Journal of Modern Physics, 2011, 2, 447-456
doi:10.4236/jmp.2011.26054 Published Online June 2011 (
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. JMP
Electrostatic Force of Repulsion Assists p-p
Nuclear Fusion
Arunachalam Lakshmanan
Saveetha Engineering College, Chennai, India
Received October 7, 2010; revised March 13, 2011; accepted April 17, 2011
Trapping of hydrogen ions released during sodium metal dissolution in a dilute aqueous Epsom solution in
cavitation induced nanocrystals could bring about an easy path to controlled nuclear fusion. This type of fu-
sion envisioning has the advantage of keeping the two protons and the electrons in the same vicinity, bonded
in the same unit throughout the fusion process unlike the case in Sun. The electrostatic repulsive force be-
tween protons which has been a stumbling block so far in achieving a controlled fusion is now turned in its
favor by exploiting the fascinating properties of water.
Keywords: Nuclear Fusion, Cavitation, Sodium Metal Dissolution, Aquous Epsom Solution, Hydrogen
Trapping, Spatial Confinement, Electrostatic Repulsion, Hydrinos
1. Introduction
Any fuel used for power production should not only be
eco friendly and economical but also should last longer
than the life of universe. Only water qualifies these re-
quirements. The prospect of successful proton-proton
(p-p) nuclear fusion technology with ordinary water as
the fuel, promises virtually unlimited energy. Nuclear
energy through fission, has been well understood, and
cost-effective in many countries, though it is not without
its problems, chief among them being the radiation safety,
storage of nuclear waste and limited fuel availability.
Thermonuclear fusion, thought to be the process that
powers the sun and the stars has not worked so far as a
source of energy [1]. Cold fusion process in palladium
metal lattice [2] has met with several objections, chiefly
on the source from where the required energy for nuclear
fusion would come from in room-temperature matter and
to the non observance of the reaction products [3]. The
claim that the pressures and temperatures inside the col-
lapsing cavitation bubbles could be high enough to initi-
ate nuclear reactions [4] is questioned since the bubble
collapse is strongly cushioned and energy being dissi-
pated by several factors may prevent the temperature
from approaching levels required for detectable nuclear
fusion [5-7]. We are of the opinion that there exists an
easy path to achieve controlled nuclear fusion as high-
lighted below.
2. Methods
In order to develop a method of non-violent dissolution
of sodium metal in which the reaction products are
non-corrosive and non-hazardous unlike that of caustic
process employing NaOH, sodium dissolution was car-
ried out in different aqueous salt solutions [8]. Once so-
dium metal is dropped into the Epsom solution under
stirring, it reacts with water quickly and melts. Without
stirring sodium metal floats in aqueous solutions which
makes peaceful dissolution impossible. A series of ex-
periments with different concentrations of Epsom salt
(MgSO4·7H2O) revealed that in a concentrated (but
slightly under-saturated) aqueous solution of Epsom salt,
sodium dissolves peacefully without any violent reac-
tions. An ion-exchange reaction involving Na and Mg
was found to explain this phenomenon. However, as the
Epsom concentrations were lowered, Na-H2O reaction
becomes dominant. High pure (Ranbaxy make, Labora-
tory reagent) Epsom salt was used in this experiment.
The rise in solution temperature was continuously moni-
tored with the help of a thermocouple wire inserted into
the solution. An X-Y recorder was used to plot the tem-
perature of the solution as a function of time since the
sodium drop. The effects of water content, salt content,
quantity of solution as well as the quantity of sodium on
the solution temperature were studied. To reduce solid
waste, the effect of repeated dissolution of sodium on the
same solution was also studied. However when the mass
of sodium was higher than 5 g, additional air ventilation
was found essential to dilute the hydrogen concentration
and to prevent the fire. A comparison of the above Ep-
som process with the caustic process has been made un-
der identical experimental conditions.
