Circuits and Systems, 2011, 2, 127-132
doi:10.4236/cs.2011.23019 Published Online July 2011 (http://www.SciRP.org/journal/cs)
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. CS
Precision Full-Wave Rectifier Using Two DDCCs
Department of Tel ecom m uni cations Engi neering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mo ngkut’s Institute of Technology
Ladkrabang, Bangkok, Thailand
Received February 22, 2011; revised April 12, 2011; accepted April 19, 2011
A new precision full-wave rectifier employing only two differential difference current conveyors, which is
very suitable for CMOS technology implementation, is presented. The proposed rectifier is the voltage-mode
circuit, which offers high-input and low-output impedance hence it can be directly connected to load without
using any buffer circuits. PSPICE is used to verify the circuit performance. Simulated rectifier results based-
on a 0.5 µm CMOS technology with ±2.5 V supply voltage demonstrates high precision rectification and
excellent temperature stability. In addition, the application of proposed rectifier to pseudo RMS-to-DC con-
version is also introduced.
Keywords: Full-Wave Rectifier, Voltage-Mode Circuit, DDCC, RMS-to-DC Conversion
Full-wave rectifier is used in RF demodulator, piecewise
linear function generator, AC voltmeter, watt meter and
various nonlinear analog signal processing circuits. Typ-
ically, a conventional rectifier could be realized by using
diodes for it rectification. However, this circuit would
not be capable of rectifying incoming signals whose am-
plitudes are less than the threshold voltage (approxi-
mately 0.7 V for silicon diode and 0.3 for germanium
diode). As a result, diode-only rectifiers are normally
used in only those applications in which the precision in
the range of threshold voltage is insignificant, such as RF
demodulators and DC voltage supply rectifiers. For high
precision applications, the diode-only rectifier cannot be
used. This can be overcome by using integrated circuit
rectifiers instead. The precision rectifiers based on op-
erational amplifier (op-amp), diodes and resistors are
presented [1-4]. However, the classical problem with
conventional precision rectifiers based on op-amps and
diodes is that during the non-conduction/conduction
transition of the diodes, the op-amps must recover with a
finite small-signal, dv/dt, (slew-rate) resulting in signifi-
cant distortion during the zero crossing of the input sig-
nal. The use of the high slew-rate op-amps does not solve
this problem because it is a small signal transient prob-
lem. The gain-bandwidth is a parameter of op-amp that
limits the high frequency performance of this scheme.
Moreover, since these structures use the op-amp and the
resistors; therefore these circuits are not suitable for IC
fabrication. Second-generation current conveyors (CCIIs)
is possessed a very high slew rate and bandwidth if com-
pared to the traditional op-amp. This makes the CCII of
primary importance in the design of modern analog inte-
Several circuits based on CCII for realizing full-wave
rectification have been reported in the literature [5-10].
The rectifier circuit in [5-7] employ diodes and resistors
in addition to CCIIs. The circuit proposed in  employs
bipolar current mirrors in addition to a CCII and a num-
ber of resistors. The rectifier circuit in  employs four
CCCIIs and resistors. The circuit proposed in  em-
ploys two CCII and two MOS transistors. However, the
use of resistor makes these circuits not ideal for integra-
tion. Recently, Chiu et al.  proposed a new current
conveyor circuit called the differential difference current
conveyor (DDCC). The DDCC has the advantages of
both the CCII and the differential difference amplifier
(DDA) (such as high input impedance and arithmetic
In this paper, a new precision full-wave rectifier cir-
cuit using only two DDCCs is presented. Compared with
previous rectifiers, the proposed structure is more suit-
able for integrated circuit fabrication. The circuit also
offers a low output impedance terminal, which is suitable
for low impedance load. Simulation results verifying the
theoretical analysis are also included. To demonstrate the
advantages of proposed configuration, pseudo RMS-
128 M. KUMNGERN
to-DC conversion is also introduced.
2. Circuit Realization
The electrical symbol of DDCC is shown in Figure 1.
