International Journal of Geosciences, 2011, 2, 75-83
doi:10.4236/ijg.2011.22008 Published Online May 2011 (
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. IJG
Seismic-Geodynamic Monitoring of Main Electric
Power-Stations in East Europe and North Asia
Yury Gatinsky1, Dmitry Rundquist1, Galina Vladova2, Tatiana Prokhorova2
1Vernadsky State Geological Museum RAS, Moscow, Russia
2International Institute of Earthquake Prediction and Mathematical Geophysics RAS, Moscow, Russia
Received February 22, 201 1; revised April 6, 2011; accepted May 6, 2011
In east Europe and north Asia the majority of nuclear power-stations (NPS) as well as large hydro-electric
(HES) and thermal electric stations (TES) are located within the north Eurasian lithosphere plate, which is
characterized by the low seismicity and weak modern tectonic activity besides the different exogenetic proc-
esses. Some operating and projected NPS are relatively near to zones of the moderate seismicity in the Ka-
liningrad Region of northwest Russia and in south Ukraine. HES and TES in Baltic, Byelorussia and Ukraine
are in the same position. Zones of more intensive seismicity and existence of active faults include NPS, HEP
and TEP in the Urals, the Kola Peninsula, south Siberia, Transbaikal and Far East regions of Russia. Some of
these stations are situated within crust blocks in transit zones, which separate main lithosphere plates and are
characterized by increased tectonic mobility. The electric power-stations are most danger in the transit zones
between north Eurasian, Arabian and Indian lithosphere plates, where collision processes have yet not
stopped. This concerns electric stations in central Asia and Caucasus including NPS in Armenia. Seven
schemes of the seismic energy distribution are composed for different parts of east Europe and north Asia.
The location of nuclear and main other electric power-stations on them makes it possible to form a correct
estimate of negative consequences connected with the up-to-date inner-continental tectonic activity.
Keywords: Electric Power-Station, Seismicity, Active Fault, Lithosphere Plate, Transit Zone, Crust Block,
Seismic Energy
1. Introduction
The paper is devoted to results of investigation of the
seismicity and active faults distribution in regions of
operating, projected and closed NPS after data of the
International Nuclear Safety Center (http ://www.insc.anl.
gov/pwrmaps) as well as large HES and TES after the
List of largest power stations in the world (http://en.wi-
world) in the territory of east Europe and north Asia. Our
aim is to estimate the level of risk in the stations’ func-
tioning under the influence of the up-to-date tectonic
activity. The fulfilling of this investigation is connected
with the solution of the fundamental scientific problem
concerning the nature of the increased inner-continental
seismicity and a pattern of its propagating within north
Eurasia. The methods of investigation consisted in the
detailed analysis of geological data and in some regions
also space images of different scales. Data on displace-
ments along active faults [1] together with space-geo-
detic measurements ( permitted to
evaluate in a first approximation the horizontal and ver-
tical mobility of crust blo cks within investigated regions.
Seven small-scale schemes were constructed for these
regions with showing power-stations placing, active
faults and the distribution of the seismic energy in region
areas after catalogues of NEIC (http://earthquake.usgs.
gov/regional/neic/) and CMT (http://www.seismology. Velocities and gradients of modern crust
displacements were established by these means as well
as changes of the seismic energy volume. The schemes
contain also boundaries of lithosphere plates, separating
them transit zones and crust blocks according to results
of previous authors’ investigations.
As it was established earlier [2] most parts of east Eu-
rope and north Asia belongs to a large north Eurasian
lithosphere plate, which boundaries are: the Gakkel Ri dge
and seismoactive faults in the Chersky Range, zones of
active faults in south Verchoyanie, Stanovoi Range, the
Baikal Rift, Altai - Sayany Region and Tien Shan, the
Pamirs Syntax, fault zones of the Kopetdag, Caucasus,
the region west of the Black Sea, the Carpathians and
Alps. A blocks framework of the plate was characterized
in detail in some papers [3-5], in which transit zones
were distinguished on its boundaries with neighboring
lithosphere plates. The zones contain a number of crustal
blocks and represent areas of the transfer and relaxation
of the tectonic energy arising in the result of main plates’
interaction. It is the principal picture of up-to-date tec-
tonic of east Europe and north Asia, peculiarities of
which will be showed below.
