Journal of Environmental Protection, 2011, 2, 327-341
doi: 10.4236/jep.2011.24037 Published Online June 2011 (
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. JEP
Protection of Environment from Damaged Nuclear
Station and Transparent Inflatable Blanket for
Protection from Radioactive Dust and Chemical, Biological Weapons
Alexander Bolonkin
New Jersey Institute of Technology, New Jersey, USA.
Received March 24th, 2011; revised April 25th, 2011; accepted May 20th, 2011.
The author, in a series of previous articles, designed the AB Dome made of transparent thin film supported by a small
additional air overpressure for the purpose of covering a city or other important large installations or sub-regions. In
present article the author offers a variation in which a damaged nuclear station can be quickly covered by such a cheap
inflatable dome. By containing the radioactive dust from the damaged nuclear station, the danger zone is reduced to
about 2 km2 rather than large regions which requires the resettlement of huge masses of people and which stops indus-
try in large areas. If there is a big city (as Tokyo) near the nuclear disaster or there is already a dangerous amount of
radioactive dust near a city, the city may also be covered by a large inflatable transparent Dome. The building of a gi-
gantic inflatable AB Dome over an empty flat surface is not difficult. The cover is spread on a flat surface and a venti-
lator (fan system) pumps air under the film cover and lifts the new dome into place but inflation takes many hours.
However, to cover a city, garden, forest or other obstacle course in contrast to an empty, mowed field, the thin film
cannot be easily deployed over building or trees without risking damage to it by snagging and other complications. This
article proposes a new method which solves this problem. The design is a double film blanket filled by light gas such as,
methane, hydrogen, or helium-although of these, methane will be the most practical and least likely to leak. Sections of
this AB Blanket are lighter than air and will rise in the atmosphere. They can be made on a flat area serving as an as-
sembly area and delivered by dirigible or helicopter to station at altitude over the city. Here they connect to the already
assembled AB Blanket subassemblies, cover the city in an AB Dome and protect it from bad weather, chemical, bio-
logical and radioactive fallout or particulates. After assembly of the dome is completed, the light gas can be replaced
by (heavier but cheaper) air. Two projects for Tokyo (Japan) and Moscow (Russia) are used in this paper for sample
Keywords: Radiation Shield, Protection of Environment from Damaged Nuclear Station, Dome for City, Blanket for
City, Protection of Cities from Chemical, Biological and Radioactive Weapons, Encapsulating Nuclear Sites
1. Introduction
1.1. Brief History of Nuclear Accidents
1) Chernobyl disaster: The Chernobyl disaster was a
nuclear accident that is considered the worst nuclear
power plant accident in history, and is the only one clas-
sified (until recently) as a level 7 event on the Interna-
tional Nuclear Event Scale. Large areas in Ukraine, Bel-
arus, and Russia were evacuated, and over 336,000 people
were resettled. According to official post-Soviet data,
about 60% of the fallout landed in Belarus. Russia,
Ukraine, and Belarus have been burdened with the con-
tinuing and substantial decontamination and health care
costs of the Chernobyl accident. More than fifty deaths
are directly attributed to the accident, all among the re-
actor staff and emergency workers. Estimates of the total
number of deaths attributable to the accident vary enor-
mously, from possibly 4,000 to close to a million.
2) The Fukushima I nuclear accidents are a series of
ongoing equipment failures which released radioactive
Protection of Environment from Damaged Nuclear Station and Transparent Inflatable Blanket for Cities
materials at the Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant, fol-
lowing the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami on
March 11, 2011. Fears of radiation leaks led to a 20 km
(12 mile) radius evacuation around the plant. On March
18, Japanese officials designated the magnitude of the
danger at reactors 1, 2 and 3 at level 5 on the 7 point In-
ternational Nuclear Event Scale (INES). On March 19,
Japan banned the sale of food raised in the Fukushima
area up to 100 km (65 miles) from the damaged facility
due to contamination above safe limits. Traces of radioac-
tive iodine were found in drinking water in Tokyo, 210 km
(135 miles) from the reactors.(see Figure 1)
3) Vulnerable megacities: In 1800 only 3% of the
world’s population lived in cities. 47% did by the end of
the twentieth century. In 1950, there were 83 cities with
populations exceeding one million; but by 2007, this had
risen to 468 agglomerations of more than one million. If
the trend continues, the world’s urban population will
double every 38 years, say researchers. The UN forecasts
that today’s urban population of 3.2 billion will rise to
nearly 5 billion by 2030, when three out of five people
will live in cities.
In 2000, there were 18 megacities–conurbations such
as Tokyo, New York City, Los Angeles, Mexico City,
Buenos Aires, Mumbai (then Bombay), São Paulo, Ka-
rachi that have populations in excess of 10 million in-
habitants. Greater Tokyo already has 35 million, which is
greater than the entire population of Canada.
By 2025, according to the Far Eastern Economic Re-
view, Asia alone will have at least 10 megacities, includ-
ing Jakarta, Indonesia (24.9 million people), Dhaka,
Bangladesh (26 million), Karachi, Pakistan (26.5 million),
Shanghai (27 million) and Mumbai (33 million). Lagos,
Nigeria has grown from 300,000 in 1950 to an estimated
15 million today, and the Nigerian government estimates
that the city will have expanded to 25 million residents
by 2015. Chinese experts forecast that Chinese cities will
contain 800 million people by 2020.
In the 2000s, the largest megacity is the Greater Tokyo
Area. The population of this urban agglomeration in-
cludes areas such as Yokohama and Kawasaki, and is
estimated to be between 35 and 36 million. This variation
in estimates can be accounted for by different definitions
of what the area encompasses. While the prefectures of
Tokyo, Chiba, Kanagawa, and Saitama are commonly
included in statistical information, the Japan Statistics
Bureau only includes the area within 50 kilometers of the
Tokyo Metropolitan Government Offices in Shinjuku,
thus arriving at a smaller population estimate. A charac-
teristic issue of megacities is the difficulty in defining
their outer limits and accurately estimating the popula-
tion. It is these concentrations of populations densities
that the present inventions is designed to protect.