The DDCC has three voltage input terminals: Y1, Y2 and
Y3, which have high input impedance. The terminal X is a
low impedance input terminal. There is a high impedance
current output terminal Z. The CMOS realization for
DDCC is shown in Figure 2 . The input-output cha-
racteristics of the ideal DDCC is described as
The proposed full-wave rectifier circuit is shown in
Figure 3. The circuit employs only two DDCCs. Com-
pared to previous rectifiers, the proposed rectifier is
higher suitable for IC implementation. The DDCC1 and
DDCC2 are operated as non-inverting and inverting uni-
ty-gain voltage buffers. The input voltage Vin is con-
nected to Y1 and Y2 terminals of DDCC1 and DDCC2,
respectively, while two outputs (X terminals) are con-
nected. In this case, only positive peak will be appeared
at the output voltage Vout.
The operation of the proposed full-wave rectifier is as
follows: when Vin > 0, the DDCC1 is on, the voltage Vin
is followed by the DDCC1 to the voltage Vout at X termi-
nal. In addition, when Vin < 0, the voltage –Vin is fol-
lowed by the DDCC2 to the voltage Vout at X terminal
(–VY2 = VX). From the operation of the proposed full-
wave rectifier explained, the relations between the input
voltage, Vin, and the output voltage, Vout, can be ex-
0 ; : DDCCon
0 ; : DDCCon
The output voltage of the circuit in Figure 3 can be
Figure 1. Electrical symbol for DDCC.
2M2 M3 M4
Figure 2. CMOS implementation for DDCC.
Figure 3. Proposed full-wave rectifier using DDCCs.
Therefore, the proposed circuit provides the full-wave
rectification. It can be noted that the proposed circuit has
high-input and low-output terminal, hence it is easy to
drive loads without using a buffering device. The DC
offset output voltage can be controlled by adjusting the
3. Simulation Results
The proposed full-wave rectifier is simulated using
PSPICE program to verify the given theoretical analysis.
The DDCCs are simulated using CMOS structure of
Figure 2 that can be implemented using CMOS struc-
tures DDCC given in . The aspect ratios of the MOS
transistors of the CMOS DDCC are given in Table 1.
The device model parameters used for the PSPICE
simulation are taken from MIETEC 0.5 m CMOS
process . The supply voltages are selected as VDD =
–VSS = 2.5 V and the bias voltage is set as VB = –1.7 V.
The DC transfer characteristic of the proposed full-wave
rectifier is shown in Figure 4, which shows the operating
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. CS
voltage ranging from –1 V to 1 V of the input voltage.
The magnified zero crossing of Figure 4 is shown in
Figure 5. In this figure, the blunting region (b) is found
as –2.5 mV < Vin < 2.5 mV. Applying the 200 m Vpeak
sine wave at the input of the proposed rectifier, the input
and output signals at frequencies of 500 kHz and 1 MHz
are shown in Figures 6 and 7, respectively. This results
is confirms the operation that the proposed rectifier can
provide the full-wave rectification at the input signal
amplitude lower than the threshold voltage of diode (<
0.3 V). It is evident from Figures 6 and 7 that undis-
torted full-wave rectified signals are produced at all two
frequencies. However, as the input frequency increases
to 1MHz and beyond, the output signals have errors at
the crossover region, called “corner distortion”. This
corner distortion results from the non-conduction/con-
ction transition problem of DDCCs. At the frequency of
1 MHz, we simulate the temperature performance of the
proposed full-wave rectifier as shown in Figure 3 by
changing temperatures from 50˚C to 100˚C. Figure 8
shows the output waveform of the proposed rectifier at
temperatures of 50˚C, 75˚C and 100˚C. From simulation
results in Figure 8, they show that the proposed circuit
provides excellence temperature stability. This result is
confirmed by Equation (3). The simulated peak outputs
Vout for the circuit were 199.46 mV and 196.67 mV at
50˚C and 100˚C, respectively.
Table 1. Transistor aspect ratios of the used DDCC.
Transistor W (m) L (m)
M1-M4 1.6 1
M5-M6 8 1
M7-M9 20 1
M10-M11 29 1
M12-M14 90 1
Figure 4. Simulated results for DC transfer characteristic.
Figure 5. Simulated results for DC transfer characteristic at
zero crossing regions.
Figure 6. Operation of the proposed full-wave rectifier at
500 kHz frequency for Vin = 200 mV peak.
Figure 7. Operation of the proposed full-wave rectifier at
1 MHz frequency for Vin = 200 mV peak.
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. CS
130 M. KUMNGERN
Figure 8. Operation of the proposed full-wave rectifier at
4. Application Examples
To show the advantage of proposed rectifier, author de-
scribes a pseudo root-mean-square (RMS)-to-DC con-
version as an example. The well-known average value of
a signal magnitude is defined by
where v(t) is the AC signal, T is its period, and Vavg is the
average value of the rectified signal of v(t). To perform
this operation, the AC signal is first full-wave rectified
and then low-pass filtered to extract the DC component.