3. Results
Text book chemistry states that sodium metal in an
aqueous solution will react with water only in any condi-
tion and that the salt added merely reduces the thermo-
dynamic activity of water. However, experiments carried
out by us showed that this theory hold only with NaOH
solution in which the salt exists as ions at all concentra-
tions even under stirring conditions. Detailed studies
with Epsom (MgSO4·7H2O) solution indicate a new dis-
solution mechanism of sodium metal based on cavitation
induced meta stable crystals. Results showed two major
differences between sodium dissolution in the above two
salt solutions. These were: 1) Na dissolution time de-
creases in NaOH solution as water content increases
indicating that Na mainly reacts with water. However, no
such dependence was seen with Epsom solution. and 2)
With NaOH solution, sodium solubility was found to
decrease with increasing salt content since Na reacts
mainly with water. However, the amount of sodium that
could be dissolved peacefully in Epsom solution was
found to increase with Epsom salt content. These results
clearly indicated that that sodium is dissolved mainly in
the Epsom salt by ion exchange rather than in water. So-
dium is known to have a high solubility in alkaline earth
sulphate crystals [9]. Mg atoms released slowly by ion
exchange react with water and due to this process the Na
dissolution proceeds peacefully in concentrated Epsom
solution. Results showed that Na addition increases the
temperature of NaOH as well as Epsom solutions since
both Na-H2O and Mg-H2O reactions are highly exother-
For Epsom concentrations > 1.2 M, Na dissolves into
Epsom crystals peacefully by 2Na+ – Mg2+ exchange
reaction. Below < 0.6 M, Na-H2O reaction dominates
and solution explodes instantly on Na addition. In 0.6 -
1.2 M range both these reactions occur. Specifically, an
intense explosion accompanied with a shock wave and
vaporization of borosil glass beaker containing salt solu-
tion was witnessed in 0.85 M Epsom solution on the
completion of sodium dissolution. At this Epsom con-
centration both the reactions mentioned above are shown
to take place with equal probability [10]. Glass vaporizes
at temperatures >1000˚C. This fact indicated that a very
high temperature has indeed been reached in this ex-
periment. During the explosion, ultra thin molten glass
needles flew all around. Despite intense explosion, the
stirrer blade made of stainless steel did not get damaged
and continued to rotate which indicated that the energy is
released outwardly.
4. Discussion
4.1. Vaporous Cavitation
The application of Bernoulli’s equation has shown that
cavitation occurs in the Epsom solution not because of
stirring but due to exothermicity arising during sodium
metal dissolution and distribution of these local boiling
spots occurs during stirring. A recent study shows that if
a steam bubble is introduced in a cold water pool, due to
a fast condensation of the steam from the surface of this
bubble a phenomena similar to the cavitational collapse
of the bubble occurs. The steam bubble cavitation proc-
ess was more efficient compared to conventional proc-
esses because of the elimination intermediate energy-
interchange process [11]. The crystal formation due to
cavitation has been attributed to a number of factors such
as, 1) local temperature increase, 2) pressure changes
leading to rapid cooling rates (107 - 1010 k·s–1), 3) con-
comitant shockwaves, which will overcome energy bar-
riers to nucleation and promote crystal nucleation and its
growth even at a modest super saturation level [12]. We
extend this fact for the first time to explain the formation
of meta stable crystalloids due to exothermicity arising
during sodium metal dissolution in concentrated but
slightly under-saturated aqueous Epsom salt solutions
used for peaceful sodium metal dissolution. The process
of generation, subsequent growth and collapse of the
cavitation bubbles results in high energy densities, re-
sulting in high temperatures and pressures at the surface
of the bubbles but only for a very short time. Per se it
should, however, be emphasized that the principle of
cavitation is used in this work primarily only in the for-
mation of metastable crystals and not in the production
of high temperatures directly.
4.2. Possible Causes of Explosion
Preliminary calculations reveal that energy needed to
vaporize the system used in the above experiment is
about 2.60 × 102 kJ, whereas the energy released by
chemical reaction as a result of combustion of hydrogen
gas in air is 9.57 kJ. This shows that the observed explo-
sion is not caused by the combustion of hydrogen in the
presence of oxygen. In contrast, the energy released dur-
ing the hydrogen fusion is about 0.276 × 107 kJ which is
nearly 10,000 times more than the energy required to
vaporize the solution. So it is no wonder that the excess
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. JMP
energy has been vented out in the form of vaporizing the
glass beaker with its contents and a massive explosion!
Similarities of the observed explosion in 0.85 M Ep-
som solution and that of inertial confined fusion are ob-
vious. In the latter case, the fuel is compressed by the
rocket-like blow off of the hot surface material. During
the final part of the capsule implosion, the fuel core
reaches 20 times the density of lead and ignites at
100,000,000˚C. Finally, thermonuclear burn spreads ra-
pidly outward through the compressed fuel, yielding
many times the input energy. In the present case energy
is regenerated from within the system in a metastable
ionic crystal lattice surrounded by water and the pro-
posed p-p fusion is lattice assisted and hence follows
different set of rules.