2. Proffered Ideas
Idea 1: Quickly cover the damage nuclear station by a
cheap inflatable AB-Dome made of thin film to stop the
spreading the radioactive dust. Enveloping the entire
nuclear station will require a dome less than 1 km2. By
way of example, Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant is
(a) (b)
Figure 1. (a). Chernobyl nuclear station after exposion. (b). Fukushima nuclear station explosion. l
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. JEP
Current Distortion Evaluation in Traction 4Q Constant Switching Frequency Converters 329
enveloped by an initial dome which is quickly erected
over the radioactive site. A more permanent dome is
lowered over the initial dome encapsulating the radioac-
tive dust. (see Figure 2 and 3)
The radiation of isotopes decreases in time. And in the
duration of some years the radiation may be reduced to
acceptable levels. Impermeable film covering the dam-
aged station does not allow isotopes to spread across the
planet. In the normal case the wind and atmospheric
flows, streams will distribute them throughout the world.
The radiation near the Chernobyl vs. time is shown in
Figure 4.
Idea 2: To protect the nearest big city (Tokyo) from
radioactive dust by the inflatable transparent AB-Dome
from a thin film. Area is about 60 - 100 km2.
Figure 2. Initial dome over fukushima nuclear power plant.
Figure 3. Permanent containment dome over initial fuku-
shima nuclear power plant.
To protect Tokyo from radioactive fallout, Tokyo may
be covered by AB-Dome made from an inflatable trans-
parent thin film designed and developed by author in
[1-12]. The additional benefits are that this is a good
means for converting a city or region into a subtropical
garden with excellent weather, which also provides for
clean water from the atmosphere by condensation and
avoided evaporation and saves energy for heating houses
in cold regions, reflecting energy for cooling houses in
hot regions, protects a city from radioactive dust, chemi-
cal, bacterial weapons in war time, and even can produce
net electricity etc. (Figure 5)
However, the author did not describe the method—by
which we can cover a city, forest or other obstacle-laden
region by thin film. This article suggests a method for
covering the city and any surface which is neither flat nor
obstruction free by thin film which insulates the city
from outer environment, Earth’s atmospheric instabilities,
cold winter, strong wind, rain, hot weather and so on.
This new subassembly method of building an inflat-
able dome is named by the author ‘AB-Blanket’. This
idea is to design from a transparent double film a blanket,
with the internal pockets or space filled by light gas
Blanket are lighter than air and fly in atmosphere. They
Figure 4. Contributions of the various isotopes to the (at-
mospheric) dose in the contaminated area soon after the
Figure 5. Dome Blanket over City to protect from the con-
taminated area soon after the accident.
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Protection of Environment from Damaged Nuclear Station and Transparent Inflatable Blanket for Cities
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. JEP
(methane, hydrogen, helium). Subassemblies of the AB
can be made in a factory, spread on a flat area, filled by
gas to float upwards, and delivered by dirigible or heli-
copter to a sky over the city. Here they are connected to
the AB Dome in building and as additional AB Blankets
are brought into place, they cover the city and are sealed
together. After building the dome is finished, the light
gas can be changed to air. The film will be supported by
small additional air pressure into Dome.
3. Description of Innovations
One design of the dome from levitated AB Blanket sec-
tions that includes the thin inflated film plate parts is
presented in Figure 6. The innovations are: 1) the con-
struction is gas-inflatable; 2) each part is fabricated with
very thin, transparent film (thickness is 0.05 to 0.2 mm)
having the option for controlled clarity; 3) the enclosing
film has two conductivity layers plus a liquid crystal
layer between them which changes its clarity, color and
reflectivity under an electric voltage (option); 4) The
space between double film is filled with a light gas (for
example: methane, hydrogen or helium). The air pressure
inside the dome is more than the external atmosphere
also for protection from outer wind, snow and ice.
The film (textile) may be conventional (and very cheap)
or advanced with real time controlled clarity for cold and
hot regions.
The city AB Dome, constructed by means of these AB
Blankets, allows getting clean water from rain for drink-
ing, washing and watering which will often be enough
for a city population except in case of extreme density.
We shall see this for our calculations in the case of
Manhattan, below. The water collected at high altitude
(Blanket conventionally located at 100 - 500 m) may
produce electric energy by hydro-electric generators lo-
cated at Earth’s surface. Wind generators located at high
altitude (at Blanket surface) can produce electric energy.
Such an AB Dome saves a great deal of energy (fuel) for
house heating in winter time and cooling in summer
Detailed design of Blanket section is shown in Figures
7, 8. Every section contains cylindrical tubes filled a light
gas, has margins (explained later in Discussion), has
windows which can be open and closed (a full section
may be window), connected to Earth’s surface by water
tube, tube for pumping gas, bracing gables and signal and
control wires.
The net prevents the watertight and airtight film cov-
ering from being damaged by vibration; (3) the film in-
corporates a tiny electrically conductive wire net with a
mesh about 0.1 × 0.1 m and a line width of about 100 μ
and a thickness near 10 μ. The wire net is electric (voltage)
Figure 6. (a) Design of AB Blanket from the transparent film over city and (b) building the AB Dome from parts of Blanket.
Notations: 1–city; 2–AB-Blanket; 3–bracing wire (support cable); 4–tubes for rain water, for lifting gas, signalization and
control; 5–enter. Exit and ventilator; 6–part of Blanket; 7–dirigible; 8–building the Blanket.
Protection of Environment from Damaged Nuclear Station and Transparent Inflatable Blanket for Cities331
Figure 7. Design of AB Blanket section. (a) Typical section of Blanket (top view); (b) Cross-section A-A of Blanket; (c)
Cross-section B-B of Blanket; (d) Typical section of Blanket (side view). Notations: 1–part of Blanket; 2–light lift gas (for ex-
ample: methane, hydrogen or helium); 3–bracing wire (support cable); 4–tubes for rain water, for lifting gas, signalization
and control; 5–cover of windows; 6–snow, ice; 7–hydro-electric generator, air pump.