2. West and Central Parts of East Europe
Power-stations in the west of the European part of Russia,
Ukraine, Byelorussia and Baltic countries are situated
within the north Eurasian Plate with rather low seismic-
ity (Figure 1). A level of the seismic energy releasing
here is as a rule not higher than 1 × 106 J - 1 × 105 J.
The energy value increases in this region up to 1 × 108 J
only in border part of the plate in south Poland. Insig-
nificant increasing takes place in the north shore of the
Gulf of Finland (1 × 104 J - 1 × 102 J), but the nuclear
stations in south Finland and west of Sankt-Petersburg in
Russia find themselves in 1 × 105 J fields. Areas of oth-
er electric stations are practically aseismic. It refers to
Novovoronezh and closed Voronezh, operating Smo-
lensk, Kursk and Kalinin NPS in Russia, areas of the
Chernobyl Sarcophagus in Ukraine and closed Ignalina
Station in east Lithuania as well as to the majority of
HES and TES in these areas. Some authors of this paper
(Yu. Gatinsky and G. Vladova) took part in the choice of
an erection site for the projected Kaliningrad NPS in
northwest Russia [6] and proposed for it an area at the
left-bank of the Nyamunas on the distance more than
130 km from the nearest earthquake epicenter on the
Baltic Shelf. The proposition was accepted and now NPS
is constructed there.
The intensity and vectors of modern crust displace-
ments can be determined by earthquake focal mecha-
nisms and data of space-geodetic measurements. Ac-
cording to CMT catalogue right-lateral slips predominate
on the Baltic Shelf near Kaliningrad and left-lateral ones
within the Pannon ian Block. Most of earthquakes’ hypo-
centers lie on levels from 4 - 10 km to 30 - 40 km depth
with maximal M 4 - 6. The latter takes place only in
zones of active faults of the Pannonian Block in south
Poland and in the neighboring territory of the east Car-
pathians in Slovakia and Rumania. Northeast vectors of
the horizontal movement in the ITRF system characterize
this part of the north Eurasian Plate. Their azimuth
changes from 45 - 49NE in Poland to 51 - 53NE near
Kiev and Moscow with the velocity 22 - 26 mm/y. The
vertical upwarping diminishes from 6 - 8 mm/y within
the Baltic Shield in Finland and 4.0 - 4.6 mm/y in the
Carpathians in south Poland and west Ukraine down to
1.3 mm/y in the east part of the region near Moscow. In
south direction the crust subsidence begin to predominate
(1 mm/y near Kharkov in Ukraine). GPS data show also
the vertical subsidence with the velocity 1.6 mm/y in
north Poland near the Russia frontier at 30 - 40 km
southeast from Kaliningrad. South in the neighboring
GPS point an upwarping takes place with velocity 1.8 mm/y
and more south again subsidence exists (1.2 mm/y). Such
data indicate a possibility of small amplitude vertical
fluctuations of the Earth crust in this territory and con-
firm our choice of the projecting NPS site in the extreme
east part of the Kaliningrad Region.
Thus, the fulfilled monitoring shows the sufficient re-
liability of operating, projected an closed NPS in the
west of the European part of Russia, Ukraine, Byelorus-
sia and Baltic countries in regards to possible nature dis-
asters connected with the high seismicity and displace-
ment along active faults. The same can be said about the
majority HES and TES in this region.
3. Northeast Europe and the Urals
This region completely belongs to the north Eurasian
Plate (Figure 2) including as operating and projecting
NPS within the Russia territory in the Urals (Beloyar and
South Ural stations) and on the Volga (Balakov Station)
as unfinished and closed NPS (Kostroma, Gorki, Tatary
and Bashkir stations). All of them are situated in aseis-
mic or low seismic areas as well as large HES on the
Volga and Kama and numerous TES. Insignificant in-
creasing of seismic energy volume up to 1 × 103 J - 1 ×
101 J takes place in the north Urals north-east from
Perm, in the upper north Dvina, in the mouth of the Pe-
chora and in the basin of the Urals River at the frontier
with Kazakhstan (see Figure 2). The magnitude can
reach 5.3 - 5.9 in epicenters of these areas, but large en-
ergetic objects are absent there. Some exogenetic earth-
quakes with magnitudes up to 3.7 took place near the
Middle Volga, where they were connected with the col-
lapse sinkhole during karstic processe s.