4.3. Proposed Model Based on p-p Fusion
The intensity and timing of the explosion witnessed
above clearly indicated that the hydrogen released during
Na-H2O and Mg-H2O reactions in 0.85 M Epsom solu-
tion somehow got trapped in situ in the cavitation in-
duced Epsom crystals. The reaction may be described as
2 Na atoms get into the MgSO4 crystal while one Mg
atom is expelled into the solution as a result of cation
exchange. The Mg atoms released react with water to
produce hydrogen:
2Na Mg
Na donates electrons to a Mg2+ ion
2Na+ will replace a Mg2+ ion
Mg2H OMgOHH  (1)
50% Na added simultaneously reacts with water:
 2
2Na2H O2NaOHH 
to produce more hydrogen
Hydrogen donates electrons to a Mg2+ ion
 0
(Due to ion exchange reaction between hydrogen and
Mg, gets into the crystal while Mg is released
into the solution).
(1) & (2) are primary reactions taking place simulta-
neously with equal probability.
Calculations reveal that the crystal now contains only
Na+, and ions bonded to the water mole-
cules [10]. This necessitates the creation of
SO 2
vacancies for charge compensation in which H2O mole-
cules sit as shown in Figure 1(a).
Mg2H OMgOHH 
(Mg atoms released through reaction (3) react with water
to produce MgOH, a confirmed by product which could
be visually seen as a white precipitate from a distance)
and release further hydrogen which again get trapped in
the precursor as hydrogen molecules as shown in Figure
1(a) since there are no more Mg left in the crystal. This
is a secondary reaction and temporally delayed when
compared to the 2
incorporation through reaction (3).
Trapping of hydrogen atoms/molecules near oxygen
atom in the water molecule will compensate for the elec-
tron density loss created by the pulling of the electronic
cloud towards the hydrogen ions needed for their
co-existence near Mg2+ ion lattice site. The crystal struc-
ture shown in Figure 1(a) which utilizes several fasci-
nating properties of water represents the precursor state
of the explosive solution after Na dissolution. It is a case
where a cage meant for trapping a massive elephant
(Na+ ions), instead, trapping more efficiently the elusive
panthers (H+ ions). The electrostatic force of repulsion
between the two hydrogen ions would however prevent
them from coming together thereby making it a highly
unstable structure. It would hence tend to break the mo-
ment it is formed, at a much faster rate than the normal
dissolution process of cavitation induced crystals. How-
ever, cavitation induced by repeated release of hydration
energy will reform these crystals quickly with more vi-
gor and thus an oscillatory reaction sets in. The situation
is akin to a mechanical spring being pushed inward by an
external force. The more the force that is applied (due to
cavitation) the more is its recoil force (due to electro-
static repulsion). In other words, the electrostatic repul-
sive force between protons which has been a stumbling
block so far in achieving a controlled fusion is now
turned in its favor. Basically the above repulsive force
helps in the regeneration of nanocrystals rapidly which
helps in building-up the hydration energy exponentially.
The two strong opposing forces mentioned above would
never allow the crystals to grow to larger dimensions.
This is the premise for assuming the proposed fusion
process in nanocrystals. It is known that the energy input
for inetially confined nuclear fusion decreases with de-
creasing sample size. The oscillatory chemical reactions,
however, repeatedly release hydrogen ions into the
aqueous solution. Because the hydrogen ion is so tiny, a
large amount of charge is concentrated in a very small
area and the polar water molecules are strongly attracted
to it thereby forming the H3O+ ions. This “hydration” of
the hydrogen ion involves not only in the formation of a
coordinate covalent bond to one of the water molecule
but a large number of strong hydrogen bonds, so it is a
strongly exothermic process (H3O+ ΔSG hydration energy
= 461.1 kJ/mol). However, stirring distributes uniformly
the heat energy released from local hot spots. Therefore,
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. JMP
the rise in bulk solution temperature in the beaker is
visualized to be not more than 60˚C - 70˚C until the fu-
sion reaction commences. The re-generation of nanocry-
stals, however, helps in building-up the pressure on the
hydrogen ion species trapped inside the crystal. Since the
two hydrogen ions are positioned on either side of the
divalent cation site, the pressure exerted on them (i.e.
species) will increase exponentially and is antici-
pated to be very high, perhaps in the range of Gpa prior
to fusion since the charge neutrality demands the posi-
tioning of two monovalent hydrogen ions at a single lat-
tice site. However, coulombic repulsion between the hy-
drogen ions will oppose the crystallization process. The
above oscillatory reactions will continue until the phase
change (liquid to solid) is complete i.e., crystallization
process of Na2SO4 in which the two hydrogen ions come
together and occupy a single cation site that is vacated by
a Mg2+ ion which results in the nuclear fusion of hydro-
gen ions. Thus eventually the cavitation force wins over
the electrostatic repulsive force. This is the story of con-
trolled nuclear fusion in a glass beaker. At this point of
time (i.e. about 20 to 25 s after Na addition) due to a
chain fusion reaction, the temperatures and pressures
should shoot up instantly. Solution temperature is likely
to shoot up at the end of Na dissolution due to the energy
released by chain fusion reaction. Therefore even before
the crystal lattice disintegrates/vaporizes, fusion chain
reaction commences. Fusion occurs once the exponential
growth of hydration energy reach a critical point which
makes the crystallization process complete. Since fusion is
crystal lattice assisted, it is basically a low energy nuclear
reaction (LENR). The CCRO (Cavitation-Coulombian Re-
pulsion Oscillation) theory envisions nuclear fusion in a
crystal lattice at moderate temperatures but at high pressures.
