y enhance anti-cancer effects of 5-Fu in colon cancer cells [64,65].

In prevention pathogenesis of colorectal cancer, adlay bran ethanol extract and residue may inhibit the number of crypt foci premalignant lesion, modify their mucin composition and present a dose-dependent manner [55]. Cistanche deserticola significantly reduced the number of mucosal hyperplasia in Tgfb1Rag2 null mice and correlated with significant stimulation of the immune system, suggested the potential to prevent intestinal inflammation disorders including colorectal cancer [56]. Triptolide may inhibit the colitis-related carcinogenesis of colorectal cancer through downregulation of Rac1 and the JAK/STAT3 pathway [57].

Current studies suggested, besides conventionally improving clinical syndromes, anti-cancer effects of TCM against colorectal cancer and the conventional chemotherapy drugs share common biological basis (Table 2). Related explores will provide new insight into integrated treatment with TCM and western medicine for colorectal cancer.

Table 2. Effects and target of Chinese herb against colorectal cancer.

5. Conclusion

TCM has certain advantages in aspects of reducing side effects and enhancing the curative effects of chemotherapy, palliating clinical syndrome, preventing recurrence and metastasis, improving quality of life and immune function, and prolonging survival time in colorectal cancer. However, with the progress of colorectal cancer treatment mode, TCM theories and studies on typing of syndrome differentiation are obviously lagging behind. TCM study on colorectal cancer should fit with the actual clinical practice to give full play to TCM advantages so as to improve clinical curative effects. Anti-cancer herb studies on colorectal cancer indicate that anti-cancer effects of TCM and chemotherapy, targeted therapy and other drug treatments share common biological basis, such as cell apoptosis, cell senescence and autophagy, etc. Current studies still cannot reveal the TCM property of anti-cancer herbs. We need to further study the action basis and compatibility of anti-cancer herbs so as to improve the curative effect of TCM treatment for colorectal cancer.

6. Acknowledgements

This work was partially supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (81273726), Program from Science & Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality (11495801300), Three-year Action Program of Shanghai Municipality for Traditional Chinese Medicine (ZYSNXD-CC-ZDYJ017), Long-Yi Scholars and Research Team Program from State Clinical Research Center of TCM in Longhua Hospital (LYTD-04), Xing-Lin Scholars Program and Key Discipline of State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine (Traditional Chinese Medicine in Oncology, LHZLK-1107).

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NOTES

*Corresponding author.

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