For the case of a sinusoidal signal we have v(t) = Vm
sin(2ft), where Vm is the peak amplitude voltage and f
=1/T is the frequency. Substituting v(t) into (4) and inte-
It is customary to calibrate the averaging circuits so
that, with a sinusoidal input, the rms value is yield:
Substituting v(t) = Vm sin(2ft) and solving yields
Comparing (5) and (7) we have 
which is the amount of amplification required to obtain
Vrms from Vavg. By using proposed full-wave rectifier,
both average value and RMS value of sinusoidal wave-
form can be readily implemented as shown in Figure 9.
It should be noted that only grounded components are
required. For more suitable IC implementation, all grou-
nded resistors can be replaced by MOS resistor as shown
in Figure 10. This resistor was presented in 1990 by
Wang . Assume MR1 and MR2 have the same char-
acteristics and remaining in the saturation region. The
resistance value of MOS resistor can be expressed as:
eq DD TH
, VTH is the threshold voltage
VV are the supply voltages. It can see that
the value of resistor can vary by setting the appropriate
A first-order low-pass filter is achieved with a prop-
erly specified RL and C. The voltage Vout is converted to
the input current of the filter in which the AC compo-
nents are filtered through the capacitor C. The voltage
value, Vavg, can be obtained by choosing Rin and RL1
identical. According to (8), Vrms can be obtained by set-
ting RL2/Rin = 1.111. For a symmetrical square input, the
ratio of (8) becomes unity thus Vavg of Figure 9 gives the
exact RMS value because Rin and RL1 are identical. If
RL1/Rin = 1.155, the circuit may indicate the RMS value
for either sinusoidal or triangular current signals. The
criterion for specifying CL (i.e. CL = CL1 = CL2) is that it
must be large enough to keep the residual output ripple
within specified limits, that is 
where fmin is the low end of the frequency range of inter-
est. CL should usually exceed the right-hand term by the
inverse of the fractional ripple error that can be tolerated
at the output .
The RMS-to-DC converter in Figure 9 is simulated
using PSPICE program to verify the given theoretical
analysis. For this simulation, three resistors (Rin, RL1 and
Figure 9. The full-wave rectifier-based RMS-to-DC con-
verter for sinusoidal waveform.
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. CS
RL2) are replaced by MOS resistor as shown in Figure 10
According to (8), when Rin and RL1 are identical to obtain
Vav, then Vrms can be obtained by setting RL2/Rin = 1.111.
In this case, the aspect ratios (W/L) of MOS transistors,
MR1 and MR2, for Rin, RL1 and RL2 are 2 m/2 m, 2 m/
2 m and 1.8 m/ 2m, respectively (Rin = RL1 = 3.457 k
and RL2 = 3.844 k). A sinusoidal input with Vin = 200 mV
and f = 1 MHz was applied to the converter and C = 1 nF.
The supply voltages for DDCC are selected as VDD =
−VSS = 2.5 V and the bias voltage is set as VB = −1.7 V.
The multiple-output DDCC can be obtained by adding
additional current mirrors. Figure 11 shows the simula-
tion results for Vavg = 126.63 mV and Vrms = 140.45 mV,
with ripple less than 2%. In this case, the RMS voltage
converter for both sinusoidal (output Vrms) and symmet-
rical square (output Vavg) waveform can be obtained. To
achieve this case, the buffer circuits should be used.
In this paper, a new DDCC-based full-wave rectifier has
been presented. The proposed circuit comprises only two
DDCC which is suitable for IC implementation. The-
proposed circuit has high-input and low-output imped-
Figure 10. MOS resistor.
Figure 11. Simulated Vavg and Vrms for sinusoidal input with
amplitude of 200 VPeak and frequency of 1 MHz.
ance terminals, hence it easy to drive loads without using
a buffering device. It can be applied to various nonlinear
analog signal processing circuits. The performance of the
proposed circuit is confirmed from PSPICE simulation
results. Simulation results show that the proposed recti-
fier have excellent temperature stability. The application
of proposed rectifier to pseudo RMS-to-DC conversion is
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