4.4. (H4O)2+ and (H6O)2+ Species
The formation of a divalent species like H4O2+ shown in
Figure 1(a), would be normally energetically not fa-
vored in water because two positive charges are being
pushed together on the same water molecule. But in the
above case the water molecules act as a carrier of two
hydrogen ions with the help of two independent dative
bonds formed between the two lone pair electrons in the
oxygen and the two hydrogen ions. The divalent crystal
lattice energy demands the positioning of two protons at
a single Mg2+ ion lattice site and hence the energy
needed to overcome the electrostatic repulsion of the two
protons is provided by the ionic crystal lattice energy.
The existence of H4O2+ ions in other systems such as
sulfolane solution is known [13]. During oscillatory re-
actions, a hydrogen ion has to be separated from one of
the hydronium ion in the solution and attached with an-
other hydronium ion so as to form the H4O2+ species
shown in the precursor. The energy required for both the
above reactions should come basically from cavitation.
Apart from crystallization, dissociation of chemical spe-
cies in liquids due to cavitation is well known [14,15].
Since equal probability of Na-H2O reaction and
Mg-H2O reaction is proposed, the number of hydrogen
atoms generated by the latter reaction would be exactly
equal to the number of hydrogen atoms released by the
former reaction and so the additional hydrogen generated
could get trapped in a structure shown in Figure 1(a).
The hydrogen budget is thus accounted for. Adsorption
of hydrogen atoms in such systems is well known. If two
hydrogen atoms sit beside oxygen atom in the water mo-
lecule as shown in Figure 1(a) then some sort of cova-
lent bond can be formed between the two hydrogen at-
oms and the electrons attached with the oxygen. This
will compensate for the electron density loss created by
the pulling of the electronic cloud towards the hydrogen
ions. As a result, the structure shown in Figure 1(a)
forms which can be represented as [H6O]2+ with an over-
all +2 charge as that required at a Mg2+ site.
4.5. Energy Released in Hydration and Energy
Needed for Fusion
To start with the input energy to the bulk of the solution
comes from the 40 W electrical stirrer (~40 J/s giving
rise to an energy input of about 1200 J in 30 s, the ap-
proximate time taken for the explosive energy release
since sodium addition), which of course is extremely
small compared to the energy released eventually. Pre-
liminary calculation reveal that the number of hydronium
ions formed during a single collapse of the nano-pre-
cursor crystal in the explosive solution = 0.04 mol.
Hence each time the above crystal dissolves in the solu-
tion an energy equivalent to 18.44 kJ (= 461.1 kJ/mol ×
0.04 mol) is released into the solution. However, the en-
ergy released in the fusion process in the above case is
about 0.28 × 107 kJ. The energy really needed to achieve
the fusion depends on the efficiency of the system. Let us
assume that the energy needed to achieve the fusion is a
factor of 100 times (this number is immaterial—what is
important is the collapse of the nano crystals and their
reformation as many times that are needed in an unhin-
dered manner till the energy required for initiating the
p-p or p-e-p nuclear fusion is released through hydration
process!) lower than the fusion energy released. Even
then, the energy required for initiating the fusion would
be of the order of 1520 (= 28000/18.44) times larger than
the hydration energy stated above. Here comes the trick.
Hydration energy is not released once but is released
repeatedly with increasing rate with time since the rate of
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. JMP
collapse of the precursor crystal should increase with
increasing force of coulombic repulsion as the two pro-
tons approach closer and closer.
