Journal of Environmental Protection, 2011, 2, 620-628
doi:10.4236/jep.2011.25071 Published Online July 2011 (
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. JEP
Chemical and Bacteriological Analysis of Drinking
Water from Alternative Sources in the Dschang
Municipality, Cameroon
Emile Temgoua
University of Dschang, Faculty of Agronomy and Agricultural Science, Dschang, Cameroon.
Received February 28th, 2011; revised April 2nd, 2011; accepted May 9th, 2011.
In the poor zones of sub-Saharan Africa, the conventional drinking water network is very weak. The populations use
alternative groundwater sources which are wells and springs. However, because of urbanization, the groundwater
sources are degrading gradually making pure, safe, healthy and odourless drinking water a matter of deep concern.
There are many pollutants in groundwater due to seepage of organic and inorganic pollutants, heavy metals, etc. Sev-
enteen alternative water points created in 2008, for drinking water in Dschang municipality were examined for their
physicochemical and bacteriological characteristics. The results revealed that water from managed points in Dschang
is of poor quality. Most of the water samples were belo w or out of safety limits (standards) provided by WHO. The wa-
ter is characterized by high turbidity and presence of feacal coliforms. It can be used for drinking and cooking only
after prior treatment. This situation shows that water point management was limited only to the drawing up comfort.
These water points require installation of suitable surfaces of filtration and the development of a chlorination follow-up
plan. Specific concerns o f well water were raised and the management options to be taken proposed.
Keywords: Sub-Saharan Region, Alternative Water Assessing Point, Water Quality
1. Introduction
From time immemorial, water assessment has always
been a major concern. Today, the principal difficulty
with which we are confronted is not so much access to
water but more precisely the access to suitable water for
drinking. Indeed the problem arises in terms of the qua-
lity of water resources and it is on this point that all the
attention is focused, in Cameroon like elsewhere. Water
can be the vehicle of a very high number of pathogenic
agents voided into the external medium by the human or
animal faeces and can thus be at the origin of many wa-
terborne diseases. In 1996, WHO quantified to 4 billion,
the number of diarrhea episodes which occurred in the
world, and were responsible for the death of 3.1 million
people of whom the large majority were children less
than five years [1]. In the light of these figures, one rea-
lizes the importance of the problem of drinking water
assessment and the capital need to seek solutions to im-
prove the situation in this sector. In Cameroon, the rate
of access to drinking water hardly reaches 32% [2]. The
town of Dschang, like majority of the medium-sized cities
in Cameroon, encounters enormous difficulties of access
to drinking water. In a general way, the only one water
supplier (CAMWATER) recognized by the State cannot
satisfy the request of the increasing population. Thus,
this population tries as it can to be supplied with water of
very doubtful potability.
Many studies in African cities report that, wells, rivers
and springs are ubiquitously used for water supply. For
these points known as alternative sources (different from
conventional network), the quality of water is not known
and represents a considerable stake for the municipalities.
No authority can authorize even less to invest for a water
point of doubtful quality. The practices known as alter-
native are quite simply tolerated in the absence of being
prohibited. Indeed, many neighbouring pit latrines are
opened bottom and can create localised saturated flow
conditions that imply great risks of using groundwater
The standards only define, at a given moment, a level
of acceptable risk for a given population. They depend in
addition narrowly on scientific knowledge and the avail-
able techniques, in particular in health risks and the che-
Chemical and Bacteriological Analysis of Drinking Water from Alternative Sources in the 621
Dschang Municipality, Cameroon
mical analysis domains. They can thus be modified con-
stantly according to made progress. Hence, all the coun-
tries do not follow the same standards. Some enact their
own standards. Others adopt those advised by the World
Health Organization (WHO). In Europe, standards are
fixed by the European Communities Commission. Today,
63 parameters control the quality of the water for Euro-
peans [6]. Groundwater is a valuable natural resource for
various human activities [7]. Natural water always con-
tains dissolved and suspended substances of organic and
mineral origin. The pollution of groundwater is of major
concern, firstly because of increasing utilization for hu-
man needs and secondly because of the ill effects of the
increased industrial activity. High concentration of fae-
cal pollutants in groundwater is a considerable health
problem in several cities of the sub-Saharan region
Regarding water sources that could be supplied for
drinking supply in the region of greater urban Dschang
there are over 3,000 discrete access points public and
private plus additional sources such as bottled, river and
rain water. Since 2003 the municipal administration of
Dschang devoted considerable resources for development
of the water supply and waste management infrastructure
at Dschang in partnership with a variety of domestic and
foreign non-profits. This municipal initiative has endured
through two administrations and two generations of di-
agnostic study and constructive innovation spearheaded
by the Cameroonian nonprofit making organization
(NGO) Environment Research Action (ERA) in 2003, in
collaboration with AIMF and the city of Nantes, France
in 2005 [9].