Figure 8. Design of advanced covering membrane. Notations: (a) Big fragment of cover with controlled clarity (reflectivity,
carrying capacity) and heat conductivity; (b) Small fragment of cover; (c) Cross-section of cover (film) having 5 layers; (d)
Longitudinal cross-section of cover; 1–cover; 2–mesh; 3–small mesh; 4–thin electric net; 5–cell of cover; 6–margins and wires;
7–transparent dielectric layer; 8–conducting layer (about 1 - 3 μ); 9–liquid crystal layer (about 10 - 100 μ); 10–conducting
layer; and 11–transparent dielectric layer. Common thickness is 0.1 - 0.5 mm. Control voltage is 5 - 10 V.
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. JEP
Protection of Environment from Damaged Nuclear Station and Transparent Inflatable Blanket for Cities
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. JEP
control conductor. It can inform the dome maintenance
engineers concerning the place and size of film damage
(tears, rips, etc.); (4) the film has twin-layered with the
gap—c = 1 - 3 m and b = 3 - 6 m—between film layers
for heat insulation. In polar (and hot) regions this
multi-layered covering is the main means for heat isola-
tion and puncture of one of the layers won’t cause a loss
of shape because the second film layer is unaffected by
holing; (5) the airspace in the dome’s covering can be
partitioned, either hermetically or not; and (6) part of the
covering can have a very thin shiny aluminum coating
that is about 1 μ (micron) for reflection of unnecessary
solar radiation in equatorial or collect additional solar
radiation in the polar regions [2].
The town cover may be used as a screen for projection
of pictures, films and advertising on the cover at night
time. In the case of Manhattan this alone might pay for
3.1. Brief Information about Advanced Cover
Our advanced Blanket cover (film) has 5 layers (Figure
8(c)): transparent dielectric layer, conducting layer
(about 1 - 3 μ), liquid crystal layer (about 10 - 100 μ),
conducting layer (for example, SnO2), and transparent
dielectric layer. Common thickness is 0.3 - 1 mm. Con-
trol voltage is 5 - 10 V. This film may be produced by
industry relatively cheaply.
1) Liquid crystals (LC) are substances that exhibit a
phase of matter that has properties between those of a
conventional liquid, and those of a solid crystal. Liquid
crystals find wide use in liquid crystal displays (LCD),
which rely on the optical properties of certain liquid
crystalline molecules in the presence or absence of an
electric field. The electric field can be used to make a
pixel switch between clear or dark on command. Color
LCD systems use the same technique, with color filters
used to generate red, green, and blue pixels. Similar
principles can be used to make other liquid crystal based
optical devices. Liquid crystal in fluid form is used to
detect electrically generated hot spots for failure analysis
in the semiconductor industry. Liquid crystal memory
units with extensive capacity were used in Space Shuttle
navigation equipment. It is also worth noting that many
common fluids are in fact liquid crystals. Soap, for in-
stance, is a liquid crystal, and forms a variety of LC
phases depending on its concentration in water. The
conventional controlled clarity (transparency) film re-
flects superfluous energy back to space if too much. If
film has solar cells it may converts part of the superflu-
ous solar energy into electricity.
2) Transparency. In optics, transparency is the mate-
rial property of allowing light to pass through. Though
transparency usually refers to visible light in common
usage, it may correctly be used to refer to any type of
radiation. Examples of transparent materials are air and
some other gases, liquids such as water, most glasses,
and plastics such as Perspex and Pyrex. Where the de-
gree of transparency varies according to the wavelength
of the light. From electrodynamics it results that only a
vacuum is really transparent in the strict meaning, any
matter has a certain absorption for electromagnetic waves.
There are transparent glass walls that can be made
opaque by the application of an electric charge, a tech-
nology known as electrochromics. Certain crystals are
transparent because there are straight lines through the
crystal structure. Light passes unobstructed along these
lines. There is a complicated theory “predicting” (calcu-
lating) absorption and its spectral dependence of different
materials. The optic glass has transparence about 95% of
light (visible) radiation. The transparency depends upon
thickness and may be very high for thin film.
3) Electrochromism is the phenomenon displayed by
some chemical species of reversibly changing color when
a burst of charge is applied. One good example of an
electrochromic material is polyaniline which can be
formed either by the electrochemical or chemical oxida-
tion of aniline. If an electrode is immersed in hydrochlo-
ric acid which contains a small concentration of aniline,
then a film of polyaniline can be grown on the electrode.
Depending on the redox state, polyaniline can either be
pale yellow or dark green/black. Other electrochromic
materials that have found technological application in-
clude the viologens and polyoxotungstates. Other elec-
trochromic materials include tungsten oxide (WO3), which
is the main chemical used in the production of electro-
chromic windows or smart windows.
As the color change is persistent and energy need only
be applied to effect a change, electrochromic materials
are used to control the amount of light and heat allowed
to pass through windows (“smart windows”), and has
also been applied in the automobile industry to auto-
matically tint rear-view mirrors in various lighting condi-
tions. Viologen is used in conjunction with titanium di-
oxide (TiO2) in the creation of small digital displays. It is
hoped that these will replace LCDs as the viologen
(which is typically dark blue) has a high contrast to the
bright color of the titanium white, therefore providing a
high visibility of the display.
4. Theory and Computations of the Ab
1) Lift force of Blanket. The specific lift force of Blan-
ket is computed by the equation:
Lgq qV (1)
Protection of Environment from Damaged Nuclear Station and Transparent Inflatable Blanket for Cities333
where L is lift force, N; g = 9.81 m/s2 is gravity; qa=
1.225 kg/m3 is an air density for standard condition (T =
15˚C); qg < qa is density of lift light gas. For methane qg
= 0.72 kg/m3, hydrogen qg = 0.09 kg/m3, helium qg =
0.18 kg/m3; V is volume of Blanket, m3. For example, the
section 100 × 100 m of the Blanket filled by methane
(the cheapest light gas) having the average thickness 3 m
has the lift force 15 N/m2 or 150,000 N = 15 tons.
