Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection, 2014, 2, 52-58
Published Online December 2014 in SciRes. http://www.scirp.org/journal/gep
How to cite this paper: Huang, J., Wang, S. Z., Deng, S. Z., Yang, X. B., & Zhou, Q. (2014). Numerical Study on the Impact of
GongJi Road Rain Pump on the Waterlogging in Huinan, Pudong District. Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection,
2, 52-58. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/gep.2014.25008
Numerical Study on the Impact of GongJi
Road Rain Pump on the Waterlogging in
Huinan, Pudong District
Jing Huang, Shanzhu Wang, Shuzhao Deng, Xiaobin Yang, Quan Zhou
Shanghai Pudong New Area Hydrology and Water Resources Administration, Shanghai, China
Email: hjk1985coo l@12 6.com
Received Oc tob er 2014
To study the rainstorm waterlogging disaster in Huinan, Pudong Dist rict , an urban waterlogging
model coupled with the rainfall runoff sub-model, underground network sub-model and the over-
land flow sub-model has been set up by MIKE FLOOD. After the validation with the actual reports
of the waterlogging in Huinan on Oct. 8th, 2013, the model is adopted to simulate the overland
flood before and after Gongji Road Rain Pump works to study the impact of Gongji Road Rain
Pump on the waterlogging disaster. The results are analyzed and the conclusions are obtained:
when Gongji Road Rain Pump runs, the total flooded area will significantly decrease to .49 km2,
about 21%, meanwhile, the drowned duration will be shortened in 6 hours, ahead 10 hours.
Therefore, Gongji Road Rain Pump can alleviate the waterlogging, but some other measures are
still needed to be taken to solve the waterlogging disaster.
Rainfall Runoff, Rainstorm Waterlogging Disaster, Overland Flood, Pump, Numerical Simulation
Urban areas have much of the impervious land surface with the decreased infiltration and accelerated rainfall
runoff. When the rainfall exceeds the capacity of the drainage system, it is easy for the local ground to be wa-
terlogged due to all the rainwater is not drained quickly, and then the urban flooding occurs with the low-lying
houses got drowned, the local traffic crippled.
The urban waterlogging is the disaster that has been attracted many researchers’ attentions, and a few mathe-
matical models have been established to simulate the urban flooding. Werner (2001) assessed the flooding ex-
tent and its depth with 1-D flow model based on GIS. Mark et al. (2004) simulated the urban flooding by 1-D
hydrodynamic modeling incorporating the interaction between the buried pipe system, the streets and the areas
flooded with stagnant water. Schmitt et al. (2004) used the dual drainage model to simulate the hydraulic flow
routing procedures for the surface flow and pipe flow. Tan (2007) & Yao (2007) set up the storm drainage mod-
el with InfoWorks CS to study the urban drainage networks respectively. Liu et al. (20 07), Barco et al. (2008),
Zhao et al. (2008), Chen et al. (2009), Liu & Liu (2010) adopted Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) to
J. Huang et al.
simulate the urban rainstorm waterlogging respectively. Chen et al. (2009) built a GIS-based urban flood inun-
dation model with a storm-runoff model and an inundation model. Xia et al. (2011) used the numerical model to
assess the degree of safety of people and vehicles during flash floods with a 2-D hydrodynamic model capable
of simulating flash floods. Zhang et al. (2011) assessed the vulnerability of the eight land use types in Pudong
District and made the vulnerability distribution maps under the different maximum rainfalls based on the exist-
ing evaluation model of urban rainstorm waterlogging.
Huinan, located in the south to central of Pudong District in Shanghai, has a tropical East Asian monsoon, and
the oceanic climate with plenty of rains. And Pudong Canal, Zhonggang River, Yaogou River and Sanzaolu
River flow around it (see Figure 1), with the normal water level of 2.50 - 2.80 m. At present, Huinan has the
drainage system depending on the gravity flow by rainfall itself, and during the heavy rain falls, the waterlog-
ging disaster often occurs with many houses, factories and croplands suffered, especially, the region, east to
Yaogou River, south to Zhonggang River, west to Pudong Canal, and north to Sanzaolu River (see Figure 1).
To solve the urban waterlogging disaster in Huinan, Gongji Road Rain Pump has been planned to construct in
the north side of Gongji Road, south to Gongbei Road, west bank of Yaogou River. In this research, the urban
waterlogging model coupled with the rainfall runoff sub-model, underground network sub-model and the over-
land flow sub-model by MIKE FLOOD is established to simulate the overland flood, and analyzed the model
results under the conditions of whether Gongji Road Rain Pump works or not to study the impact of Gongji
Road Rain Pump on the rainstorm waterlogging.