The most recent generation of municipal development
in urban Dschang’s public water supply sector has been
primarily concerned with the expansion of the capacity to
deliver adequate quan tities of water to a needy popula-
tion, while the issue of water quality has been largely left
for the individual to address. However, existing data on
trends in public water use and perceptions of water qua-
lity reveals a distressingly low prevalence of home-based
treatment by the individual. In addition, where treatment
solutions are employed by the individual, the elevated
level of contamination in the original public water supply
often surpasses the effective capacity of the treatment
options available [10].
An analysis of the potability of available drinking wa-
ter has been synthesized from a body of over 200 micro-
bial analyses describing 98 drinking water access points
collected by five different studies [5,9,11-13] over the
past seven years. These sources can be divided into nine
distinct categories: unmanaged springs, treated tap water,
managed springs, public wells, private wells, bottled wa-
ter, rainwater, untreated tap water, and surface water.
Wells include cased and uncased hand dug wells as
well as boreholes/tube wells supplying populations,
and may be equipped with hand pumps or bucket
systems for drawing water.
Managed springs is a category that comprises all con-
structed ground water capture systems, many of
which incorporate slow sand filtration and piped de-
livery to public stand posts.
Unmanaged springs include natural flowing springs
and small hillside stream banks which may or may
not have modest improvements such as cemented
discharge points and outlet pipes.
The surface water category includes larger rivers and
Summarizing these studies, one notes the predominant
reliance of the population on unmanaged and generally
polluted water source. The categories of public wells and
managed springs falling within the Dschang municipality
reveal the extensive scope (approximately 30% of all
consumption) of the city’s role in supplying residents
with drinking water. Following close behind comes the
second largest single actor, CAMWATER with 23% of
total consumption, a significant but largely inadequate
figure considering CAMWATER’s position as the sole
provider of uniformly uncontaminated drinking water.
Water points managed by AIMF concern six (06) drill-
ings, seven (07) wells and nine (09) managed springs.
So the present study was undertaken to assess the qua-
lity of water for 17 of the 22 AWAP of Dschang council
where water is available. The sampling for water analysis
was done in the month of July 2009 at various location
viz. drillings, open wells, and managed springs from Ds-
chang council in Cameroon.
2. Methods
During the field work, we made in situ measurement of
the physical parameters (electric conductivity, Tempera-
ture and pH). We also described the environment of each
point and when it was possible the water collecting tech-
nique was described. We sampled water for physico-
chemical and bacteriological analyses (Table 1).
3. Results and discussion
Seventeen (17) water points were described and sampled
for analysis. These points are shown on Figures 1 and 2.
3.1. Physicochemical Parameters and Cations in
Studied Water
The results of these parameters in water of the Dschang
council are presented in Table 2.