2) The weight (mass) of film may be computed by
where W is weight of film, kg; γ is specific density of
film (usually about γ = 1500 ÷ 1800 kg/m3); δ is thick-
ness, m; S is area, m2. For example, the double film of
thickness δ = 0.05 mm has weight W = 0.15 kg/m2. The
section 100 × 100 m of the Blanket has weight 1500 kg =
1.5 tons.
3) Weight (mass) of support cable (bracing wire) is
computed by equation:
where Wc is weight of support cable, kg; γc is specific
density of film (usually about γc = 1800 kg/m3), σ is
safety density of cable, N/m2. For cable from artificial
fiber σ = 100 ÷ 150 kg/mm2 = (1 ÷ 1.5)×109 N/m2. For
example, for σ = 100 kg/mm2, h =500 m, L = 10 N/m2,
Wc = 0.009 kg/m2. However, if additional air pressure
into dome is high, for example, lift force L = 1000 N/m2
(air pressure P = 0.01 atm - 0.01 bar), the cable weight
may reach 0.9 kg/m2. That may be requested in a storm
weather when outer wind and wind dynamic pressure is
As wind flows over and around a fully exposed, nearly
completely sealed inflated dome, the weather affecting
the external film on the windward side must endure posi-
tive air pressures as the wind stagnates. Simultaneously,
low air pressure eddies will be present on the leeward
side of the dome. In other words, air pressure gradients
caused by air density differences on different parts of the
sheltering dome’s envelope is characterized as the
“buoyancy effect”. The buoyancy effect will be greatest
during the coldest weather when the dome is heated and
the temperature difference between its interior and exte-
rior are greatest. In extremely cold climates, such as the
Arctic and Antarctica, the buoyancy effect tends to
dominate dome pressurization, causing the Blanket to
require reliable anchoring.
4) The wind dynamic pressure is computed by equa-
where pd is wind dynamic pressure, N/m2; ρ is air density,
for altitude H = 0 the ρ= 1.225 kg/m3; V is wind speed,
m/s. The computation is presented in Figure 9.
The small overpressure of 0.01 atm forced into the
AB-Dome to inflate it produces force p = 1000 N/m2.
That is greater than the dynamic pressure (740 N/m2) of
very strong wind V = 35 m/s (126 km/hour). If it is nec-
essary we can increase the internal pressure by some
times if needed for very exceptional storms.
5) The thickness of the dome envelope, its sheltering
shell of film, is computed by formulas (from equation for
tensile strength):
Rp Rp
 (5)
where δ1 is the film thickness for a spherical dome, m; δ2
is the film thickness for a cylindrical dome, m; R is ra-
dius of dome, m; p is additional pressure into the dome,
N/m2; σ is safety tensile stress of film, N/m2.
For example, compute the film thickness for dome
having radius R = 50 m, additional internal air pressure p
= 0.01 atm (p = 1000 N/m2), safety tensile stress σ= 50
kg/mm2 (σ = 5 σ 108 N/m2), cylindrical dome.
50 10000.0001 m0.1mm
6) Solar radiation. Our basic computed equations, be-
low, are derived from a Russian-language textbook [19].
Solar radiation impinging the orbiting Earth is approxi-
mately 1400 W/m2. The average Earth reflection by
clouds and the sub-aerial surfaces (water, ice and land) is
about 0.3. The Earth-atmosphere adsorbs about 0.2 of the
Sun’s radiation. That means about q0 = 700 W/m2s of
solar energy (heat) reaches our planet’s surface at the
Equator. The solar spectrum is graphed in Figure 10.
Figure 9. Wind dynamic pressure versus wind speed and air
density ρ. The ro = 0.6 is for H 6 km.
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Summer and the “-” signifies Winter, q0 700 W/m2 is
the annual average solar heat flow to Earth at equator
corrected for Earth reflectance.
The visible part of the Sun’s spectrum is only λ = 0.4
to 0.8 μ. Any warm body emits radiation. The emission
wavelength depends on the body’s temperature. The
wavelength of the maximum intensity (see Figure 10) is
governed by the black-body law originated by Max
Planck (1858-1947):
This angle is changed during a year and may be esti-
mated for the Arctic by the following the first approxi-
mation equation:
2.9 , [mm]
(6) cos ,where2π364
 
 (9)
where T is body temperature, ˚K. For example, if a
body has an ideal temperature 20˚C (T = 293 ˚K), the
wavelength is9.9
m is maximum
, m
= 23.5° = 0.41 radian; N
is number of day in a year. The computations for Sum-
mer and Winter are presented in Figure 11.
The energy emitted by a body may be computed by
employment of the Josef Stefan-Ludwig Boltzmann law.
The heat flow for a hemisphere having reflector (Fig-
ure 6) at noon may be computed by equation
4, []
m (7)
10 cos sinqcq S
where ε is coefficient of body blackness (ε = 0.03 ÷
0.99 for real bodies), σs = 5.67 × 10–8 [W/m2K] Stefan-
Boltzmann constant. For example, the absolute black-
body (ε = 1) emits (at T = 293˚C) the energy E = 418 W/m2.
where S is fraction (relative) area of reflector to ser-
vice area of “Evergreen” dome. Usually S = 0.5; c1 is
film transparency coefficient (c1 0.9 - 0.95).
The daily average solar irradiation (energy) is calcu-
lated by equation
Amount of the maximum solar heat flow at 1 m2 per 1
second of Earth surface is
86400 ,
where0.51tantan, tantan1
 
0cos [W]qq m
 (8)
where φ is Earth longevity,
is angle between projection
of Earth polar axis to the plate which is perpendicular to
the ecliptic plate and contains the line Sun-Earth and the
perpendicular to ecliptic plate. The sign “+” signifies
where c is daily average heat flow coefficient, c 0.5; t
is relative daylight time, 86400 = 24 × 60 × 60 is number
of seconds in a day.
Figure 10. Spectrum of solar irradiance outside atmosphere and at sea level with absorption of electromagnetic waves by
tmospheric gases. Visible light is 0.4 - 0.8 μ (400 - 800 nm). a
Protection of Environment from Damaged Nuclear Station and Transparent Inflatable Blanket for Cities335
Figure 11. Maximum sun radiation flow at Earth surface as
function of Earth latitude and season.
