondensed properties in super conducors. Journal of Science Exploration, 4, 70. [24] Pang, X.F. (1991) The theory of nonlinear quantum me chanics: In research of new sciences, Science and Techbology Press, Hunan, 1620. [25] Pang, X.F. (2008) The wavecorpuscle duality of micro scopic particles depicted by nonlinear Schrodinger equa tion. Physica B, 403, 42924300. doi:10.1016/j.physb.2008.09.031 [26] Pang, X.F. (2008) Features and states of microscopic particles in nonlinear quantum–mechanics systems. Fron tiers of physics in China, 3, 413. [27] Pang, X.F. (2005) Quantum mechanics in nonlinear sys tems. World Scientific Publishing Co., Singapore. doi:10.1142/9789812567789 [28] Pang, X.F. (2009) Nonlinear quantum mechanics. China Electronic Industry Press, Beijing. [29] Pang, X.F. (1994) The Theory of nonlinear quantum mechanics. Chinese Chongqing Press, Chongqing. [30] Pang, X.F. (2006) Establishment of nonlinear quantum mechanics. Research and Development and of World Science and Technology, 28, 11. [31] Pang, X.F. (2003) Rules of motion of microscopic parti cles in nonlinear systems. Research and Development and of World Science and Technology, 24, 54. [32] Pang, X.F. (2006) Features of motion of microscopic particles in nonlinear systems and nonlinear quantum mechanics in sciencetific procedingphysics and others. Atomic Energy Press, Beijing. [33] Parks, R. D. (1969) Superconductivity. Marcel, Dekker. [34] Josephson, D.A. (1965), Supercurrents through barriers, Advanced Physics, 14, 39451. [35] SuintJames, D. et al., (1966) TypeII superconductivity, Pergamon, Oxford. [36] Bardeen, L.N., Cooper L.N. and Schrieffer, J. R. (1957) Superconductivity theory. Physical Review, 108, 1175 1204. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.108.1175 [37] Barenghi, C.F., Donnerlly, R.J. and Vinen, W.F. (2001) Quantized vortex dynamics and superfluid turbulence. Springer, Berlin. doi:10.1007/3540455426 [38] Donnely, R.J. (1991) Quantum vortices in heliem II. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. [39] Pang, X.F. (2003) Soliton physics. Sichuan Science and Technology Press, Chengdu. [40] Guo, B.L. and Pang, X.F. (1987) Solitons. Chinese Sci ence Press, Beijing. [41] Zakharov, V.E. and Shabat, A.B. (1972) Exact theory of twodimensional selffocusing and onedimensional self domulation of wave in nonlinear media. Soviet Physics JETP, 34, 62. [42] Zakharov, V.E. and Shabat, A.B. (1973) Interaction be tween solitons in a stable medium. Soviet Physics JETP, 37, 823 [43] Lax, P.D. (1992) Integrals of nonlinear equations of evo lution and solitary waves, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 107351
X. F. Pang / Natural Science 3 (2011) 600616 Copyright © 2011 SciRes. OPEN ACCESS 616 [44] Pang, X.F. (2010) Collision properties of microscopic particles described by nonlinear Schrodinger equation. International Journal of Nonlinear science and numeri cal Simulation, 11 , 10691075. [45] Stiefel, J. (1965) Einfuhrung in die numerische mathe matik. Teubner Verlag, Stuttgart. [46] Atkinson, K.E. (1987) An Introdution to numerical analysis. Wiley, New York. [47] Pang, X.F. (2009) Uncertainty features of microscopic particles described by nonlinear SchrÖdinger equation. Physica B, 405, 43274331. doi:10.1016/j.physb.2009.08.027 [48] Glanber, R.J. (1963) Coherent and incoherent states of the radiation field. Physical Review, 13, 27662788. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.131.2766 [49] Davydov, A. S. (1985) Solitons in molecular systems. D. Reidel Publishing, Dordrecht. [50] Pang, X.F. (2008) Properties of nonadiabatic quantum fluctuations for the strongly coupled electronphonon system. Science in China Series G, 51, 225336. [51] Pang, X.F. (1999) Influence of the soliton in anharmonic molecular crystals with temperature on Mossbauer effect. European Physical Journal B, 10, 415. doi:10.1007/s100510050871 [52] Pang, X.F. (2001) The lifetime of the soliton in the im proved Davydov model at the biological temperature 300K for protein molecules. Physics and Astronomy, 19, 297316. doi:10.1007/s100510170339 [53] Pang, X.F. (1990) The properties of collective excitation in organic protein molecular system. Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, 2, 9541. doi:10.1088/09538984/2/48/008