Earthquake energy increases more intensive up to 1 ×
101 J in active faults’ zones within the Kola Peninsula
south of Murmansk near Kola NPS. Magnitudes reach
there after NEIC data 4.0 - 5.1. Slips predominate among
active faults in the Kola Peninsula and Urals, but their
amplitudes are not more than first millimeters. Accord-
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. IJG
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. IJG
Figure 1. Main power-stations and the seismic energy distribution in the west and central parts of east Europe. Each
increasing of the color intensity corresponds to increasing seismic energy volume on 1 × 101 J or 1 × 101 J. Some en-
ergy values are shown in the scheme.
Figure 2. Main power-stations and the seismic energy distribution in northeast Europe and the Urals. For captions
see Figure 1.
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. IJG
ing to GPS data the horizontal displacement continuous
in this part of th e north Eurasian Plate with velo cities 25 -
26 mm/y. Its azimuth changes gradually from 53 - 57 NE
in the west up to 70 - 72 NE in the Urals indicating the
weak clock-wise rotation of the plate.
Therefore, we can note that the main part of the ener-
getic objects in investigated region takes place in areas of
rather low manifestation of the seismicity and modern
tectonic mobility, so they have the sufficien t reliability in
regards to these processes. Only Kola NPS and some
TES in the same territory and in the sou th Urals are situ-
ated in areas, where earthquakes with magnitudes 5.0 -
5.5 can be. The unfinished and closed stations of this
region don’t evoke any misgivings in regards to the
up-to-date tectonic processes.
4. Southeast Europe, the Caucasus and
This region besides of the most north part of it is charac-
terized by rather high and unevenly distributed seismicity.
Its level gradually increases south within the south part
of the north Eurasian Plate from 1 × 106 J - 1 × 104 J
near Dnieper HES and NPS and Rostov NPS up to 1 ×
102 J - 1 × 101 J in the Steppe Crimea and near Astra-
khan at the mouth of the Volga and up to 1 × 102 J near
the unfinished Odessa NPS in south Ukraine (Figure 3).
In the latter place an earthquake with the magnitude 5.0 -
5.9 occurred some years ago indicating the relative in-
stability of this area. The seismici ty level is higher in the
south coast of the Crimea near the unfinished Crimea
NPS and near Stavropol in front of the north Caucasus (1
× 104 J - 1 × 106 J). Some TES in Stavropol and Krasno-
dar Territories of Russia are situated in areas with re-
leasing 1 × 103 J - 1 × 109 J of the seismic energy.
The maximal modern tectonic activity takes place in
the Great Caucasus and Transcaucasus within the Al-
pine-Iranian transit zone between the north Eurasian and
Arabian lithosphere plates (see Figure 3). Some crust
blocks are established there, boundaries of which are
characterized by very high seismicity [3]. The volume of
seismic energy reaches 1 × 108 J - 1 × 1013 J in north
front parts of west Caucasus and east Caucasus blocks.
Thrusts to the north predominate there with magnitudes
in epicenters 4 - 7. Mainly compression takes place also
in epicenters along the boundar y between east and Lesser
Caucasus blocks, but the thrusts are directed there south.
Focal mechanisms show a steady right-lateral slip along
the north Anatolian Fault on the north boundary of the
Anatolian Block with M 4-7 while the transverse north-
east fault between the east Pont and Lesser Caucasus
blocks is a left-lateral slip [1]. Some northwest right-
lateral slips with elements of the compression character-
ize the inner structure of the Lesser Caucasus including
the Yerevan NPS area, where the energy volume
amounts to 1 × 1013 J. Right-lateral slips predominate
also along the northwest part of the Zagros Fault on the
north boundary of the Arabian Plate. Zones with high
seismic energy (1 × 1011 J - 1 × 1013 J) contain HES in
north Daghestan, west Georgia and east Armenia.
Figure 3. Main power-stations and the seismic energy distribution in southeast Europe, the Caucasus and Transcauca-
sus. Green lines – block boundaries, light blue lines – supposed boundaries. For other captions see Figure 1.
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. IJG
Crust blocks of the investigated region move northeast
according to ITRF2005 data with vel ocities 26.8 - 33.6 mm/y
(the maximal value in Armenia) and the azimuth 50 – 60
NE. In addition a vertical subsidence exists in the south
Crimea with the velocity 2.5 mm/y and an upwarping
with the velocity 1.3 mm/y in Yerevan.
