Open Journal of Social Sciences, 2015, 3, 262-270
Published Online November 2015 in SciRes. http://www.scirp.org/journal/jss
How to cite this paper: Sun, Y.N. and Gao, Q. (2015) Research on the Influence Factors of the Service Satisfaction in Univer-
sity Campuses in China: A Review. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 3, 262-270. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jss.2015.311031
Research on the Influence Factors of the
Service Satisfaction in University Campuses
in China: A Review
Yanan Sun1,2, Qing Gao2
1School of Economics and Management, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, China
2Department of Logistics Support, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, China
Received 23 September 2015; accepted 17 November 2015; published 20 November 2015
Copyright © 2015 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.
This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution International License (CC BY).
Based on the research overview on the service satisfaction of university campuses at home and
abroad in recent years, this paper comprehensively expounds the research status of the service
satisfaction of campuses, and proceeds with the outlook of the research prospect on the evaluation
system of the service satisfaction in the hope that it can have a certain significance for theory ref-
erence in researching and establishing the evaluation system of the service satisfaction in univer-
sity campuses in China.
University, Campuses’ Se rvic e, Sati sfa cti on, Service Quality, Overview
With the economic booming of China, the business of Chinese higher education also springs up. According to
the educational statistics released by National Bureau of Statistics of China, there were 25,477,000 undergra-
duates and college students and 1,848,000 graduate students in school in 2014 . Faced with s uch a l arge group
of service objects, security services of campuses, as the basic security of university work, encounter with a huge
test. The expectation of universities on campus services is to provide superior, convenient and satisfactory ser-
vices t o tea c he rs a nd st ud ent s i n sc ho o ls, whi ch is a l so the g oa l p ur sued by ca mp us servic e s o f uni ver si t ie s. This
article summarizes research results related to service satisfaction in campuses of universities at home and abroad
in recent years, and combines with research status to have the outlook of researching and establishing the evalu-
ation system of the servi ce satisfaction in university campuses in C hina in the futur e.
Y. N. Sun, Q. Gao
2. Related Theories
2.1. Theories of Customer Satisfaction and Evaluation Model
2.1.1. Customer Satisfaction
Cardozo (1965)  considers that satisfaction is the result of expectation, while expectation is partly derived
from previous experience. In other words, expectation is from the experience, which can be adjusted by the ef-
forts of customers. In the opinion of Howard & Sheth (1969) , they believe that satisfaction is a ki nd of rec-
ognition condition whether t h e compe nsatio n obtained b y sa crifici ng others by buyers is ap prop riate o r not. T his
defini tio n inc lude s the two co mpo ne nts, name ly, app raisal and comparison. Oliver (1980)  holds the idea that
satisfaction is a temporary and emotional reaction of consumers to matters. Westbrook (1981)  thinks that sa-
tisfaction is a kind of cognitive appraisal process in the comparison between the actual prod uct performance and
the previous expectation by custo mers. Churchill & Surprenant (1982)  consider that satisfaction of customer s
is a result of the purchase and use, which is produced by the comparison of the remuneration of expected results
and the investment costs by buyers. Cadotte, Woodruff& Jenkins (1987)  deem that consumers will use emo-
tional stateme nts to e xpress t he positive o r negative e motio n o n the usage o f pro ducts, ther eb y affecti ng their sa-
tisfaction. Fornell (1992)  believes that satisfaction of customers is the overall appraisal of the experience in
purchasing from products or services. The research group of PZB (Parasuraman, Zeithaml & Berry) considers
that customer satisfaction is determined by the gap between the services that customers actually feel and the ex-
pected services. Kolter (1994)  holds the idea that satis faction is the feelin g level of a perso n, and it is the r e-
sult of comparing perceived performance and expectation of products. Spreng, Mackoy & Harrell (1995) 
deem that satisfaction is not only a kind of emotion. Moreover , it is a kind of conception of emotio nal evaluation
and quasi cognition. Woodruff (1997)  believes that the comparison standard should base on the value
yearned by customers which dates from the property, performance and results of products. The judgment of sa-
tisfaction on customers should take the expected value hierarchy of customers established before purchasing as
the foundation. International Organization for Standardization (ISO) pushes the concept of customer satisfaction
by quality standards of 1S09000: customer satisfaction is the degree of satisfaction that cu sto mers’ requirements
have been met, including ostensive, connotative or performing demands or expectation.