The computation for relative daily light period is pre-
sented in Figure 12.
The heat loss flow per 1 m2 of dome film cover by
convection and heat conduction is (see [19]):
,where 11
qkt tk
 
 
where k is heat transfer coefficient, W/m2K; t1,2 are tem-
peratures of the inter and outer multi-layers of the heat
insulators, C°, α1,2 are convention coefficients of the inter
and outer multi-layers of heat insulators (α = 30 ÷ 100),
W/m2K; δi are thickness of insulator layers; δi are coeffi-
cients of heat transfer of insulator layers (see Table 1), m;
t1,2 are temperatures of initial and final layers ˚C.
The radiation heat flow per 1 m2s of the service area
computed by Equations (7):
100 100
where, 5.67 WmK
where Cr is general radiation coefficient, ε are black body
rate (Emittance) of plates (see Table 2); T is tempera-
tures of plates, Ko.
The radiation flow across a set of the heat reflector
plates is computed by equation
where r is computed by Equation (8) between plate
and reflector.
The data of sme construction materials is found in Ta-
ble 1, 2.
As the reader will see, the air layer is the best heat in-
sulator. We do not limit its thickness δ.
As the reader will notice, the shiny aluminum louver
coating is an excellent mean jalousie (louvered window,
providing a similar service to a Venetian blind) which
Figure 12. Relative daily light time relative to Earth lati-
Table 1. [14], p. 331. Heat transfer.
Density, Thermal
W/m  ˚C
Heat capacity,
kJ/kg ˚C
Concrete 2300 1.279 1.13
Bake brick1800 0.758 0.879
Ice 920 2.25 2.26
Snow 560 0.465 2.09
Glass 2500 0.744 0.67
Steel 7900 45 0.461
Air 1.225 0.0244 1
Table 2. Nacshekin [14], p. 465. Emittance, ε (Emissivity).
Material Temperature, T˚C Emittance, ε
Bright Aluminum (50 ÷ 500)˚C 0.04 - 0.06
Bright copper (20 ÷ 350)˚C 0.02
Steel 50˚C 0.56
Asbestos board 20˚C 0.96
Glass (20 ÷ 100)˚C 0.91 - 0.94
Baked brick 20˚C 0.88 - 0.93
Tree 20˚C 0.8 - 0.9
Black vanish (40 ÷ 100)˚C 0.96 - 0.98
Tin 20°C 0.28
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Protection of Environment from Damaged Nuclear Station and Transparent Inflatable Blanket for Cities
serves against radiation losses from the dome.
The general radiation heat Q computes by Equation
(11). Equations (6)-(14) allow computation of the heat
balance and comparison of incoming heat (gain) and
outgoing heat (loss).
The computations of heat balance of a dome of any
size in the coldest wintertime of the Polar Regions are
presented in Figure 13.
The heat from combusted fuel is found by equation
where ct is heat rate of fuel [J/kg]; ct = 40 MJ/kg for liq-
uid oil fuel; m is fuel mass, kg; η is efficiency of heater, η
= 0.5 - 0.8.
In Figure 8 the alert reader has noticed: the daily heat
loss is about the solar heat in the very coldest Winter day
when a dome located above 60o North or South Latitude
and the outside air temperature is –50˚C.
7) Properties and cost of material. The cost some
material are presented in Table 3 (2005-2007). Proper-
ties are in Table 4. Some difference in the tensile stress
and density are result the difference sources, models and
8) Closed-loop water cycle. The closed Dome allows
creating a closed loop cycle, when vapor water in the day
time will returns as condensation or dripping rain in the
night time. A reader can derive the equations below from
well-known physical laws Nacshekin [14] (1969). There-
fore, the author does not give detailed explanations of
9) Amount of water in atmosphere. Amount of water
in atmosphere depends upon temperature and humidity.
For relative humidity 100%, the maximum partial pres-
sure of water vapor for pressure 1 atm is shown in Table 5.
The amount of water in 1 m3 of air may be computed
by equation
0.00625()( )
where mW is mass of water, kg in 1 m3 of air; p(t) is va-
por(steam) pressure from Table 4, relative h = 0 ÷ 1 is
relative humidity. The computation of Equation (16) is
Figure 13. Daily heat balance through 1 m2 of dome during coldest winter day versus Earth’s latitude (North hemisphere
example). Data used for computations (see Equation (6)-(14)): temperature inside of dome is t1 = +20oC, outside are t2 = –10,
–30, –50oC; reflectivity coefficient of mirror is c2 = 0.9; coefficient transparency of film is c1 = 0.9; convectively coefficients are
α1 = α2 = 30; thickness of film layers are δ1 = δ2 =0.0001 m; thickness of air layer is δ = 1 m; coefficient of film heat transfer is
λ1 = λ3 = 0.75, for air λ2 = 0.0244; ratio of cover blackness ε1 = ε3 = 0.9, for louvers ε2 = 0.05.
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. JEP
Protection of Environment from Damaged Nuclear Station and Transparent Inflatable Blanket for Cities337
Table 3. Average cost of material (2005-2007).
Material Tensile stress, MPa Density, g/cm3 Cost USD$/kg
Glass 3500 2.45 0.7
Kevlar 49, 29 2800 1.47 4.5
PBO Zylon AS 5800 1.54 15
PBO Zylon HM 5800 1.56 15
Boron 3500 2.45 54
SIC 3395 3.2 75
Saffil (5% iO2+Al2O3) 1500 3.3 2.5
Polyester 35 1,38 2
Polyvinyl 65 1.5 3
Aluminum 74-550 2.71 2
Titanum 238-1500 4.51 18
Borosilicate glass 90 2.23 0.5
Plastic 40 - 200 1.5-3 2 - 6
Steel 500 - 2500 7.9 0.7 - 1
Concrete - 2.5 0.05
Cement (2000) - 2.5 0.06 - 0.07
Melted Basalt 35 2.93 0.005
Table 4. Material properties.