3.1.1. pH
The pH values were between 5.1 and 6.9; they excep-
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. JEP
Chemical and Bacteriological Analysis of Drinking Water from Alternative Sources in the
Dschang Municipality, Cameroon
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. JEP
Table 1. Types of apparatuses use d, techniques of selec ted analyses and laboratories requested for the practical realization of
physico-chemical parameters Type of used apparatus Analysis technique Laboratory
pH Portatif SympHony SP80PD de VWRDirect reading In the field
conductivity WTW LF318 portatif Direct reading In the field
Nitrates NO3- Spectrophotometer DR2500 Hach Cadmium Reduction Method
DBO5 BodTrackTM Hach Respirometric Method, incubation at
20˚C during 5 days
DCO Spectrophotometer DR2500 Hach Reactor digestion
Laboratoire de physiologie
Turbidity Spectrophotometer DR2500 Hach Photometric method -//-
Faecal Coliforms Culture on Petri boxes
With the lactosed gelose with the
including TTC and tergitol and counting
of the elements
Faecal Streptococci Filter membranes
Culture in Petri boxes (gelose to the
bile, the esculine and the sodium acid)
counting of the elements
Laboratoire de Biochimie
Chlore, bicarbonates, sulfates Titration Direct measurement
Na, K, Ca, Mg Flame Photometer JENWAY PFP7 Direct reading
Laboratoire d’analyse des
sols et de chimie de
l’environnement (LASCE)
Figure 1. Localization of the Dschang Council in the Western Region of Cameroon in Africa, and various Drinking Water
Points managed by AIMF in the rural zone of Dschang and analyzed within the framework of this study. Source: Services
techniques, Dschang council.
Chemical and Bacteriological Analysis of Drinking Water from Alternative Sources in the 623
Dschang Municipality, Cameroon
Figure 2. Localization of various Drinking Water Points managed by the AIMF in the town of Dschang and analyzed within
the framework of this study; Source: Services techniques, Dschang municipality.
Figure 3. Showing 100% of correlation between conductivity and Total Dissolved Solid.
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. JEP
Chemical and Bacteriological Analysis of Drinking Water from Alternative Sources in the
Dschang Municipality, Cameroon
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. JEP
Table 2. Physicochemical parameters and cations in studied water.
ConductivityTurbidityTDSCaMgK Na SO42- Cl HCO3-NO3-
Water point Type pH microS/cmFTU mg/l
1 Fossong Wentcheng Spring 5.80 47 6 1.25 0 42.70 3.5
2 Busy Home Spring 5.50 31 7 200.342.640.670.83 0.96 0 6.10 3.0
3 Fongo Ndeng Spring 5.95 17 3 150.122.601.770.83 1.23 0 34.16 17.0
4 Lefock Spring 5.26 81 0 350.361.562.618.54 1.23 1.9 21.35 3.5
5 Atchouazong Spring 6.15 65 0 350.641.960.541.69 1.19 0 91.50 2.8
6 Tchouale Spring 5.50 40 0 200.261.661.432.58 0.23 0 70.15 2.5
7 La Vallée Spring 5.51 80 0 400.641.902.615.43 2.32 0 48.80 5.6
8 Aza’a Foreke-Dschang Drilling 6.15 35 6 3.90 0 27.45 2.2
9 Centre de santé de Nkeuli Drilling 5.52 51 0 300.361.181.294.45 1.25 0 112.853.0
10 Zembing Drilling 5.15 30 2 200.221.481.430.83 2.44 0 54.90 2.7
11 Ngui Spring 5.60 102 4 450.541.081.502.58 2.98 0 149.452.6
12 Keleng Spring 8.80 27 10 4.87 1.07 67.10 0.9
13 Famla Well6.54 570 6 1272.760.446.4937.73 4.11 1.07 549 2.6
14 Haoussa Well9.94 1400 11 2801.440.1617.7191.83 6.16 0.88 45.75 1.9
15 Tchouale Well6.94 480 10 2681.841.226.1326.56 1.62 0 1210.002.7
16 Fiankop Well6.14 619 12 3001.340.068.9648.45 2.16 3.15 161.6512.2
17 Siteu Drilling 5.20 14 4 20
tionally high (8 to 9) in Keleng and the Haoussa quarters
respectively. The pH is evaluated between 0 and 14 and
expresses the concentration of the H+ ions in solution.