2.1.2. Evaluation Model of Customer Satisfaction
1) Foreign Evaluation Model of Customer Satisfaction
Oliver & Desarbo (1988)  think that the mainstream of the research on customer satisfaction can be di-
vided into three categories, including inconsistent and deformed expectation, the model of compensation process,
and other perspectives:
(1) Theory of customer satisfaction in inconsistent and deformed expectation: Anderson (1973)  su mma-
rizes reasons for the formation of the theory, including assimilation theory by Festinger (1957) , contrast
theor y by Ho vland (1957) , assimilatio n-contra st t heor y by Par asura man, Zeithaml & Berry (1991), and ge-
neralized negativity theory by Smith & Aronsom (1963)  and Howard & Sheth (1969) .
(2) Theory of customer satisfaction in the compensation process is proposed by Day & Landon (1977) ,
and Richins (1983) . The theory of the compensation process mainly studies that customers will take what
kind of action to obtain the compensation process when they are dissatisfactory; furthermore, it also indirectly
researches the process of the impact of customer satisfaction on the post-pur chase b e ha vi o r , whic h i s t he b i gge st
difference from the above-mentio ned theories
(3) Theory of customer satisfaction in other perspectives: the modes of customer satisfaction in other perspec-
tives include equit y theor y by Olive r & Desarbo (1988)  and Huppertz, Renson & Evans (1978) , attr i-
bution theory by Bitner (1990)  and Weiner, Russell & Lerman (1979) , performance theory by Ol-
shavsky & Miller (1972) , Westbrook (1981) , Tse & Wilton (1988)  and Hirschman & Holbrook
(1982), emotional and cognitive theory by Oliver (1993) , and the model of customer satisfaction with the
combination of antecedents and consequences by Heskekk, Jones, and Loveman et al (1994) .
2) Chinese Evaluation Model of Customer Satisfaction
China began to study Customer Satisfaction Index (CSI) from 1995. The concept of CSI was initially intro-
duce d by t he Pro fessor Zhao Ping from T singhua Uni versi ty. In 1 998 , China Stat e Bure au of Quali ty T echnical
Supervision (CSBTS) commissioned Sc hool of Econo mics and Management o f T s inghua Univer s ity to carry out
the research wor k about the e s tablishme nt of CSI in China. Fro m 2000 to 2002 , State Administration for Qualit y
Y. N. Sun, Q. Gao
Supervision and Inspection and Quarantine (AQSIQ) and the Chinese Enterprise Research Center of Tsinghua
University had jointly undertaken to carry out the Research on the Construction Method of CSI in China, and
put forward the model of Chinese customer satisfaction index (CCSI for short) .
2.2. Definition, Evaluation Factors and Evaluation Model of Service Quality
2.2.1. Definition of Service Quality
Gronroos (1982)  considers that the essence of service quality is the perception of service objects or custom-
ers on services, which is the ratio between the expected services and actually perceptive services. Moreover, it is
the subjective response of service objects to services. Garvin (1983)  divides service quality into five cate-
gories: 1) method of characteristics; 2) method of foundation; 3) user-based approach; 4) manufacturing-based
approach; 5) value-based approach. In other words, service quality is the subjective response of consumers on
matters, which can’t be quantized and measured by the nature and characteristics of matters. The research group
of PZB (Parasuraman, Zeithaml & Berry, 1985)  considers that service quality is a kind of attitude, the ap-
praisal of service quality is the perception of the attitude, which contains attitude evaluation in the process of
service delivery as well as attitude evaluation after achieving the results of services. If the actual perception of
the attitude is higher tha n the actual per ception, it means that service qualit y is favorable. Lehtinen U. & Lehti-
nen J. R (1991)  think tha t the subjective perception generated in the phase of accepting services is service
quality, which is obtained by comparing the services obtained by actual perception and the expected services
that should be provided by service providers in their opinion. Xu Jincan et al. (2002)  believe that the quality
of service is the characteristic integration that services meet the needs of the service recipients. Xie Lisha n et al.