As the fulfilled monitoring shows the region of the
southeast Europe, the Caucasus and Transcaucasus is one
of the most seismic intensive within east Europe and ad-
jacent southwest Asia. The thorough checking of the
seismic activity level is needed as for operating as for
projecting energetic objects in this region as well as the
observance of protective actions during their construction.
The following stations are exposed to danger: NPS near
Yerevan, unfinished Crimea NPS, some HES in Georgia,
Armenia and south Russia in Daghestan, in lesser extent
NPS and HES in south Ukraine near Odessa.
5. Central Asia
The central Asia region includes the most part of Ka-
zakhstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tadzhikistan and
Kirghizia territories as well as adjacent parts of Iran,
Afghanistan, Pakistan and China. This region as a previ-
ous one is situated in its south half in a zone of increased
level of the seismic energy releasing (Figure 4). NPS are
absent yet there (the nearest Busher Station operates
from 2010 in south Iran), but there are some large HES.
Countries of the region possess significant stockpiles of
minerals, mining of which now and in future require
stepping up the energetic capacity.
The intensity of releasing energy quickly increases to
south in the region from 1 × 106 J - 1 × 105 J up to 1 ×
1012 J - 1 × 1014 J. High seismic zones with M 7.0 - 7.9
and more coincide with active faults in the boundaries
between the north Eurasian Plate and Iran, Afghan, Pa-
mir, Tien Shan blocks as well as in the boundaries be-
tween some blocks inside the central Asian transit zone
[5]. HES near Alma-Ata, Tashkent and Dushanbe lie in
these zones. Local energy increasing takes place along
some northwest faults, which are transverse in respect of
mentioned boundaries. Such increasing (up to 1 × 103 J -
1 × 109 J) can be shown along the Amu-Darya Fault in
southwest Uzbekistan and a fault zone along the Irtish
River in east Kazakhstan near Ust Kamenogorsk, where
two HES are situated (see Figure 4).
The majority of active faults on block boundaries are
thrusts with the south vergence on the north boundary of
the Tarim Block and the north vergence in Pamir. Right-
lateral slips may be observed more seldom, as example
the above mentioned Amu-Darya Fault and the Kopetdag
Fault near Ashkhabad. Normal faults are distributed only
at sides of intermountain troughs. After GPS data the
south part of the north Eurasian Plate moves
east-northeast with the azimuth 75 - 83 NE, while the
majority blocks south of it displace with azimuth 50 - 60
NE. The difference in horizontal moving direction results
in the thrusts predominance in the south boundary of
Figure 4. Main power-stations and the seismic energy distribution in central Asia. For captions see Figure s 1 and 3.
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. IJG
the plate [5]. Velocities of horizontal displacements
change from 26 mm/y to 30 mm/y and a vertical up-
warping in main mountain ranges occurs with velocities
0.5 - 2.0 mm / y.
And so, the central Asian Region is characterized by
sharply increased releasing of seismic energy in south-
west Turkmenistan and southeast Uzbekistan as well as
in Tadzhikistan, Kirghizia and adjacent parts of Afghani-
stan and China. This requires special measures of the
safety as for operating as for projecting electric power-
stations in these areas, a control of motions in zones of
seismogenic active faults and permanent monitoring of
the seismicity level.
6. South Siberia and Adjacent Parts of
China and Mongolia
NPS are also absent in this region, while large HES and
TES are numerous. The south boundaries of the north
Eurasian Plate pass through all territory of the region and
are expressed by some active faults and fields with in-
creased level of the seismic energy (up to 1 × 105 J - 1 ×
1010 J). Maximal its values coincide with the Altai in
Russia and west Mongolia as well as with Sayan Moun-
tains in Tyva and north Mongolia ( Figure 5). The major-
ity of HES and TES in the region lies in fields with the
moderate energy level (1 × 105 J - 1 × 101 J) and only in
the west for stations near Novokuznetsk the level in-
creases up to 1 × 104 J - 1 × 107 J.