2. Model Set Up
2.1. Control Equations
The runoff in the rain inlet in Shanghai can be calculated by (Sun et al., 2013)
where Q is the runoff in the rain inlet; q is the designed rainfall intensity; ψ is the coefficient of the rainfall ru-
noff; F is the catchment area; P is the designed reoccurrence period; t is the rainfall duration.
The surface runoff can be calculated by (Yang et al., 2011)
Figure 1. Diagram of the research region in Huinan, Pudong district.
J. Huang et al.
where W is the surface runoff; W1 is the runoff of the impervious zone without the depression storage; W2 is the
runoff of the impervious zone with the depression storage; W3 is the runoff of the pervious zone; S1 is the area of
the impervious zone without the depression storage; S2 is the area of the impervious zone with the depression
storage; S3 is the area of the pervious zone; Li is the hollow length; H is the total rainfall; hpi is the water depth of
the hollow; Soi is the slope; n is the roughness; f0 is the initial maximum infiltration rate; fc is the minimum infil-
tration rate; Ws is the soil moisture content; Wm is the soil retention.
The discharge of the pipe line can be calculated by (Zhang, 2012)
where A is the cross-sectional area of the pipe line; Qp is the discharge of the pipe; Hw is the water head; v is the
velocity; R is the hydraulic radius; hL is the water head loss.
The discharge of the hollow can be calculated by (Xu et al., 2003)
, when the hollow has the storage function
0, when the hollow has only the connect function
where h is the water head of the hollow; Qt is the discharge of the hollow; St is the water area of the hollow.
2.2. Boundary Conditions
The research region is east to Yaogou River, south to Zhonggang River, west to Pudong Canal, and north to
Sanzaolu River, about 5 km2 (see Figure 1), with 642 hollows, 22 outlets, and 619 pipes with 23.4 km of the to-
tal pipe len gths. And 614 catchments in the study area has been generated with Thiessen Method with one water
collection hollow in each catchment to make the rainfall runoff flow into the drainage pipes.
In this study, the river open boundaries are setup with the field observed time-series water levels at Huinan
Station (see Figure 1). So is the rainfall condition. Considering the subsiding of overland flood, the observed
time-series water levels and rainfalls at Huinan Station from 0:00 October 8th to 0:00 October 10th in 2013 have
been adopted to set up the open boundary condition and rainfall condition respectively with the time interval of
5 minutes (see Figure 2). It was raining during 3:45 and 21:20 on October 8th in 2013 and the maximum rain fall
reached 40.0 mm from 8:10 to 9:10 in that day (see Figure 2). The total rainfall in 24 hours was 127.0 mm (see
The simulated region is mainly composed of buildings, roads, green fields and water. And the different im-
per vi ous rates have been used, e.g., 90% for buildings, 85% for roads, 25% for green fields, zero for water, 50%
for the rest.
2.3. Model Input Parameters
The mean surface flow velocity is adopted as .3 m/s, the hydraulic decay coefficient is .9, the initial abstraction
is .0006 m, and the coefficient of the rainfall runoff is .6 in the rainfall runoff model. The roughness of the con-
crete drainage pipe lines is used .0005 in the drainage hydrodynamic model. The manning coefficient is 32.0,
and the water depth of the dry grid is below .002 m while the water depth larger than .003 m is wet in the over-
land flood model. And the time step is set to 1 s.
2.4. Model Validation
The simulated results are compared with the report of the storm waterlogging happened in Huinan on Oct. 8th in
2013 to validate this model. After the validation, it shows that the modeled distribution range and depth of the
waterlogging are agreed with the actual situation (see Table 1), and the time to subside water costs about 16
hours from 11:40 on October 8th to 6:00 on October 9th in 2013 is also satisfied with the actual reports. So it is
indicated that this model could be adopted to simulate the storm waterlogging in Huinan.
J. Huang et al.
Figure 2. Graph of the observed rainfalls and water levels at Huinan Station
from 8th, October to 10th, October in 2013.
Table 1. Comparisons of the simulated waterlogged depths with the observed situation in Huinan, Pudong District.