(2007)  hold the idea that service quality is a perceptual assessment of remarkable grade of services in ac-
cepting services by service-obj ects.
2.2.2. Evaluation Factors and Evaluation Model of Service Quality
1) Factors of Service Quality
The research group of PZB (Parasuraman, Zeithaml & Berry, 1985)  believes that the quality of service
should cover ten evaluation factors, including the tangibles, responsiveness, credibility, reliability, responsive-
ness, security, tangibles, access, communication and understanding. At the same ti me, they put for ward the ser-
vice quality gap analysis model SERVQUL, revise and optimize the model, and refine the original ten dimen-
sions of ser vice quali ty into t he e xist ing five di mensi ons in: 1) tangibles; 2) reliability; 3) responsiveness; 4) as-
surance; 5) empathy.
2) Evaluation Model of Service Quality
Fishbein model is used as the foundation to measure the tendency of attitudes of service accepters. In the
meantime, it is applied to measure service quality targeting at the degree of attention and feelings to things of
service accepters. Sasser model can take the hardware and software aspects of the service operation into account.
Moreover, it also incorporates the visible parts including device, raw materials and personnel, ideas and other
invisible parts for consideratio n. As for the model of Pa rasuraman, Zeitha ml & Berry (1985) , Parasuraman,
Zeithaml and Berry define service quality as the gap between perceived performance of customers and expecta-
tions (SQ = P − E), and propose the gap model of performance and expectations. The research group of PZB
(1985) comes up with the idea that service quality can be measured by ten factors, and integrates the ten factors
into five factors in 1988. Furthermore, the research group of PZB (1988) studies five levels of SERVQU AL in
1991 again, and put forward the method for measuring service quality by the amendments of SERVQUA. In the
empirical results, the measure method of adequacy-importance is a favorable measure model (Cronin & Taylor,
1992) . Although SERVPERF model is not as detailed and explicit as the above-mentioned models in the
usage, it can clearly evaluate service quality since it can measure the performance of execution results o f servic-
es in the virtue of simplification. Brown, Churc hill & Peter (1993)  disagree with the idea in SERVQUAL
that the gap between perceived services and expected services is served as the method of measuring the service
quality. Moreover, they think it will make the service quality become the third variable, following the two va-
riables—the cognitive services and the expected services. Therefore, they suggest that the gap between per-
ceived service and expected service in customers’ mind should be directly measured and serve as the service
quality. In the dynamic model, Boulding, Kalra, Staelin et al. (1999)  consider that the supported expecta-
tion should be the manifested service level in the ideal situation, while the coming expectation is that the service
Y. N. Sun, Q. Gao
level might be showed in the real state in customers’ op i nion. Since t ho se t wo can e va lua t e cus tomer p s ycho lo g-
ical process, they can confirm the customers’ perception on service quality.
Although the domestic theoretical researches in the field of service quality starts lately, many scholars have
carried out a lot of applied researches and empirical researches on the theories of foreign countries, and also put
forward some ideas of their own. Taiwan scholars He Yongqing and Su Yunhua (1995)  have pr opose d the
method to measure the quality of service for consumers to repeatedly receive the service rate. For example, in
the empirical research on the services of hotel industry and newspaper industry, Wei Fuxiang (2002)  veri-
fies t he vie wpoint of Car uana & Berthon et al., namely, the perceived service quality of customers has low cor-
relation with the repurchase intention of customers. Wang Chunxiao, Wen Biyan and Jiang Caifen (2001) 
show that service quality, consumption value and customer satisfaction have a direct impact on the behavior in-
tention of customers, and point out that these four different concepts are the sub concepts of consumption expe-
rience of tourism services through the empirical research.