Material Tensile strength Densityg/cm3 Tensile strength Densityg/cm3
Whiskers kg/mm2 Fibers kg/mm2
AlB12 2650 2.6 QC-8805 620 1.95
B 2500 2.3 TM9 600 1.79
B4C 2800 2.5 Allien 1 580 1.56
Ti B2 3370 4.5 Allien 2 300 0.97
SiC 1380 - 4140 3.22 Kevlar or Twaron 362 1.44
Material Dynecta or Spectra 230-350 0.97
Steel prestressing strands 186 7.8 Vectran 283-334 0.97
Steel Piano wire 220 - 248 E-Glass 347 2.57
Steel A514 76 7.8 S-Glass 471 2.48
Aluminum alloy 45.5 2.7 Basalt fiber 484 2.7
Titanium alloy 90 4.51 Carbon fiber 565 1,75
Polypropylene 2-8 0.91 Carbon nanotubes 6200 1.34
Source: Howatsom A.N., Engineering Tables and Data, p. 41.
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Protection of Environment from Damaged Nuclear Station and Transparent Inflatable Blanket for Cities
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. JEP
Table 5. Maximum partial pressure of water vapor in atmosphere for given air temperature (pressure is 1 atm).
t, C –10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
p,kPa 0.287 0.611 1.22 2.33 4.27 7.33 12.3 19.9 30.9 49.7 70.1 101
the soil; ρ2 1.225 kg/m3 is density of the air; H is thick-
ness of air (height of cover), H 5 ÷ 300 m; r =
2,260,000 J/kg is evaporation heat, a is coefficient of
evaporation; Mw is mass of evaporation water, kg/m3; Tmin
is minimal temperature into dome after night, ˚C.
presented in Figure 14. Typical relative humidity of at-
mosphere air is 0.5 - 1.
10) Computation of closed-loop water cycle. Assume
the maximum safe temperature is achieved in the daytime.
When dome reaches the maximum (or given) temperature,
the control system fills with air the space 5 (Figure 13)
between double-layers of the film cover. That protects the
inside part of the dome from further heating by outer
(atmospheric) hot air. The control system decreases also
the solar radiation input, increasing reflectivity of the
liquid crystal layer of the film cover. That way, we can
support a constant temperature inside the dome.
The convective (conductive) cooling of dome at night
time may be computed as below
() ,
where 11
qkT Tt
The heating of the dome in the daytime may be com-
puted by equations:
()sin π,d ()d,
d,(0) 0,d,
105.282 ,
d, (0),
qtqttQqt t
 
where qt is heat flow through the dome cover by convec-
tive heat transfer, J/m2s or W/m2; see the other notation in
Equation (12). We take δ = 0 in night time (through ac-
tive control of the film).
The radiation heat flow qr (from dome to night sky, ra-
diation cooling) may be estimated by equations (10).
() ,
100 100
where , 5.67 [WmK]
1/ 1/1
where q is heat flow, J/m2 s; qo is maximal Sun heat flow
in daily time, qo 100 ÷ 900, J/m2s; t is time, s; td is daily
(Sun) time, s; Q is heat, J; T is temperature in dome (air,
soil), ˚C; Cp1 is heat capacity of soil, Cp1 1000 J/kg; Cp2
1000 J/kg is heat capacity of air; δ1 0.1 m is thickness
of heating soil; ρ1 1000 kg/m3 is density of
where qr is heat flow through dome cover by radiation
heat transfer, J/m2s or W/m2; see the other notation in
Equation (10). We take ε = 1 in night time (through ac-
tive control of the film).
The other equations are same (17)
d[()()]d,d ,
(0)0,d ,
105,282 ,d,(0),
QqtqttQ Q
 
 
Let us take the following parameters: H = 135 m, α =
70, δ = 1 m between cover layers, λ = 0.0244 for air. Re-
sult of computation for given parameter are presented in
Figures 15-16.
For dome cover height H = 135 m the night precipitation
(maximum) is 0.027 × 135 = 3.67 kg (liter) or 3.67 mm/day.
The AB Dome’s internal annual precipitation under these
conditions is 1336.6 mm (maximum). If it is not enough,
we can increase the height of dome cover. The globally-
averaged annual precipitation is about 1000 mm on Earth.
Figure 14. Amount of water in 1 m3 of air versus air tem-
perature and relative humidity (rh). t1 = 0˚C.
Protection of Environment from Damaged Nuclear Station and Transparent Inflatable Blanket for Cities339
Figure 15. Heating of the dome by solar radiation from the
night temperature of 15˚C to 35˚C via daily maximal solar
radiation (W/m2) for varying daily time. Height of dome
film cover equals H = 135 m. The control temperature sys-
tem limits the maximum internal dome temperature to 35˚C.
Figure 16. Water vaporization for 100% humidity of the air
for different maximal solar radiation (W/m2) levels deliv-
ered over varying daily time. Height of dome film cover
equals H = 135 m. The temperature control system limits
the maximum internal dome temperature to 35˚C.
As you see, we can support the same needed tempera-
ture in a wide range of latitudes at summer and winter
time. That means the covered regions are not hostage to
their location upon the Earth’s surface (up to latitude
20° - 30°), nor Earth’s seasons, nor it is dependent upon
outside weather. Our design of Dome is not optimal, but
rather selected for realistic parameters.
5. Projects
5.1. Project 1. Tokyo
As of October 2007, the official intercensal estimate
showed 12.79 million people in Tokyo with 8.653 million
living within Tokyo’s 23 wards. During the daytime, the
population swells by over 2.5 million as workers and
students commute from adjacent areas. This effect is even
more pronounced in the three central wards of Chiyoda,
Chūō, and Minato, whose collective population as of the
2005 National Census was 326,000 at night, but 2.4 mil-
lion during the day.
