J. Biomedical Science and Engineering, 2011, 4, 472-478 JBiSE
doi:10.4236/jbise.2011.46059 Published Online June 2011 (http://www.SciRP.org/journal/jbise/).
Published Online June 2011 in SciRes. http://www.scirp.org/journal/JBiSE
Molecular distributed sensors using dark soliton array
trapping tools
Sorayut Glomglome1, Somsak Mitatha1, Preecha P. Yupapin2
1Hybrid Computing Research Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok,
2Advanced Research Center for Photonics, Faculty of Science King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok, Thai-
Email: kypreech@kmitl.ac.th
Received 4 October 2010; revised 15 November 2010; accepted 5 December 2010.
We present the novel system of molecular distributed
sensors using dark soliton pulse array, whereas the
multi dark soliton sources can be generated and the
molecular distributed sensors presented via an opti-
cal multiplexer (MUX). Initially, the dark soliton ar-
ray with different center wavelengths can be gener-
ated, then the transmission molecules/atoms can be
secured by using the dark soliton behaviors, whereas
the dark soliton valley can be configured as the mo-
lecule/atom trapping potential well, which can be
used to trap molecule/atom. In this case, the trans-
ported molecules/atoms in the router can be used to
form the molecular distributed sensors, whereas the
induced changes in the molecular distributed sensors
can be formed and measured via the drop port of
each output multiplexer.
Keywords: Molecular Sensors, Distributed Sensors,
Network Sensors, Soliton Sensors
Recently, Threepak et al. [1] and Kulsirirat et al. [2]
have shown the very fascinating results of molecule/
atom trapping and transportation using optical trapping
probe, where the dynamical movement of molecule/atom
can be realized. Optical tweezers are a powerful tool for
use in the three-dimensional rotation of and translation
(location manipulation) of nano-structures such as mi-
cro- and nano-particles as well as living micro-organ-
isms [3]. Many research works have been concentrated
on the static tweezers [4-8], which it can not move. The
benefit offered by optical tweezers is the ability to inter-
act with nano-scaled objects in a non-invasive manner,
i.e. there is no physical contact with the sample, thus
preserving many important characteristics of the sample,
such as the manipulation of a cell with no harm to the
cell. Optical tweezers are now widely used and they are
particularly powerful in the field of microbiology [9-11]
to study cell-cell interactions, manipulate organelles
without breaking the cell membrane and to measure ad-
hesion forces between cells. In this paper we describe a
new concept of developing an optical tweezers source
using a dark soliton pulse. The developed tweezers have
shown many potential applications in electron, ion, atom
and molecule probing and manipulation as well as DNA
probing and transportation. Furthermore, the soliton
pulse generator is a simple and compact design, making
it more commercially viable. We present the theoretical
background in the physical model concept, where poten-
tial well can be formed by the barrier of optical filed.
The change in potential value, i.e. gradient of potential
can produce force that can be used to confine/trap at-
oms/molecule. Furthermore, the change in potential well
is still stable in some conditions, which mean that the
dynamic optical tweezers is plausible, therefore, the
transportation of atoms/molecules in the optical network
via a dark soliton being realized in the near future. In
application, the trapped molecules/atoms by dynamic
tweezers can be formed by using the tweezers array
(multi tweezers) [12], which is available for transporta-
tion in the routers [1] or optical wireless link [13]. The
induced changes due to the surrounded environments
can be measured and formed the molecules/atoms dis-
tributed sensors.
In this case, the multi dark solitons are required to form
the dark soliton array in the system. To describe the mul-
tiplexed dark soliton pulses, a stationary multi dark soli-
ton pulses are introduced into the microring resonator
system as shown in Figure 1. Each of input optical fields
(Ein) of the dark soliton pulses input is given by [13].
S. Glomglome et al. / J. Biomedical Science and Engineering 4 (2011) 472-478
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. JBiSE
tanhexp 2
Et Ait
 
