Applied Mathematics
Vol.06 No.06(2015), Article ID:56859,4 pages

On Exact Solutions of Second Order Nonlinear Ordinary Differential Equations

Amjed Zraiqat1, Laith K. Al-Hwawcha2

1Al-Zaytoonah University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan

2German Jordanian University, Amman, Jordan


Copyright © 2015 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution International License (CC BY).

Received 26 April 2015; accepted 30 May 2015; published 2 June 2015


In this paper, a new approach for solving the second order nonlinear ordinary differential equation y’’ + p(x; y)y’ = G(x; y) is considered. The results obtained by this approach are illustrated by examples and show that this method is powerful for this type of equations.


Nonlinear Ordinary Differential Equation, Partial Differential Equation, Riccati Differential Equation

1. Introduction

Exact solutions have always played and still play an important role in properly understanding the qualitative features of many phenomena and processes in various fields of natural science. Exact solutions of nonlinear equations, including those without a clear physical sense which do not correspond to real phenomena and pro- cesses, play an important role of test problems for verifying the correctness and assessment of accuracy of various numerical, asymptotic, and approximate methods. Moreover, the model equations admitting exact solutions serve as the basis for the development of new numerical, asymptotic, and approximate methods, which, in turn, enable us to study more complicated problems having no analytical solutions [1] . In the paper [2] , Laith and Nama introduced a new approach for solving second order linear differential equation with variable coefficients


To look for exact solution of (1) the authors introduced the substitution


and have looked for a solution of the Riccati equation


In this paper, we generalize the idea of [2] and propose a general approach for solving the nonlinear second order equation


which can be written as



2. The Main Results

In this section, we propose an algorithm that enables us to reduce the Equations (4) and (5) by looking for solutions of the partial differential equations



Theorem 1. If v(x; y) is any solution of (6) where (x; y) is a solution of (7), then Equation (4) can be reduced to a first order equation.

Proof. In order to prove this theorem, consider the transformation


if we differentiate both sides of (8) with respect to x we obtain


substituting (4) and (8) in (9), we have


assuming that is a solution of (7), Equation (10) can be reduced to (6), solving (6) for we have the result. ■

Theorem 2. If is any solution of the equation


Then (5) can be reduced to a first equation.

Proof. From theorem (1) the associated equation with is


which has a solution, thus the equation associated with is (11), solving for Equation (5) reduced to a first order equation. ■

Theorem 3. If is any solution of the equation


Then Equation (5) can be reduced to first order equation.

Proof. Equation (5) can be written as


applying theorem (1), we have that is a solution of


solving (13) for, the result follows. ■

Theorem 4. If, then Equation (5) can be reduced to a first order equation.

Proof. Applying theorem (2) the result follows. ■

3. Examples

In this section, we give some examples on our approach for reduction and finding solutions of nonlinear second order ordinary differential equations, these equations and more equations that can be easily solved by this method can be found in [1] [3] - [7] .

Example 1. Consider the equation


comparing with Equation (4) we note that, ,.

First, we solve


the associated ratios with Equation (17) are

from which, we find that

Second, we solve


the associated ratios with Equation (19) are


from which, we find that

Finally, we substitute, in Equation (8) to get


Example 2. Consider the equation


this equation can be written as


comparing with Equation (5) we have that, ,.

The equation associated with is


from which we find that. The equation associated with is


we look for a solution of the form


substituting in Equation (25), we have


Thus, and must satisfy the following equations




from which we find that



so,. Finally we solve


and two cases are considered,

, the solution is (34)

, the solution is (35)

Example 3. Consider the equation


Equation (36) can be written as


Comparing with Equation (5) we have, , furthermore

. So, theorem (4) can be applied as follows:


which implies that


Differentiating both sides of (39), we have


Assuming that, yields


thus, Equation (36) reduced to the first order exact ordinary differential equation


which has the solution


4. Conclusion

In this article, a new method is considered for solving second order nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The small size of computation in comparison with the computational size required by other analytical methods [1] , and the dependence on first order partial differential equations show that this method can be improved and introduces a significant improvement in solving this type of differential equations over existing methods. This method is proposed to be considered as an alternative approach being employed to a wide variety of equations.


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