4.6. Exothermic Reaction is Exponential in
All exponential curves can be represented by the func-
tion y = a.bx, where a and b are constants, while x (time)
and y (pressure) are the two variables. They all have
same basically the same shape—for values of b > 1 and
positive values of a, the value of y rises slowly first but
then begins to rise more and more rapidly, until finally y
shoots almost straight up. It is the latter property which
is very useful for high pressure generation in a short time.
x refers to the time since the precursor is formed while y
refers to the pressure on the hydrogen ion species. Since
the explosion occurred at about 20 to 25 s after sodium
addition, the oscillations appeared to have continued for
a few seconds prior to explosion. Exothermic chemical
reaction is a classical example of producing exponential
growth; the more of the reaction rate that is happening,
the more heat is produced, which in turn causes the reac-
tion to produce faster, which in turn produces more heat
and so on. In the above example, the premise is that the
hydration energy (in the kJ range) accumulated repeat-
edly within a very short period exponentially in the vi-
cinity of nanocrystals can result in the build up-of pres-
sure (MPa range required in plasma state) needed for a
nuclear reaction in condensed matter. The time scale is
very important here. Only after the fusion reaction takes
place within those nano-crystalline region, the p-p fusion
energy released is spread out evenly outward in all direc-
tions which results in the vaporization of Borosil glass
beaker along with its contents. Before the hydration en-
ergy released is dissipated into the bulk of the solution,
further build-up of hydration energy should take place or
else there is a chance of energy dissipation from the nano
crystal to the bulk of the solution which would slow
down the reformation of crystal and the conditions re-
quired for fusion would not have been achieved. The
extent of the regeneration suggested is important in this
context. Regeneration of a small crystal over a suffi-
ciently small time scale could, in principle, occur. The
opposite limit of a large crystal being destroyed and it
being regenerated, after a long period of time, involves a
significant reduction in entropy in a situation associated
with explosion which simply cannot occur. Therefore,
details, involving the crystal size, time scale, and the
mechanism for creating the nanocrystal regeneration
effect are all important so laws of thermodynamics are
not violated.
Practically known examples of exponential growth are
in the end limited by the sample size (i.e. the species
causing the growth) e.g., the number of microorganisms
in a culture will grow exponentially until an essential
nutrient is exhausted. Typically the first organism splits
into two daughter organisms, which then each split to
form four, which split to form eight, and so on. Similarly,
an uncontrolled polymerization process can cause expo-
nential release in heat energy until the monomer is ex-
hausted. These are not regenerative systems. What is
being considered here is a regenerative system in which
there is no limitation of fuel size. The energy will get
regenerated as long as it is required to cause the final end
point—in this case energy required to cause p-p fusion.
4.7. Fusion in Free State and Fusion in
Condensed Matter
It is claimed that in free state p-p fusion reaction is a
weak interaction since it requires a conversion of proton
1H1 to neutron which is associated with a positron e+ de-
cay. This reaction is described below:
11 2
11 1
HHDeneutrino0.42 MeV
  (5)
Deuterium can also be produced by the rare pep (pro-
ton–electron–proton) reaction (electron capture):
HeHDneutrino1.44 MeV
  (6)
In the Sun, the frequency ratio of the pep reaction
versus the pp reaction is 1:400. In p-p fusion in the Sun,
most of the energy is carried away by positrons whose
absorption releases heat but in p-e-p fusion, in the ab-
sence of charged particle emission, the neutrinos carry
most of the energy released during fusion in a benign
way. Hence p-e-p fusion cannot produce significant heat
Hot plasma physicists argue that even at temperatures
of 1010 K that exist in the sun it would take millions of
years to produce the number of reactions required. Hence
the argument is put forward that p-p fusion can be ruled
as a mechanism in the experiment proposed. It is true
that with free particles the p-p bound state cannot be
formed because of energy conservation but in crystal
lattice, the lattice can take up the excess energy and
hence a bound state of p-p is very well possible. In Fig-
ure 1(a), a water molecule donates two electrons to two
hydrogen ions by two independent dative bonds through
the two lone pair electrons in the oxygen. Such a con-
finement of electrons with hydrogen ions could bring
about a new mode of fusion process based on deflated
hydrogen di scu s sed bel ow.
Analogy for differences in the experimental results
observed in free state and in crystals can be seen else-
where too. It was originally thought impossible for nuclei
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. JMP
to absorb and emit gamma rays resonantly. It was be-
lieved that due to conservation of momentum, the emit-
ting and absorbing nuclei would lose some of the gamma
ray energy by recoiling, therefore eliminating any chance
of the gamma ray being absorbed again by another nu-
cleus - this due to the very narrow line width of some
nuclear energy levels (due to their long lifetime—the
uncertainty principle!). Mossbauer, however, showed
that if the absorber and emitting atoms are embedded in a
lattice, the recoil due to the gamma ray may in fact be
taken up by the entire solid, making the energy loss neg-
ligible. This is in fact the very essence of Mossbauer
Spectroscopy: the discovery of recoil-free nuclear reso-
nance emission and absorption. Yet another instance
concerns the rules of luminescence in crystals which are
quite different from those governing gases. For example,
the luminescence in gases is governed by the rules of
atomic spectroscopy which result in line absorption and
line emission. In contrast the luminescence in crystals is
governed by a different set of rules. Transitions which
are forbidden by selection rules in gases become allowed
in crystals through the influence of crystal field, some-
times with a very strong probability eg., ligand to metal
or metal to ligand charge transfer (CT) transitions or in-
tense thermostimulated luminescence (TL) from 4f-4f
forbidden transitions in lanthanide doped crystals. Host
mediation through phonon interaction removes the de-
generacy of lanthanides in the later case. Furthermore,
the emission in crystals occur on long wavelength side of
absorption due to Stokes shift occurring because of crys-
tal field. Emission and absorption show as bands in crys-
tals [17].