Where A and z are the optical field amplitude and prop-
agation distance, respectively. T is a soliton pulse prop-
agation time in a frame moving at the group velocity, T
= tβ1 * z, where β1 and β2 are the coefficients of the
linear and second-order terms of Taylor expansion of the
propagation constant. LD = 2
T/|β2| is the dispersion
length of the soliton pulse. T0 in equation is a soliton
pulse propagation time at initial input (or soliton pulse
width), where t is the soliton phase shift time, and the
frequency shift of the soliton is ω0. This solution describes
a pulse that keeps its temporal width invariance as it
propagates, and thus is called a temporal soliton. When a
soliton peak intensity (|β2/Г × 2
T|) is given, then T0 is
known. For the soliton pulse in the microring device, a
balance should be achieved between the dispersion length
(LD) and the nonlinear length (LNL = 1/Г
NL), where Г =
n2 * k0, is the length scale over which dispersive or nonli-
near effects makes the beam become wider or narrower.
For a soliton pulse, there is a balance between dispersion
and nonlinear lengths, hence LD = LNL.
When light propagates within the nonlinear material
(medium), the refractive index (n) of light within the
medium is given by
02 0
nn nInp
  (2)
where n0 and n2 are the linear and nonlinear refractive
indexes, respectively. I and P are the optical intensity
and optical power, respectively. The effective mode core
area of the device is given by Aeff. For the series micror-
ing resonator (MRRs), the effective mode core areas
range from 0.50 to 0.10 μm2 [14]. When a soliton pulse
is input and propagated within a MRR, as shown in
Figure 1, which consists of a series MRRs. The resonant
output is formed, thus, the normalized output of the light
field is the ratio between the output and input fields
[Eout(t) and Ein(t)] in each roundtrip, which is given by
 
111 411sin
 
 
 
The close form of Equation (3) indicates that a ring reso-
nator in this particular case is very similar to a Fabry-
Perot cavity, which has an input and output mirror with a
field reflectivity, (1
), and a fully reflecting mirror.
is the coupling coefficient, and x = exp (αL/2) represents
a roundtrip loss coefficient, 0
= kLn0 and
kLn2|Ein|2 are the linear and nonlinear phase shifts, k =
2π/λ is the wave propagation number in a vacuum, where
L and α are waveguide length and linear absorption coef-
ficient, respectively. In this work, the iterative method is
introduced to obtain the results as shown in Equation (3),
and similarly, when the output field is connected and in-
put into the other ring resonators.
The input optical field as shown in Equation (1), i.e. a
dark soliton pulse, is input into a nonlinear series mi-
Figure 1. Schematic of dark soliton array generation, where Eins: soliton inputs, Rs: ring radii, κs:
coupling coefficients, MUX: optical multiplexer, Rd: Add/drop radius, MRR: microring resonator.
S. Glomglome et al. / J. Biomedical Science and Engineering 4 (2011) 472-478
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. JBiSE
croring resonator. By using the appropriate parameters,
we propose to use the add/drop device with the appro-
priate parameters. This is given in details as followings.
The optical outputs of a ring resonator add/drop filter
can be given by the Equations (4) and (5), respectively
112 2
121 2
1211cos 1
11 1211cos
 
 
 