Nodes of increased seismicity coincide in this region
with intersections of active faults of the different strike:
near latitudinal and east-northeast (mainly thrusts) and
northwest (in many cases right-lateral slips). Such nodes
are widespread in Russia on the boundary of Altai and
Sayany blocks with magnitudes in epicenters up to 4.0 -
7.9, inside the Sayany Block in northwest Mongolia and
in other areas. The most intensive earthquakes with M
8 took place in the zone of the active near latitudinal
fault between Sayany and Hangay blocks. Note that large
energetic objects are absent in mentioned high seismic
areas. The most stable blocks possessing the Precam-
brian basement (Hangay, Junggar) are characterized by
noticeable diminishing of the seismicity level in their
central parts (see Figure 5).
Thrusts to the south and southwest are noted in the
south of the Sayany Block and within the Hangay Block,
but to the northeast on the boundary between the Sayany
Block and north Eurasian Plate. Practically all northwest
faults have a right-lateral component while near latitu-
dinal faults are mainly left-lateral. Normal faults pre-
dominate in the southeast part of the Baikal Rift on the
boundary of the Amurian Block and north Eurasian Plate,
but west from Baikal they change on slips. Vectors of
horizontal displacement in the ITRF System change from
75 - 87NE in the west near Novosibirsk in Russia and in
northwest China to 96 - 108SE in the east at the Irkutsk
and Ulaan-Baatar stations with velocities 20 - 26 mm/y.
Velocities of the vertical upwarping are not higher than
1.0 - 1.5 mm / y.
As was shown above in the investigated region the
highest seismicity and tectonic mobility characterize the
extreme south part of the north Eurasian Plate and the
majority of crust blocks south of it. As a result operating
and projecting in future energetic objects have there the
increased level of the risk in regards to this activity. The
level of the risk is much lower for the objects situated
north and w es t from me ntioned areas.
7. Central Part of the Russian Far East
Some boundaries of the north Eurasian Plate pass
through the region: with the north American Plate along
the Chersky Range, Amurian and Japanese-Korean blocks
of the east Asian transit zone and the Block of Okhotsk
belonging to the north Pacific transit zone [3]. The most
active areas coincide just with these boundaries as well
as with block boundaries inside transit zones, where the
level of seismicity reaches 1 × 107 J - 1 × 1014 J (Figure
Repeated earthquakes took part in these areas with M
up to 7.0 - 7.9, in that number in the Sakhalin Island
along the boundary of the Japanese-Korean Block and in
the east part of the Sea of Okhotsk within the Block of
Okhotsk, in the south of the Khabarovsk Territory and in
adjacent parts of China within Japanese-Korean and
Amurian blocks. But the majority electric power-stations
lie in this region in fields of the energy volume 1 ×
101 J, including the large HES on the Zeya River. The
compression with slip components predominate on the
majority plate and block boundaries and mainly the slip
regime with compression components in the Sakhalin
fault zone [7]. The hypocenter depth doesn’t exceed 40 -
80 km and only in the south-east increases up to 480 -
640 km within the Kuril-Kamchatka seismofocal plane
connected with the subduction of the Pacific Plate under
Eurasia. After results of cosmic-geodetic measurements
in the ITRF System the north Eurasian Plate moves on
the azimuth 121SE with velocities 22 - 26 mm/y (data of
Yakutsk and Khabarovsk GPS stations). Vertical dis-
placements change from +2.4 mm/y in Yakutsk to 3 -
4 mm/I in the tectonic depression near Khabarovsk. The
Block of Okhotsk displaces on 149SE after measure-
ments in the Magadan GPS Station. As a result of that
the compression exists on its boundary with the north
Eurasian Plate west of Magadan.
Thus we can note that in the investigated region zon es
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. IJG
Figure 5. Main power-stations and the seismic energy distribution in south Siberia and adjacent territories. For cap-
tions see Figures 1 and 3.
Figure 6. Main power-stations and the seismic energy distribution in the central part of the Russian Far East. For
captions see Figures 1 and 3.
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. IJG
of increased seismicity are connected with active faults
on boundaries of main lithosphere plates and the Amu-
rian Block as well as inside the Japanese-Korean Block
and the Block of Okhotsk, which are situated above the
subduction zone of the Pacific Plate. But only insignifi-
cant quantity of power-stations gets in these zones.