This value for water of good quality must be between 6.9
and 9.2 according to WHO [1] standards. Thus, water
sources with pH values lower than 6 are numerous in
Dschang. This water is slightly acid. Acid water is corro-
sive for the pipes of distribution.
3.1.2. Electrical Conductivity
Electrical conductivity is the ability of a solution to lead
electrical current. It expresses also the quantity of dis-
solved matter (often called salinity). USEPA [14] rec-
ommends the limiting value of 300 μS/cm. The electrical
conductivity of analyzed water varies between 30 and
100 for the majority of cases examined, except for the
following wells (Famla, Haoussa, Tchoualé and Fiankop)
whose conductivities were between 480 and 1400 μS/cm.
With the exception of well water, all other water points
had electrical conductivities in the acceptable range.
3.1.3. Turbidity
The turbidity values of less than 5 FTU are limiting for
WHO [1]. In line with this, only water obtained in drill-
ing of the “Centre de santé de Nkeuli’’ and that of
Zembing met this condition. All other water sources were
turbid and required filtration before distribution. This is
due to the fact that surface water contributes to these
3.1.4. Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)
This parameter expresses the salt reaction in solution, or
the organic level of pollution of water. Allowable values
of TDS range between 500 and 1500 mg/l [1]. For ana-
lyzed water, the values of TDS were between 15 and 45
mg/l for the majority of sources examined; water from
wells was exceptions where the values of TDS were be-
tween 120 and 300 mg/l. In all the cases, TDS values
were lower than the range accepted by the standards.
3.1.5. The Ca tions Ca, Mg, K and N a
The presence of cations in water expresses the hardness
of water. The limiting values according to WHO stan-
dards are 75 - 200, 30 - 150, 20, 50 - 60 mg/l respectively
for Ca, Mg, K and Na. For the Office cantonal of Vaud
(Switzerland), the limiting values of these parameters are
40 - 125, 5 - 30, 10 and 20 respectively. The values
of these parameters in analyzed water ranged between
0.1 and 0.6; 0.06 to 2.6; 1 to 2.6; 0.8 to 8 mg/l respec-
tively for Ca, Mg, K and Na. Calcium (1.3 to 2.7 mg/l),
potassium (6 to 17 mg/l) and sodium (37 to 91 mg/l)
values were slightly higher in the wells. It appears that
only well water has the recommended sodium value. All
the other water sources were very slightly mineral-bearing.
3.2. Anions in Studied Water
The results of the anions in water of the Dschang council
are presented in Table 2.
Chemical and Bacteriological Analysis of Drinking Water from Alternative Sources in the 625
Dschang Municipality, Cameroon
3.2.1. Sulph at es
The sulphates in water represent agricultural pollution.
The value allowed by the USEPA is 250 mg/l. For wa-
ter of the Dschang council, the values of sulphates were
between 0.2 and 6 mg/l; with the high values reported
coming from wells (1.6 to 6.16 mg/l). In all the cases,
water of Dschang is not polluted according to their sul-
phates content.
3.2.2. Chl ori des
The chlorides in water are known to come from rainwater.
The accepted values are between 200 and 600 mg/l. In
water of Dschang, the values obtained were between 0
and 3 mg/l. This water is thus low in chlorides and thus
of good quality with respect to chlorides.
3.2.3. Bicarbonates
Total alkalinity is the sum of carbonates and bicarbonates.
The values of bicarbonates are also used to express alka-
linity, in the absence of carbonates. Only one sample
showed the presence of carbonates (16 mg/l in the Haou-
ssa well). The acceptable values of alkalinity are 200
mg/l. Water of strong alkalinity has a bad taste. For water
of Dschang, alkalinity was between 6 and 160 mg/l;
however, the water of Tchoualé well had an alkalinity of
almost 1200 mg/l. Apart from this point, the other sources
were of good alkalinity.