4.8. Oscillator/Substance (O/S) Theory and an
Alternate Fusion Process
O/S theory proposed by Sinclair [18] postulates that the
formation of molecular monocation (2) is more likely
rather than hydrogen molecular Di-cation (). As per
the O/S theory, coalesion (fusion) of para hydrogen (nu-
clei with opposing spins) unit HH+ into D+ by rotation is
more likely than the fusion of di-protonated hydronium
ions or p+p+ species. Without making any other change,
this idea can be fused into the mechanism proposed
above. In the alternate proposal shown in Figure 1(b),
two H2
+ ions replace one
ion. The exchange reac-
tions may be described as follows:
2H Mg2HMg
(Due to exchange reaction between hydrogen and Mg,
two H2
+ ions gets into the crystal while one Mg atom is
released into the solution)
2Mg2H O2MgOHH  (8)
Figure 1. (a) Original proposal—Precursor state of the ex-
plosive solution after the sodium dissolution. (b) Alternate
proposal—O/S (oscillator/substance) theory presumes the
formation molecular monocation (2) shown within the
oblong circles rather than hydrogen molecular Di-cation
) shown in (a) as more likely. See text for more details
of the two figures.
(Mg released reacts with water to produce MgOH, a con-
firmed by product)
On cavitation collapse, ions are released into
the solution:
2H2H H
2H2H O2H O
 (10)
(Hydration energy release)
Figures 1(a) and (b) are essentially same. Only the
concepts differ. Except for the replacement of two 2
ions in the place of one ion, both concepts invoke
cavitation collapse under high pressures and ably assisted
by LENR as the cause for p-p/p-e-p fusion.
As per the O/S theory, once HH+, hydrogen molecular
cation is formed, it could coalese into Deuterium ion
rapidly under suitable orientations in high pressure con-
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. JMP
ditions inside an ionic solid. The W/S theory predicts
that the HH+ ion rotate down to a proper orientation los-
ing motion (vibrational motion) to the milieu (environ-
ment) while condensing (spinning down) into a more
symmetric unit when the two protons and electron come
closer and closer to a rotating circular array correspond-
ing to a Deuterium ion, eventually coalescing into that
form. This has been presumed to occur when the rota-
tions of both units are aligned on the same vector, in ex-
actly opposite senses such that the two rotations will
cancel before collision occurs. There would be good deal
of usable energy release during this process as it would
not be a sudden transform but a succession of transforms
which would release energy. This is in resonance with
the O/S theory which presumes that very high tempera-
tures will tear apart the HH+ species. The situation of
reaction within a solid has also the definite advantage of
a lattice having many possible energy states to absorb the
necessary motion which must be removed as the entities
fuse. This is harder to consider happening easily in a
liquid or gas. The entire fusion process is envisaged to
occur in this approach in a very elegant manner at mo-
lecular level without the release of high energy photons
or high energy neutrinos unlike the random collision
approach in hot fusion. Basically low energy photon con-
tinuum results when the molecular cations (2
for p-p
fusion and D2
+ for d-d fusion) are subjected to high
pressures in an ionic crystal. The lattice mostly absorbs
this photon continuum leading to heat release. O/S theory
predicts that the formation of para hydrogen is a must for
the fusion and that can happen only in 2 molecular
ion and not in species which is unknown. In the
CCRO model (see Figure 1(b)), there is an additional
electron attached to one of the H in H2
+ ion. So essen-
tially both and 2 ions have two hydrogen ions
to which two electrons are attached. So both the species
are essentially same. What is important here is what is
happening is perhaps the H2
+ molecular ion initiates p-p
fusion. The electrons surrounding the hydrogen atom/ion
species appear to facilitate the fusion process by some
This view is similar, in some ways to Mill’s Hydrino
work [19]. Mill’s idea of “electron energy levels lower
than ground state” has relevance to hydrogen atoms as
well as hydrogen molecular ions. The idea of electron
compression into orbits deeper than ground state during
CCRO could lead to a large amount of usable energy
even without involving p-p fusion. A rough estimate of
energy released by hydrinos in the above experiment was
found to be = 57.6 MJ which is large compared to the
chemical burning of hydrogen (9.57 kJ), but less than
that by nuclear fusion reactions (2800 MJ). Previous es-
timation has shown that the energy needed to vaporize
the salt solution is 260 kJ. Thus the energy released dur-
ing hydrinos is more than 200 (~57600/260) times the
energy required to vaporize the solution. So energy re-
leased by Hydrinos formed under compression during
CCRO can also explain the excess energy that has been
vented out in the form of melting the glass container and
a massive explosion. The formation of a super-tight mo-
lecule with a very deep-electron orbit (nought-orbit elec-
tron) that has a very-high fusion probability cross-section
is being considered in this regard [20]. If the nought-
orbit concept bears fruit, then LENR may be taken out of
the unfriendly nuclear-physics community sights and
placed in the more-accepting chemistry environment. Yet
another of cold fusion proposes a deflated state of hy-
drogen which is made probable in situations where the
probability of an electron in the nucleus is high [21].