3. Research Status of Service Quality Evaluation in Universities
3.1. Foreign Research Status
There are few literatures about the evaluation of service quality in university campuses, Owlia (1996)  es-
tablishes the model for the concept of higher education services, starts from characteristics of services of higher
education, and divides service evaluation of higher education into service facilities, service ability, service atti-
tude, service content, the process of services and reliability. In addition, Ford (1999) , Oldfield & Baron
(2000) , Wright & O’Neill (2002) , Lagrosen (2004)  and Athiyaman (2006)  also distinguish
the service quality of higher education in different aspects. Anderson (1995)  employs SERVQUAL ques-
tionnaire to appraise the discrepancy of service quality of university students on college education. Mathew &
Beatriz (1999) et al.  adopt important-performance model to analyze the service quality of higher education.
3.2. Chinese Research Status
Gui Lingling (2005)  applies the theories related to institutional economics to analyze the shortcomings of
the traditional campus system from the perspective of institutional arrangements and institutional environment,
and believes that t he socializatio n reform policy of ca mpus manageme nt of institutions o f higher learning is not
perfect. Through the analysis of the specific factors and forms affecting the implementation of the policy, we
should carry out with the specific recommendations targeting at the socialization reform of university campuses.
Chinese inherent idea that schools run the society can not meet the needs of the development of universities in
new era. Therefore, the socialization reform of universit y ca mp us es i s i mper at i ve ( W an g Li guo , Z han g W e nhan,
Guo Lingling (2004)  proposes that the service quality system of university campuses can be divided into
the system of service evaluation index and the system of economic evaluation index. Through endowing rea-
sonable weights to those two systems, we can get the comprehensive assessment scores of service quality in
university campuses. However, this study does not give a specific and operable evaluation index system. Hu
Tiewei (2004)  emplo ys the met hod wit h the co mbi nation o f quantita tive a nd quali tative analyse s, and p uts
forward the specific reform direction against the existing problems in campuses from three aspects-the scientific
mana gement s ystem, le gal person s ystem a nd self r estrai nt system, which a ims for t he ente rpriza tion of uni ver-
sity campuses. Moreover, he also establishes the evaluation model of reform performance in university campus-
es, and selects a university in China for the empirical analysis in order to provide a scientific basis for the pro-
found reform of the enterprization of university campuses. Ji Xiaoyi and Huang Xiaoping (2005)  conduct a
survey on the satisfaction evaluation of education service quality in universities, establish the evaluation index
system of customer satisfaction, and apply the method of AHP to conduct comprehensive assessment on cus-
tomer satisfactio n in uni versitie s. In the literature , the ca mpus secur ity, o ne of indicato rs of investi gation ite m, is
analyzed by quantitative evaluation. Lin Weiying (2005)  researches on the perceived quality of serves of
college students, and studies the problem of customers’ perceived quality in the model of customer satisfaction
index. Li Fayou et al. (2009) proposes a model system for evaluating the serve satisfaction in campuses based
on the relevant literature review. Guo Linsong et al. (2010)  makes an analysis on the necessity and signi-
ficance of establis hing the evaluation ind ex system of servic e satisfaction in campuses, a nd tries to establish the
Y. N. Sun, Q. Gao
evaluation index system of service satisfaction in university campuses (see Table 1). Yuan Liang et al. (2012)
 conduct an empirical research on the construction of the evaluation index system of service satisfaction in
univer sit y camp uses (see Table 2). Gao Qing (2012)  carries out an empiric al study o n the service satis fac-
tion i n the stude nt ca nteen based on col lege st udent s’ cons umption behavior, establishes the service satisfaction
model of college students from the perspective of catering service research.