3.2.4. Nitrates
The nitrates in water result from pollution by urines and
agricultural entrants. The value recommended by WHO
is between 40 - 50 mg/l. The elevated nitrate contents
cause the disease known as “Blue-baby” or Methaemo-
globinase [15]. In Dschang, values were between 0.9 and
3.5 mg/l for the majority of management points. The
Fongo Ndeng spring water, and Fiankop wells have raised
rates (17 and 12 mg/l respectively) because of nitrates.
Agriculture and free grazing animals can explain the first
case whereas the second could be an effect of the urban
3.3. Microbiological Parameters in Studied Water
Studied water average microbiological density is repre-
sented in Table 3. The total coliforms are observed in all
water, except for the drilling of Aza’a Foréké- Dschang,
and that of the “Centre de santé de NKeuli”, the spring of
Keleng and the Haoussa well. The pathogenic bacteria
here are faecal coliforms. They result from the contami-
nation by excreta. The allowed value by WHO is 0 CFU
for 100 ml of water. However, Duchemin [16], sanitary
engineer of pS-Eau (France cooperation NGO) delimited
in sub saharian zone, less than 20 faecal CFU/100 ml the
number of coliforms and faecal streptococci in water
intended for human use. One found them in great quan-
tity in water of Busy Home, Atchouazong, spring of
Tchoualé, spring of Ngui, spring La Vallée and the well
of Fiankop. The faecal streptococci sp. were detected
only in the spring of Ngui.
Table 3. Microbiological analysis of studied water (average of three analyses).
samples DBO5 DCO mg/lTotal coliforms
(CFU/100 ml) Faecal coliforms
(CFU/100 ml) Faecal streptococci
(CFU/100 ml)
1 Fossong Wentcheng 9.4 9 42 × 104 0 nd
2 Busy Home 5.6 20 4.55 × 106 2 × 103 nd
3 Fongo Ndeng 11.3 6 3.50 × 106 0 nd
4 Lefock 6.0 5 3.75 × 106 0 nd
5 Atchouazong 5.5 7 2.05 × 104 1 × 103 nd
6 Tchouale 5.5 10 1.50 × 104 1.15 × 104 nd
7 La Vallée 6.6 5 3 × 103 1 × 103 nd
8 Aza’a Foreke-Dschang 9.4 12 0 0 nd
9 Centre de santé de Nkeuli 5.5 15 0 0 nd
10 Zembing 8.5 20 0 0 nd
11 Ngui 12.5 19 3.40 × 104 3 × 103 4 × 103
12 Keleng 10.7 17 0 0 nd
13 Famla 10.5 10 13 × 104 0 nd
14 Haoussa 4.2 12 0 0 nd
15 Tchouale 7.5 13 1 × 103 0 nd
16 Fiankop 8.5 25 9 × 103 3 × 103 nd
17 Siteu 23 nd nd 20 10
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. JEP
Chemical and Bacteriological Analysis of Drinking Water from Alternative Sources in the
Dschang Municipality, Cameroon
The DBO5 and DCO are parameters which present
organic pollution. They present acceptable values [1,16].
3.4. Water Quality in Dschang is Due to Urban
Environment and Type of Water Point
Popular practices regarding the raising of livestock and
management of human and household wastes reveal ad-
ditional knowledge gaps regarding the link between poor
sanitation practices and the incidence of water-borne
disease. Studies performed in the Dschang area have
shown that both human and animal waste contain sig-
nificant concentrations of pathogenic organisms.