This can happen due to molecular or lattice structure
producing spin zero orbitals, by compressing an electron
cloud around a hydrogen nucleus so as to only allow
partial orbitals around the nucleus. Neutron creation via e
+ p combination requires an energy of about 0.78 MeV.
This is energetically not favored from the two body event,
because a neutron has more energy than an e + p, and
also because neutron creation is a weak force interaction
and hence require a long exposure time to become prob-
able It is the wave function collapse to a three body state
that creates hydrogen based fusion in LENR. For this to
happen, not only must the deflated state be common
enough, but it must also be in an environment where the
third body is present, or comes and goes, at a useful dis-
tance with high probability. This only happens in con-
densed matter. Typically in deflation fusion the wave
functions of an electron and two hydrogen nuclei mo-
mentarily collapse into a small volume, their centers of
mass being co-located, to create an intermediate state
weak and/or strong nuclear reactions may occur in this
intermediate state. Because deflated state hydrogen has
no net charge, the probability of deflated state hydrogen
tunneling long distances is greatly enhanced due to a lack
of tunneling barrier. The deflated hydrogen state is ex-
plicitly stated to exist for attosecond order durations, but,
where LENR occurs to any observable degree, the state
is repeated with a high frequency so as to make the state
sufficiently probable, and the lattice half life of the hy-
drogen appropriate. Wave function collapse occurs in
electron capture reactions when energetically favorable
even though it involves weak force interaction. The de-
flated state is a degenerate state of the hydrogen within
its environment. The fusion tunneling probability is
raised in Mill’s theory by the reduced hydrogen atom
radius. The fusion probability in deflation fusion is raised
by the vastly increased *combined* ensemble tunneling
probability of the hydrogen-nucleus-electron pair, which
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. JMP
retains at all times a low binding energy.
4.9. Cold Fusion and Uncertainty Principle
Uncertainty principle between momentum (p) and space
(x) states that if the particles are confined, i.e., if their
position becomes definite, their momentum increases
tremendously. i.e.,
pxh (11)
An application of this principle in nuclear fusion im-
plies that when two protons (or deuterons) come close
together i.e. if they are confined in space (i.e., minimized
x), their uncertainty in momentum (p) becomes ex-
ceedingly large—so large that no crystal lattice (metallic
or ionic!) can hold it. Protons or Deutrons with large
momentum (p) associated with large uncertainty in it (p)
can exist only in hot plasma state. Hence the argument
that fusion is possible only in plasma state where the
protons having high momentum collide with each other
to overcome the electrostatic barrier prior to nuclear fu-
sion. We shall see that it is possible to achieve the fusion
through simpler routes without violating the principles of
quantum mechanics.
In this regard, a question which remains to be an-
swered is “how the particle energy in cold fusion should
satisfy the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle (HUP). The
relevant relation is:
2πETh (12)
It has been reported that in cold fusion involving deu-
terium, d-d approaches closer through coupled phonon
interactions combined with Jahn-Teller displacements
[22]. All of the plasma (hot fusion) pathways have the
emission of a high energy photon. In contrast, in cold
fusion, the excited state alpha energy is internally con-
verted to lattice through optical phonons. Electric dipole
transitions are forbidden when there is no parity change
but crystal field can lift parity prohibition partly even at
RT. Hence some gamma emission could result even in
cold fusion but this is not observed. HUP will allow the
24 MeV photon energy to be transferred virtually to the
lattice i.e. without gamma emission provided it happens
in less than 10–23 s. However since atoms are typically
spaced about 10–8 cm apart and c = 3 × 108 cm/s, this
transfer energy can happen only at speeds tens of thou-
sands of times the speed of light, which is impossible
according to Einstein’s theory of Relativity. More likely
the high energy photon is not emitted in a single step but
as a continuum by a totally different process as in hy-
drino theory as applicable to molecular cations. There-
fore lattice absorbs the low energy photons (typically in
the eV to keV range) effectively leading to heat release.