The theoretical significance of the Service Satisfaction research in university campuses was to establi sh and
perfect the customer satisfaction model of university campus, analyze the influence factors with the model, spe-
cific conditions of use of the model, and enla r ge the u sin g range of t he mod el. I n ad diti on, t he autho r thi nks that
the research has its practical significance, including: (1) To optimize of t he ove r al l wor k i n university campuses.
The customer satisfaction research in university campuses is helpful to find out the shortage of the service in
Unive r s i t y C a mp u se s, and i t is also helpful to improve ma n a geme nt level and comp etiti ve a b ili t y of the university;
Table 1. Evaluation index of the serve satisfaction in campuses proposed by Guo Linsong et al. (201 0) .
1 Catering services
Dining environm ent
Variety and emaciated look of food
Service a ttitude of dining
2 Apartment services
Envi r onment of li ving area
Sanitatio n in apartm e n t build ing s
Construction of apartment culture
Timeliness of apartment maintenance
Quality of apartment maintenance
Water supply serv ice
service a ttitude of accomm odation
3 Public services
Sanitation of community Environment
Sanitation of teaching buildings
Livi ng area greening
accuracy of sending and receiving newspapers and magazines
Public service attitude
4 Mai n tenance s ervices
Stability of hydropower operation
Operation stability of elevators
Maintena nce qu a l ity
Servi ce attitude of maintenance
Y. N. Sun, Q. Gao
Table 2. Evalu ation index of the serve sati sfaction in campuses r aised by Yuan Liang et al. (2012) .
1 Can teen services
Rati onality of food pric e
Taste of dishes
Variety of dishes
Fresh and healthful food
Comfortable and clean restaurant environment
Pro f ound atm o sphe r e of restauran t c u l ture
Servi ce quality
Dining w aiting ti m e
Tableware hygiene status
Employee gr oom ing
2 Accommodation services
Service attitude Attitude of dorm staff
Attitude of maintenance personnel
Servi ce quality
Accommod ation condition
construction of apartment culture
Timeliness of apartment maintenance
Quality of apartment maintenance
Sanitary condition En vironment al sanitati on of living area
Sanitation of the apartment building
3 Property services
Servi ce quality
Envi r onmental sanitation of the campus
Class room managemen t
Service attitude Service attitude of security
Service a ttitude of Buildin gs
4 Business services
Servi ce quality
Variety and quality of goods
Service attitude Salespersons’ attitude
Ch eckou t speed
5 Medical services
Medical ti me
Medical ex penses
Medical ef fect
Medical at titude Number of d octors
Doctors ’ attitude
Y. N. Sun, Q. Gao
(2) To increase the student source and improve the q ualit y of t he stud ent so urce . Only i f a u nivers ity co nsta ntly
improves the internal customer and external customer satisfaction, can it impro ve the university’s popularity and
social recognition which help to get high quality student source; (3) To improve the school’s reputation and
create brand effect. The school’s reputation directly affects the quality of student source, the employment rate of
graduate and quality of teachers.
Achievements have been made in related research in China, however, there still exist many problems in the
research and use of satisfaction surveys, suc h as lack of standardiz ation and analysis benchmarking, emphasis on
a sp ec ific service at the expense of the school’s o verall s ervice quality, lack o f psyc hologic al surve ying and r e-
search on applicability and practicability, artificially introduced bias factor in conducting the surveys, oversim-
plified presentation of survey results, and limited use of information. In view of the above situations, we can
conduct wide researches and analyses in the future researches to establish the evaluation index system of satis-
faction in university campuses in China. By virtue of the method of factor analysis, we can analyze t he influence
factors of satisfaction in university campuses. Therefore, we can propose the evaluation index system of satis-
faction to the general universities in extensive adaptability. Furthermore, we can conduct a questionnaire survey
in Chinese univer sities, and v alidate its effectiveness and credibilit y through the struct ural equation model. T he
ultimate goal is to establish a comprehensive and universal evaluation index of service satisfaction in Chinese
universities, and to propose a set of impeccable evaluation methods.
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