Each inhabitant of the Dschang city, as far as possible,
builds its water supply (well in particular) and sanitation
devices. Generally there exist in Dschang nearly 8000
open bottom pit toilets, built not far from the water wells
[17] and, dug to the groundwater [5]. The full pits are
quite simply closed and others dug in the vicinity. The
old pits remain thus hidden, becoming a durable source
of pollution for the groundwater. Solid waste is voided in
the backwaters, the gutters or on open lands. Also, a
study conducted in 2002 [18] on the fecal matter of do-
mestic chickens, goats, pigs, dogs found that zoonotic
infection was prevalent across a variety of species. In-
festation by Nematode species was predominant (57.1%
testing positive), followed by Cestodes (21.4%), Trema-
todes (14.3%) and various Protozoa (7.1%).
In a study on quality of drinking water of Kalama re-
gion in Egypt, 30% of samples from public waters were
contaminated with coliform bacteria [19]. Other studies
in Iran showed that total bacteria mean count for tap wa-
ter was 1.3 × 104 CFU/ml, and 41% - 67% of water
samples from open water sources in India contained
coliform and/or faecal coliform bacteria [20]. Djuikom et
al. [21] in a study on bacteriological quality of water
used by population in Douala stated that faecal coliforms
densities varied from 200 and 44 × 103 CFU/100 ml.
The management of water points consisted in setting
up curbstones, hillocks and the feet supports (Oral com-
munication from Dschang Technical Staff). This im-
proves much esthetics of drawing up but the analysis of
laboratory for the quality of water required was neces-
sary before installation. Then, no precaution of protection
against anthropic pollution was taken.
3.5. Chemical Pollution is Minimized
The health concerns associated with chemical constitu-
ents of drinking-water differ from those associated with
microbial contamination and arise primarily from the
ability of chemical constituents to cause adverse health
effects after prolonged periods of exposure [1]. There are
few chemical constituents of water that can lead to health
problems resulting from a single exposure, except through
massive accidental contamination of a drinking-water
supply. Moreover, experience shows that in many, but
not all, such incidents, the water becomes undrinkable
owing to unacceptable taste, odour and appearance.
Figure 3 shows the better correlation between TDS
and conductivity. Table 4 shows that correlations are
also good (86% to 100%) between K and Na, between K
and Na and finally between the DBO5 and the DCO.
This shows that these parameters are affected between
them and that the change of the one influences the other.
Table 4. Correlations betw ee n the various studied parameters.
pH Cond TurbTDS Ca Mg K Na SO42– Cl HCO3 NO3 DBO5DCO
pH 1.00
Cond 0.52 1.00
Turb 0.67 0.70 1.00
TDS 0.51
1.00 0.70 1.00
Ca 0.35 0.73 0.44 0.73 1.00
Mg –0.60 –0.60 –0.61–0.60 –0.511.00
K 0.65
0.86 0.59 0.86 0.63 –0.601.00
Na 0.68
0.87 0.61 0.87 0.68 –0.650.991.00
SO4 0.79 0.36 0.56 0.35 0.37 –0.700.560.59 1.00
Cl 0.21 0.53 0.43 0.53 0.35 –0.590.440.49 0.23 1.00
HCO3 0.14 0.54 0.34 0.54 0.69 – 0.00 –0.031.00
NO3 –0.21 0.13 0.04 0.14 –0.070.25 0.050.02 –0.280.27 –0.12 1.00
DBO5 0.01 0.26 0.48 0.26 –0.13– 0.11 0.32 –0.07 0.09 1.00
DCO 0.06 0.29 0.52 0.30 0.05 –0.370.080.14 0.17 0.29 0.03 –0.05
0.94 1.00
opyright © 2011 SciRes. JEP
Chemical and Bacteriological Analysis of Drinking Water from Alternative Sources in the 627
Dschang Municipality, Cameroon
3.6. Health Risks from Water Quality
Given the extensive contamination of available water
supplies and the health risks posed, the health impacts
are going to be largely dependent on the methods and
prevalence of home treatment. A limited survey con-
ducted on 148 households by ERA-Cameroun [17] re-
vealed that only 43% of reporting households subject
their drinking water to home based physical or chemical
treatment. Of the treatment methods most commonly
employed (boiling, bleach, chloramines, ceramic candle
filter, membrane filter, cotton filter), their weighted ef-
fectiveness amounts to a pathogen removal rate of 92%;
inadequate for the levels of contamination observed in
one half of the sources analyzed [10].