1) Climate. The former city of Tokyo and the majority
of mainland Tokyo lie in the humid subtropical climate
zone (Koppen climate classification Cfa), with hot humid
summers and generally mild winters with cool spells. The
region, like much of Japan, experiences a one-month
seasonal lag, with the warmest month being August,
which averages 27.5˚C (81.5), and the coolest month
being January, averaging 6.0˚C (42.8). Annual rainfall
averages nearly 1,470 millimetres (57.9 in), with a wetter
summer and a drier winter. Snowfall is sporadic, but does
occur almost annually. Tokyo also often sees typhoons
each year, though few are strong. The last one to hit was
Fitow in 2007.
Considerable data on the urban area of Greater Tokyo
is in
In our project we take only the most important central
part of the Tokyo having area of 60 km2 and population
about 2 millions. About 10 times this area contains 8 mil-
lion people and 600 times the area contains 42 million
people. The reader may easily recalculate the effort re-
quired for 8 millions of population.
2) Computation and estimation of Dome cost:
a) Film. Requested area of double film is Af = 3 × 60 km2
= 180 km2. If thickness of film is δ = 0.1 mm, specific
density γ = 1800 kg/m3, the mass of film is M = γδAf =
32,500 tons or m = 0.54 kg/m2. If cost of film is c-$2/kg,
the total cost of film is Cf = cM = $65 millions or ca =
If average thickness of a gas layer inside the
AB-Blanket is δ = 3 m, the total volume of gas is V = δA =
1.8×108 m
3. One m3 of methane (CH4) has lift force l =
0.525 kg/m3 or Blanket of thickness δ = 3 m has lift force l
= 1.575 kg/m2 or the total Blanket lift force is L = 94.5 ×
103 tons. Cost of methane is c = $0.4/m3, volume is V = δA
= 1.8 × 108 m3. But we did not take in account because
after finishing building the AB Dome the methane will be
changed for overpressured air. (Thus $72 million in
methane would not be kept in inventory, but if the
AB-Blankets were each 1% of the final area, neglecting
leaks only $720,000 worth of methane would be in play at
any one time. With some designs step by step methane
replacement with air will be possible (if overpressure
support is introduced another way, etc.)
b) Support cables. Let us take an additional air pressure
as p = 0.01 atm = 1000 N/m2, safety tensile stress of artificial
fiber σ = 100 kG/mm2, specific density γ = 1800 kg/m3, s = 1
m2, and altitude of the Blanket h = 500 m. Then needed
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Protection of Environment from Damaged Nuclear Station and Transparent Inflatable Blanket for Cities
cross-section of cable is 1 mm2 per 1 m2 of Blanket and
mass of the support cable is m = γph/σ = 0.9 kg per 1 m2 of
Blanket. If cost of fiber is $1/kg, the cost of support cable
is cc = $0.9/m2. Total mass of the support cables is 54,000
The average cost of air and water tubes and control
system we take ct = $0.5/m2.
The total cost of 1 m2 material is C = ca + cc + ct = 1.08
+ 0.9 + 0.5 = $2.48/m2 $2.5/m2 or $150 millions of the
USA dollars for taken area. The work will cost about $100
million. The total barebones cost of Blanket construction
for central part of Tokyo is about $250 million US dollars.
Note that this figure can easily increase by any amount
based on overhead added by governmental regulation as
well as local custom and rules.
The clean (rain) water is received from 1 m2 of covered
area is 1.1 kL/year. That is enough for the city population.
The possible energy (if we install at extra expense hy-
dro-electric generators and utilize pressure (50 atm) of the
rain water) is about 4000 kJ/m2 in year. That covers about
15% of city consumption.
Tokyo receives a permanent warm climate and saves a
lot of fuel for home heating (decreased pollution of at-
mosphere) in winter time and save a lot of electric energy
for home cooling in the summer time.
5.2. Project 2. Moscow (Russia)
1) Area (land) of Moscow is 1,081 km² (417.4 sq mi),
population (as of the 2002 Census) 10,470,318 inhabi-
tants, density 9,685.8/km² (25,086.1/sq mi). Average an-
nual high temperature is 9.1C, average annual low tem-
perature is 2.6˚C. The average high monthly temperature
is 24˚C (July) (Record is 36.5˚C), the average low
monthly temperature is -8oC (January)(Record low is
–42.2˚C). Annual rainfall is 705 mm.
2) Estimation. The full Moscow area is significantly
larger than the central Tokyo area (by 18 times) and has
less population density (by 3 times). We can cover only
the most important central part of Moscow, the place
where the Government and business offices, tourist hotels,
theaters and museums are located.
If this area equals 60 km2 the cost of construction will
be cheaper than $250 million US because the labor cost
less (by 3 - 5 times) then the USA. But profit from Mos-
cow Blanket may be more then from the Manhattan cover
because the weather is colder in Moscow than in New
6. Discussion
As with any innovative macro-project proposal, the
reader will naturally have many questions. We offer brief
answers to the most obvious questions our readers are
likely to ponder.
1) The methane gas is fuel. How about fire protection?
The danger is minimized as AB Blanket is only tem-
porarily filled by methane gas for air delivery and for
period of Dome construction. After dome construction is
complete, the methane is replaced with air and the Blan-
ket will then be supported at altitude by small additional
air pressure into AB-Dome.
The second precaution to prevent danger of fire is that
the Blanket contains methane in small separated cylin-
drical sections (in piece 100 × 100 m has about 30 these
sections, see Figure 8) and every piece has special
anti-fire margins (Figure 8). If one cylindrical section
will be damaged, the gas flows up (it is lighter than air),
burns down only from this section (if film cannot easy
burn) and piece get only hole. In any case the special
margins do not allow the fire to set fire to next pieces.
2) Carbonic acid (smoke, CO 2) from industry and cars
will pollute air into dome.
The smoke from industry can be deleted out from
dome by film tubes acting as feedthroughs (chimneys) to
the outer air. The cars (exhaust pipes) can be provided by
a carbonic acid absorber. The evergreen plants into Dome
will intensely absorb CO2 especially if concentration of
CO2 will be over the regular values in conventional at-
mosphere (but safe for people). We can also periodically
ventilate the Dome in good weather by open the special
windows in Dome (see Figure 7) and turn on the venti-
lators like we ventilate the apartment. We can install heat
exchangers and permanently change the air in the dome
(periodically wise to do anyway because of trace con-
taminant buildups).