Locati on Actual Waterlogged Depth Si m ulat ed Waterlogged Depth
Gongji Road about .10 m
about .10 m
and the maximum water depth of .25 m
East Renmin Road
(Nanzhu Road-Jinhai Road) about .15 m
about .15 m
, and the maximum water depth of .25
Jinhai Roa d
(Gongbei Road-East Renmin Road) about .20 m about .20 m
Jinhai Roa d
(north of Gongle Road) about .10 m about .10 m
Dongchenghuayuan Second Neighborhood about .05 m
about .05 m, and the maximum water depth of .
Jindicheng Neighborhood about .10 m
.10 m, and the maximum water depth of .20 m
3. Simulation Results
Huinan has been suffered by the urban waterlogging disasters for years. To so l ve the waterlogging, Gongji Road
Rain Pump has been planned to be built with four vertical submersible axial-flow pumps for 9.0 m3/s total dis-
charges, the top elevation of 5.43 m, the bottom elevation of −1.70 m, a forebay with the cross-sectional area of
53.5 m2 and the surface area of 22.5 m2. When it works, the surroundings about 112.48 hm2 will be served.
In this research, the validated rainstorm waterlogging model has been adopted to study the impact of Gongji
Road Rain Pump on the urban waterlogging in Huinan, Pudong District on Octorber in 2013 in this research.
Before the construction of Gongji Road Rain Pump, the overland flood water depths in the roads are in the
range of .10 - .20 m, and the waterlogged depths in the residential areas are below .10 m. However, when Gongji
Road Rain Pump works, the range and water depth of the overland flood both reduce significantly, especially the
waterlogging in the roads, e.g., the intersections of East Renmin Road and Jinghai Road, Gongji Road and Mei-
hua Road, Gongji Road and Jinghai Road, Gongbei Road and Jinghai Road will be hardly ponded, but the wa-
terlogged depths in the residential areas with the low terrain and small pipe-diameter will scarcely change (see
Figure 3). And the drowned duration will be 6 hours, which is 10 hours ahead than that before the construction
of Gongji Road Rain Pump.
Figure 4 shows the changes of the total ponded areas whether Gongji Road Rain Pump works or not. Before
the construction of Gongji Road Rain Pump, the maximum drowned area is about .62 km2 at 10:00 on Oct. 8th in
2013 (see Figure 3). Correspondingly, when Gongji Road Rain Pump runs, the maximum drowned area will
decrease to .49 km2, about 21%, at 9:10 on Oct. 8th in 2013 (see Figure 4).
Now, the local drainage system depends on the gravity flow by itself. Under this saturation, it is often easier
to generate the surface runoff when the rainfall exceeds the full capacity of the drain lines or the rain arrives
J. Huang et al.
Figure 3. Comparisons of the simulated storm water distributions whether Gongji Road Rain Pump works or not (at 9:10 on
Oct. 8th, 2013) (Numbers “1” - “8” show Meihua Road, Nanzhu Road, Jinhai Road, Chuannanfeng Road, Tanghong Road,
Gongbei Road, Gongji Road and East Renmin Road). (a) before Gongji Road Rain Pump works; (b) after Gongji Road Rain
Pump wo r k s .
Figure 4. Changes of the total ponded areas whether Gongji Road Rain Pump works or not.
J. Huang et al.
more quickly than the local pipe networks can absorb it (see Fig ure 5(a)). But when Gongji Road Rain Pump
works, it will be hard for the overland flow (see Fig ure 5(b)).
The validated urban waterlogging model with coupled the rainfall runoff sub-model, underground network sub-
model and the overland flow sub-model by MIKE FLOOD has been established to simulate the rainstorm wa-
terlogging in Huinan, Pudong District whether the planned Gongji Road Rain Pump runs or not. When Gongji
Road Rain Pump runs, the total flooded area will significantly decrease to .49 km2, about 21 %, meanwhile, the
drowned duration will be shortened in 6 hours, ahead 10 hours. Therefore, Gongji Road Rain Pump can alleviate
the waterlogging, but some other measures are still needed to be taken to solve the waterlogging disaster.
The further work would install the ultrasonic water level gauges in the typical water places for the accurate
data to calibrate the model and to forecast the waterlogging combined with the numerical models. And the effect
of the water level changes caused by the sluice operations on the waterlogging disaster in Huinan would also be
Figure 5. Profiles of the pipes at Gongji Road (section from Nanzhu Road to Jinghai Road) whether Gongji Road Rain
Pump works or not (at 9:10 on Oct. 8th, 2013). (a) before Gongji Road Rain Pump works; (b) after Gongji Road Rain Pump
wor k s .
J. Huang et al.
This work is financially supported by Shanghai Pudong New Area Environmental Protection Bureau Founda-
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