The inhabitants complain about many diseases, espe-
cially the enteric ones which are diseases related to water
that they use and with the lack of hygiene. This situation
was already revealed by several studies of which:
The diagnosis of UN Habitat [22] which announces
the cases of typhoid, of the intestinal parasites and di-
arrhea like recurring diseases in the city;
The study of Boon [9] which announces 18.8% of the
patients suffering from the diseases related to water
on a whole of 8000 patients indexed in the hospitals,
pharmacies and in the tradi-experts of the city: hel-
minthiasis: 7.2%, typhoid: 6%, amoebic diarrhea/dy-
sentery: 4.9%, intestinal mushrooms: 0.7%).
The study of Boon [9] attributes these diseases to the
proximity between the Men and the domestic animals
(breeding behind the houses). ERA-Cameroun [17] an-
nounces that the proximity of the open pit toilets is a
main factor at 70%.
4. Conclusions
In a general way, the water studied in the Dschang coun-
cil is unacceptable for human consumption. For the con-
cerns raised below, this consumption could be favorable
only when certain constraints will have been overcome:
1) Water from well is turbid and has a high electric
conductivity. It is essential to install there a filtration
2) All water is slightly mineral-bearing.
3) The water of the Tchoualé well has a high percent-
age of bicarbonates (and thus alkalinity). This parameter
should be controlled: research of the source and remedia-
4) Water of Busy Home, Atchouazong, spring of
Tchoualé, spring of Ngui, spring La Vallée and of the
well of Fiankop contains feacal coliforms in great quan-
tity. Their treatment by chlorine or bleach is essential.
Also, the source of pollution must be detected and elimi-
5) And spring waters of Fongo Ndeng and well of Fi-
ankop, have high rates of nitrates. The sources of pollu-
tion must be eliminated
6) Sand in water observed in Fossong Wentcheng calls
for a complete revision of the system of filtration. For
example by laying out filter materials according to
adapted particle size, and supporting the water run-off by
the filter roof.
These water points were already provided to the popu-
lations but they require the installation of filtration area
and the development of a follow-up plan of chlorination.
If the use of chlorine is tiresome, the bleach amounts can
be prescribed.
5. Acknowledgements
The author is grateful to the International Foundation for
Sciences (IFS) for the research grant (Grant W/4206-2). I
also appreciate Dr TABI and NIBA of the University of
Dschang for proofreading this paper.
[1] WHO, “Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality, Third
Edition, Incorporating the First and Second Addenda,
Volume 1: Recommendations,” WHO, Geneva, 2008.
[2] INS, “Annuaire Statistique du Cameroun 2007,” Institut
National de Statistique, 2008.
[3] E. Tanawa, “Gestion et valorisation des eaux usées dans
les zones à habitat planifié et leurs périphéries,” Rapport
Leseau/ENSP Yaoundé Cameroun/Equipe Développement
Urbain INSA de Lyon, September 2002.
[4] E. Tanawa, H. B. Djeuda Tchapnga, E. Ngnikam, E.
Temgoua and J. Siakeu, “Habitat and Protection of Water
Resources in Suburban Areas in African Cities,” Building
and Environment, Vol. 37, No. 3, 2002, pp. 269-275.
[5] E. Temgoua, E. Ngnikam and B. Ndongson, “Drinking
Water Quality: Stakes of Control and Sanitation in the
Town of Dschang – Cameroon,” International Journal of
Biology and Chemical Sciences, Vol. 3, No. 3, 2009, pp.
[6] European Union, “Directive du conseil 98/83/EC sur la
qualité de l’eau attendue pour la consommation
humaine, ” 1998.