3) How can snow be removed from Dome cover?
We can pump warm air between the Blanket layers and
melt show and pass the water by rain tubes. We can drop
the snow by opening the Blanket windows (Figure 7(d)).
4) How can dust be removed from the Dome cover?
The Blanket is located at high altitude (about 200 - 500
m). Air at this altitude has very little dust. The dust that
does infill and stick may be removed by rain, wash down
tubes or air flow from blowers or even a helicopter close
5) Storm wind overpressures?
The storm wind can only be on the bounding (outside)
sections of dome. Dome has special semi-spherical and
semi-cylindrical form factor. We can increase the internal
pressure in storm time to add robustness.
6) Cover damage.
The envelope contains a rip-stop cable mesh so that
the film cannot be damaged greatly. Electronic signals
alert supervising personnel of any rupture problems.
The needed part of cover may be reeled down by con-
trol cable and repaired. Dome has independent sec-
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. JEP
Protection of Environment from Damaged Nuclear Station and Transparent Inflatable Blanket for Cities
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. JEP
7. Conclusions
Isolation of the damaged nuclear station from the atmos-
phere by the film is the easiest and cheapest way to stop
the spread of radioactive isotopes on the planet.
Additionally, towns and cities in close proximity of the
reactor can be protected by transparent film domes. The
building of gigantic inflatable AB-Dome over an empty
flat surface is not difficult. The cover spreads on said flat
surface and a ventilator pumps air under the cover (the
edges being joined and secured gas-tight) and the over-
pressure, over many hours, lifts the dome. However, if
we want to cover a city, garden, or forest we cannot eas-
ily spread the thin film over building or trees. This article
suggests a new method which solves this problem. The
innovation is the design of the double film Blanket filled
by light gas (methane, hydrogen, helium). Subassemblies
of the AB Dome, known as AB Blankets, are lighter than
air and fly in atmosphere. They can be made on a flat
area and delivered by dirigible or helicopter to the sky
over the city. Here they are connected to the AB Dome
under construction. After building is finished, the light
gas can be changed by air. Enveloping the city protects it
from inclement weather, chemical and biological weap-
ons and radioactive fallout as well as other harmful par-
ticulate falls.
Considering the danger to the Japanese national
economy, which can be damaged by loss of investor con-
fidence at even the possibility of fallout plumes hitting
real estate investments, which has already begun to hap-
pen in the wake of the Fukushima I nuclear incidents, see
for example, 2011
-03-18/union-investments-nuclear-fund-suspension as w-
ell as export losses from supply chain interruptions
caused by evacuation disorders, the losses avoided might
well finance the AB domes construction itself.
It may be that with emergency conditions the covering
of a city is too much for the immediate governmental
finance and management capacity, but certainly the Fu-
kushima I Nuclear complex itself should have an AB
Dome put on it in the weeks to come for simple insurance
against further disaster compounding past events. (In
logic, it would make sense to put domes around all reac-
tors before, not after, they are damaged. In this case, even
99% containment could make the difference between a
bad few weeks and a bad few decades.). Plainly put, the
first AB Dome around the Fukushima I Nuclear complex
might be much cruder than the final version which could
be erected at leisure—but if a worst case event happens
right when the wind is toward Tokyo, there would be no
offsite damage. If another event chain damages the al-
ready damaged reactors, or something of equal serious-
ness-comes up—the equivalent of an outer enclosure
dome would exist as a new ditch of last resort around the
complex. Given the estimated total of 4,277 tons of spent
fuel at a plant wracked intermittently with explosions and
fire, it would be prudent to move quickly.
The works of a given field are presented in [1-12], ref-
erence materials in [13-15].
[1] A. A. Bolonkin, “Control of Regional and Global Weather,”
2006. sics/papers/ 0701/07 0 1097.pdf
[2] A. A. Bolonkin,” Cheap Textile Dam Protection of Sea-
port Cities against Hurricane Storm Surge Waves, Tsu-
namis, and Other Weather-Related Floods,” 2006.
[3] A. A. Bolonkin, “AB Method of Irrigation without Water
(Closed-loop water cycle),” 2007.
[4] A. A. Bolonkin, “Inflatable Dome for Moon, Mars, As-
teroids and Satellites,” 2007.
[5] A. A. Bolonkin, “Cheap Artificial AB-Mountains, Extrac-
tion of Water and Energy from Atmosphere and Change
of Country Climate,” 2007.
[6] A. A. Bolonkin, “Cheap Method of City Protection from
Rockets and Nuclear Warheads,” 2007.
[7] A. A. Bolonkin and R. B.Cathcart, “Inflatable ‘Evergreen’
Polar Zone Dome (EPZD) Settlements,” 2006.
[8] A. A. Bolonkin and R. B. Cathcart, “Inflatable ‘Evergreen’
Dome Settlements for Earth’s Polar Regions,” 2006.
[9] A. A. Bolonkin and R. B. Cathcart, “Collection of Arti-
cles,” In V. Badescu, R. B. Cathcart, R. D. Schuiling Eds.,
Macro-Engineering: A Challenge For The Future, Spri-
nger Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2006, p. 318.
[10] A. A. Bolonkin and R. B. Cathcart, “Inflatable ‘Ever-
green’ Dome Settlements for Earth’s Polar Regions,”
Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy, Vol 9, No.
2, 2007, pp. 125-132. doi:10.1007/s10098-006-0073-4
[11] A. A. Bolonkin and R. B. Cathcart, “Macro-Projects:
Environment and Technology,” 2007.
[12] R. B. Cathcart and A. A. Bolonkin, “Ocean Terracing,” 2006.
[13] Gleick, Peter, et al., “Encyclopedia of Climate and
Weather,” Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1996.
[14] V. V. Naschekin, “Technical Thermodynamic and Heat
Transmission,” Public House High University, Moscow,
[15] Wikipedia, Some background material in this article is
gathered from Wikipedia under the Creative Commons