  
121 2
11 1211cos
 
  
where Et and Ed represent the optical fields of the
throughput and drop ports, respectively β = kneff is the
propagation constant, neff is the effective refractive index
of the waveguide, and the circumference of the ring is
L=2πR, with R as the radius of the ring. In the following,
new parameters is used for simplification with
= βL
as the phase constant. The chaotic noise cancel-
lation can be managed by using the specific parameters
of the add/drop device, and the required signals can be
retrieved by the specific users. 1
and 2
are the
coupling coefficient of the add/drop filters, kn = 2πR is
the wave propagation number for in a vacuum, and
where the waveguide (ring resonator) loss is
= 0.5
dBmm1. The fractional coupler intensity loss is
0.1. In the case of the add/drop device, the nonlinear
refractive index is neglected.
In simulation, the generated dark soliton pulse, for in-
stance, with 50-ns pulse width, and a maximum power
of 0.65 W is input into each of ring resonator systems
with different center wavelengths, as shown in Figure 1.
The suitable ring parameters are used, such as ring radii
and ring coupling coefficients, where R1 = 15.0 μm and
R2 = 10.0 μm. In order to make the system associate with
the practical device [14], n0 = 3.34 (InGaAsP/InP). The
effective core areas are Aeff = 0.50 and 0.25 μm2 for
MRRs. The waveguide and coupling loses are
= 0.5
dBmm1 and
=0.1, respectively, and the coupling
of the MRRs are ranged from 0.03 to
0.1. The nonlinear refractive index is n2 = 2.2×1013
m2/W. In this case, the waveguide loss used is 0.5
dBmm1. However, more parameters are used as shown
in Figure 1. The input dark soliton pulse is chopped
(sliced) into the smaller signals R1, R2, and the filtering
signals within add/drop ring Rd are seen. We find that
Figure 2. Simulation result of the dark solitons within the series microring resonators when the dark soliton input wave-
length is 1501 nm, where (a) dark soliton input, (b) and (c) dark solitons in rings R1 and R2, (d) is the drop port signals.
S. Glomglome et al. / J. Biomedical Science and Engineering 4 (2011) 472-478
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. JBiSE
the output signals from R2 is larger than from R1 due to
the different core effective areas of the rings in the sys-
tem, however, the effective areas can be transferred from
0.50 and 0.25 μm2 with some losses. The soliton signals
in Rd is entered in the add/drop filter, where the dark
soliton conversion can be performed by using Eqs.4 and
5. In application, the different dark soliton wavelength is
input into the series microring resonators system, wheres
the parameters of system are set the same. For instance,
the dark solitons are input into the system at the center
wavelengths λ1 =1501, λ2 = 1503 and λ3 = 1505 nm, re-
spectively. When a dark soliton propagates into the
MRRs system, the occurrence of dark soliton collision
(modulation) in multiplexer system and the filtering sig-
nals within add/drop ring (Rd) is as shown in Figure 1.
The dark soliton generated by multi-light sources at the
center wavelength λ1 = 1501 nm, the filtering signals are
as shown in Figure 2. Simulation results obtained have
shown that the band of bright solitons is seen, whereas
there is no signal at λ1 = 1501 nm. The free spectrum
range (FSR) and theamplified power of 2.15 nm and 80
W of the dark soliton are obtained, where in this case,
the spectral width(Full width at half maximum, FWHM)
of 0.073 nm is achieved. In Figure 3, the dark soliton
Figure 3. Simulation result of the dark soliton array when the dark soliton input wavelengths are 1501, 1503 and
1505 nm, where (a) dark soliton array, (b), (d) and (f) are the output signals R2, (c),(e) and (g) are the drop port
signals, respectively.
S. Glomglome et al. / J. Biomedical Science and Engineering 4 (2011) 472-478
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. JBiSE
array generated by multilight sources at the center wave-
length λ1 = 1501, λ2 = 1503 and λ3 = 1505 nm and filtering
signals is shown, respectively. Similarly, the dark soliton
array generated by multi-light sources at the center wave-
length λ1 = 1507, λ2 = 1509 and λ3 = 1511 nm and filtering
signals respectively is as shown in Figure 4, whereas the
optical ring radii used are 15, 10 μm and Rd = 50 μm.
From Figure 5, firstly, the generated dynamic
tweezers with molecules/atoms are input into the rou-
ters via the output/through port, which means that each
sensing ring device occupies a different spatial soliton
pulse with different wavelengths (λi). Secondly, the
sensing information can be transmitted via the network
system, whereas the measurement of the change in
molecules/ atoms can be performed using the output
add/drop ring of the add/drop multiplexer, which can
form the measurement of interest (force, stress or
temperature). Thus, the changes in the trapped mole-
cules/atoms in each trapping wavelengths due to the
change in physical parame-ters can be formed by the
multiplexed sensors, which are the distributed network
sensing system via the multi wavelength routers.
Figure 4. Simulation result of the dark soliton array when the dark soliton input wavelengths are 1507, 1509 and
1511 nm, where (a) dark soliton array, (b), (d) and (f) are the output signals R2, (c),(e) and (g) are the drop port
signals, respectively.
S. Glomglome et al. / J. Biomedical Science and Engineering 4 (2011) 472-478
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. JBiSE
Figure 5. A system of distributed sensor via a multi wavelength routers, where Rd: ring radii, λi, λi: output
wavelength, κi, κi1, κi2, κj, κj1, κj2: coupling constants.
We present the technique of molecular distributed sen-
sors using dark soliton array, whereas the multi dark
solitons are input into the series microring resonators,
which can be used to perform the large molecule/atom
trapping capacity in the distributed networks. The multi-
plexed and the filtering signals within add/drop filter can
be generated and obtained. The use of dark soliton array
to form the large number of molecule/atom trapping
within the distributed sensing system is analyzed and
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