[7] B. G. Prasad and T. S. Narayana, “Subsurface Water
Quality of Different Sampling Stations with Some Se-
lected Parameters at Machilipatman Town,” Nature, En-
vironment and Pollution Technology, Vol. 3, No. 1, 2004,
pp. 47-50.
[8] H. B. Djeuda Tchapnga, E. Tanawa and E. Ngnikam,
“L’eau au Cameroun. Tome 1: approvisionnement en eau
potable,” Presses Universitaires de Yaoundé, Coll. Con-
naissances de …, 2001.
[9] N. Boon, “Environmental Burden of Water Borne Disease
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. JEP
Chemical and Bacteriological Analysis of Drinking Water from Alternative Sources in the
Dschang Municipality, Cameroon
in Dschang, Western Provence-Cameroon: Health im-
pacts and causal factors,” Breaking Ground Report, 2008.
[10] V. Katte, M. F. Fonteh and G. N. Guemeh, “Effectiveness
of Home Water Treatment Methods in Dschang, Camer-
oon,” Cameroon Journal of Experimental Biology, Vol. 1,
No. 2, 2005, pp. 102-106.
[11] G. N. Guemuh, “Quality of Domestic Water Supply and
Effectiveness of Some Locally Used Treatment Me-
thods,” Master’s Thesis, the Department of Agricultural
Engineering, University of Dschang, Dschang, 2003.
[12] A. Da Costa, “L’approvisionnement en eau potable des
populations de la ville de Dschang,” Master’s Thesis, the
Department of Geography, University of Bordeaux III,
[13] J. Ndounla, “Caractéristiques biologiques et physico-
chimiques de l’eau de consommation et influence du
mode d’approvisionnement sur la santé des populations à
Dschang,” Masters Thesis, the Department of Animal
Biology, University of Dschang, Dschang, 2007.
[14] USEPA, “Standard Methods for the Examination of Wa-
ter and Wastewater, 21st Edition,” Washington DC, 2005.
[15] P. Jain, J. D. Sharma, D. Sohu and P. Sharma, “Chemical
Analysis of Drinking Water of Villages of Sanganer
Tehsil, Jaipur District,” International Journal of Environ-
mental Science and Technology, Vol. 2, No. 4, 2005, pp.
373- 379.
[16] J. P. Duchemin, “Impact des conditions d’alimentation en
eau potable et d’assainissement sur la santé publique,”
Document de synthèse pS-Eau, Ouagadougou, 1998.
[17] ERA – Cameroun, “Diagnostic de l’approvisionnement
en eau et de l’assainissement dans la ville de Dschang,”
CUD, 2005.
[18] C. Keambou, ”Inventaire des genres parasitaires gastroin-
testinaux à potentiel zoonosiques des hommes et des
animaux domestiques à Dschang (Ouest-Cameroun),”
Thèse de Master, Département de biologie animale,
Université de Dschang, Dschang, 2002.
[19] M. D. Ennayat, K. G. Mekhael, M. M. El-Hossany, M.
Abdel-El Kadir and R. Arafa, “Coliform Organisms in
Drinking Water in Kalama Village,” Bulletin of the Nutri-
tion Institute of the Arab Republic of Egypt, Vol. 8, 1988,
pp. 66-81.
[20] H. Moshtaghi and M. Boniadian, “Microbial Quality of
Drinking Water in Shahrekord (Iran),” Research Journal
of Microbiology, Vol. 2, No. 3, 2007, pp. 299-302.
[21] E. Djuikom, E. Temgoua, L. B. Jugnia, M. Nola and M.
Baane, “Pollution bactériologique des puits d’eau utilisés
par les populations dans la Communauté Urbaine de
Douala – Cameroun,” International Journal of Biology
and Chemical Sciences, Vol. 3, No. 5, 2009, pp. 967-978.
[22] UN-HABITAT, “Municipalité de Dschang: une ville au
passé glorieux face aux nouveaux défis,” 2005.
opyright © 2011 SciRes. JEP