8. Northeast Asia
The northeast Asia region lies on the junction of the
three large structures: the north American Plate, Block of
Okhotsk and Bering Block of the north Pacific transit
zone (Figure 7). Block boundaries go along zones of
active faults, some of which are situated above subduc-
tion zone of the Aleutian an d Kuril-Kamchatka arcs. The
intensity of the seismic energy releasing increases on
above mentioned boundaries up to 1 × 103 J - 1 × 107 J in
the Koryak Territory near the Bering Sea cost and 1 ×
109 J - 1 × 1015 J in north Kamchatka, but the most north
part of the region including the Bilibin Station area is
practically aseismic. A small increasing up to 1 × 10–6 J
can be seen only near Pevek on the East Siberia Sea cost
(see Figure 7).
Northwest, rarely near latitudinal active faults pre-
dominate in the north part of the region corresponding to
left-lateral slips with compression components. They
change on mainly right-lateral northeast slips. A photo-
interpretation of cosmic images fulfilled by Yu. Gatinsky
shown the existents here lin eament systems as coin ciding
with active faults as transverse to them. Latter can cor-
respond to some older fault systems. Earthquake magni-
tudes inside the continent as a rule don’t exceed 4.0 - 5.9
with hypocenters’ depth 30 - 40 km and only in the Kam-
chatka Arc and adjacent part of the Sea of Okhotsk there
are earthquakes with M 6.0 - 8.0 and more deep hypo-
centers (up to 640 km). The compression predominates
here in the trench and arc. The north American Plate
moves on azimuth 157SE with the velocity 22.3 mm/y
according to measurements in the Bilibin GPS Station.
The vertical upwarping reaches 2.6 mm/y. The increased
heat flow can take place in the Bilibin NPS area because
east of it in the Chuckchee Territory the heat flow was
measured as 60 - 80 μW/m2 and the geothermal gradient
as 25˚ - 30˚/1000 m [8].
Therefore, we can note that the increased seismicity
coincides in northeast Asia, as in previous regions, with
boundaries of plates and blocks. It requires choosing
selectively areas for projecting and construction new
energetic objects in the region. The Bilibin NPS only
operating here is situated in the aseismic area without
any manifestations of modern tectonic activity but the
increased heat flow can’t be excluded within its area.
Figure 7. The Bilibin nuclear power-station and the seismic energy distribution in northeast Asia. For captions see
Figures 1 and 3.
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. IJG
9. Conclusions
The fulfilled seismic-geodynamic monitoring permits to
make following inferences con cerning th e main en erg etic
objects in the territory of east Europe and north Asia.
1) The majority of NPS as well as main HES and TES
in this territory are situated within the north Eurasian and
north American lithosphere plates with the weak level of
seismicity or complete absence of it and active up-to-
date tectonic movements besides some exogenetic pro-
cesses (karst, landslides and others).
2) Some operating, projected and closed NPS as well
as large HES and TES are disposed near to zones of
moderate seismicity (1 × 104 J - 1 × 103 J) in Baltic,
Byelorussia, south Ukraine, northwest Russia, the Urals
and south Siberia.
3) Other stations in east Crimea, near north Caucasus,
in Kazakhstan and within certain areas in south Siberia
lie in zones of active faults and more increased seismic-
ity up to 1 × 10 4 J - 1 × 109 J. Some of them are situated
within blocks of the transit zones, which divide main
lithosphere plates and are characterized by the increased
tectonic mobility.
4) The electric stations in central Asia, north Caucasus
and Transcaucasus including the Yerevan NPS undergo
the largest seismic danger since they lie in zones of the
maximal interaction of the Eurasian, Arabian and Indian
plates, where collision processes have not stopped. The
intensity of the releasing there seismic energy reaches 1
× 1010 J - 1 × 1014 J.
5) It is reasonably during projecting new electric sta-
tions to avo id areas within interblock zones in the transit
zones, in which as a rule the maximal seismic energy
releases. Methods of such interblock zones establishing
and the calculation energy in them are done in the work
10. Acknowledgements
This investigation is fulfilled with assistance of the Pre-
sidium RAS, Moscow (Program 4 “Appraisal and means
of decreasing consequences of up-to-date tectonic move-
ments and earthquakes in regions of existing and pro-
jected nuclear power-stations in the territory of Russia
and neighboring foreign countries”) and Russian Foun-
dation for Basic Research (Project no. 09-05-00666).
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