In fact the O/S theory also predicts the loss of energy
(vibrational motion) to the environment when the two
protons and electron come closer and closer to a rotating
circular array corresponding to a Deuterium ion, eventu-
ally coalescing into that form. These facts imply that in
fusion involving LENR, the emission of high energy
photons or high energy neutrinos does not takeplace.
The CCRO theory explains another HUP relation also
elegantly. Since oscillations of protons around the diva-
lent cation site precede fusion, with speed of oscillations
increasing exponentially first and in the final stages
(preceding fusion) instantaneously shooting-up, the pro-
tons undergo a very large momentum (p) associated with
a large Δp leading to a low value of uncertainty in its
position, i.e. Δx, thereby satisfying the relation
 . This concept is novel and is visualized
only in CCRO theory. In other CMNS theories this co-
nundrum proved to be quite formidable to tackle.
5. Conclusions
Detailed studies with Epsom (MgSO4·7H2O) solution
indicate a new dissolution mechanism of sodium metal
based on Na-Mg ion exchange in cavitation induced me-
ta stable crystals. Cavitation occurs in the aqueous Ep-
som solution due to exothermicity arising during sodium
metal dissolution and distribution of these local boiling
spots occurs during stirring. The intense explosion ac-
companied with a shock wave and vaporization of boro-
sil glass beaker containing salt solution witnessed in 0.85
M Epsom solution on the completion of sodium dissolu-
tion is attributed to fusion of hydrogen nuclei extracted
from ordinary water.
The intensity and timing of the explosion witnessed
clearly indicated that the hydrogen released during
Na-H2O and Mg-H2O reactions in the Epsom solution
got trapped in situ in the cavitation induced Epsom crys-
tals. Charge neutrality demands the positioning of two
H+ ions at a Mg2+ cation site as the system would then go
into more stable state with less potential energy. This
factor is the prime reason for promoting nuclear fusion in
this system. The electrostatic force of repulsion between
the two hydrogen ions would however prevent them
from coming together thereby making it a highly unsta-
ble structure. It would hence tend to break the moment it
is formed which results in the release of hydration energy
due to the reaction of hydrogen ions with water mole-
cules. However, cavitation induced by repeated release
of hydration energy will reform these crystals quickly
with more vigor and thus an oscillatory reaction sets in.
The more the force that is applied (due to cavitation) the
more is its recoil force (due to electrostatic repulsion). In
other words, the electrostatic repulsive force between
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. JMP
protons which has been a stumbling block so far in
achieving a controlled fusion is now turned in its favor.
Hydration energy is not released once but is released
repeatedly with increasing rate with time since the rate of
collapse of the precursor crystal should increase with
increasing force of coulombic repulsion as the two pro-
tons approach closer and closer. Once the exponential
growth of hydration energy reaches a critical point, the
cavitation force overcomes the coulomic repulsion to
fuse the hydrogen nuclei and complete the crystallization
process. The observed explosion is a consequence of a
chain fusion reaction following the crystallization. Since
fusion is crystal lattice assisted, it is basically a low en-
ergy nuclear reaction (LENR). The fact that a chain reac-
tion does occur is by itself an evidence of the proposed
A confinement of electrons with hydrogen ions could
bring about a new mode of fusion process based on de-
flated hydrogen. However, proton fusion demands the
conversion of protons to neutrons and the creation of
positrons and both these processes require a very high
external energy input and such input can come only from
an external event. The deflation fusion concept might
assist the process as mentioned above but by itself cannot
cause it. So there are more than one factor that leads to
fusion in LENR. Alternately, Mill’s idea of hydrinos
formed under compression during CCRO could lead to a
large amount of usable energy without involving p-p
What is now needed is: 1) the demonstration of the re-
producibility of the proposed system, 2) precise meas-
urement of energy released to show that it is consistent
with nuclear and not chemical events and finally 3) the
measurement of the reaction products—annihilation
gammas from positrons and/or deuterons (the two by-
products of proton fusion) or the low energy photon con-
tinuum predicted by Mill’s hydrino theory which is being
planned in the near future.
6. Acknowledgements
The author is grateful to Drs. Dean Sinclair, Edmond
Storms. Muelenberg and Horrace Heffner for stimulating
discussions. Thanks are due to Dr. R. Venkatasamy,
Principal, Saveetha Engineering College for encourage-
ment and constant support.
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