The COD and BOD5 results reveal three important points. In first place, Aspergillus, Penicillium and Trichoderma strains share a pluricellular organization while Chytriomyces hyalinus posses an unicellular level, such biological advantage rises the biomass presence like the resident time during the treatment, whereas this datum represent an inconvenience for Chytriomyces hyalinus. Moreover the COD and BOD5 upshots presents the same efficiency rate; even using a lower resident time [8,11, 12].
In second place, COD and BOD5 parameters can now be considered as a new contribution to biological treatment of activated sludge since the values were lessen by using fungus strains only, while the conventional treatments of activated sludge use several microorganisms consortiums [7,8,13-18].
In third place, it stresses the coupled continuous system role in the removal efficiency owing to the electrocoagulation conditions that raises the bioavailability of industrial wastewater pollutants to Chytriomyces hyalinus. [14,19,20,25,29,33-35].
Making this study the first report of industrial pretreated wastewater by electrocoagulation coupled with Chytriomyces hyalinus as a biological system.
3.1.4. Nitrate and Nitrite
Nitrates () and nitrites () dwindled subsequent to the biological treatment from 3.8 to 0.5 mg/L and from 1.5 to 0.6 mg/L with an effectiveness of 86% and 60% respectively. Such behavior is displayed in Figure 3.
Nitrates were more affected than nitrites because its chemical nitrogen trait, having as a result a higher biological assimilation thanks to aquatic microorganisms [2,6-8].
These nitrogenous compounds, industrial pollutants type, are presented naturally in the experimental effluent, therefore it is important to make a continuous revision
during the coupled treatment because the pollutant removal tendency in the continuous system can manifest. The nitrogenous compounds removal grew when they were oxidize, nitrates into nitrites by electrocoagulation treatments [25,31,32]. The nitrates amount and removal efficiency were higher than nitrites due to the reduction from nitrites to nitrates at the electrochemical reactor besides the quickly assimilation by Chytriomyces hyalinus in the biological reactor.
This reduction is an evidence of Chytriomyces hyalinus active metabolism in addition to water denitrification in aerobic conditions as its natural ability [2-4].
Similar industrial pollutant denitrification greater than 50% were reported by [6-8,10] with Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus oligosporus.
3.2. Sporangia Biomass (SB)
Figure 4 shows Chytriomyces hyalinus SB concentrations on a 60-min session of biological treatment. The biomass suffered an increment as a result of 30 min by the time sporangia amount increased. The SB tendency indicates that Chytriomyces hyalinus is capable of resisting the pollutant conditions in the liquor mix, noticed by an exponential growth y = 94.302e0.0356x [10,24,39].
SB value ascended when COD and BOD5 values decrease, this reaction denotes that pollutants bioavailability to Chytriomyces hyalinus were modified within a 15- min of electrochemical treatment, hence the toxic effect of industrial wastewater on biological treatment was reduced; opposite to the frequent problem in bio-logical treatment inhibitions [6,7,21-24].
Samanthi and Chandralata (2009) report an optimal growth for Chytriomyces hyalinus in some aquatic systems, showing pH values from 6.8 to 8.5, electrochemical and biological conditions in the treatment were kept into these pH values, consequently the pollutants removal suffered an increment.
The sludge amount after biological treatments with Chytriomyces hyalinus was 2 g/L, within normal range from 0.5 to 5 g/L was reported in laboratory level experiments [21-24].
3.3. UV-Visible Spectrophotometer Characterizations
A pollutant decrement followed by electrocoagolutions Chytriomyces hyalinus system treatment can be observed in Figure 5. The absorbance indicates a spectral reduction with a 60% efficiency, showing an absorbance result of 400, 475 and 625 nm corresponding to phenols, solvents, aromatic and organic matter; similar wastewater spectra cases have been reported [29,32,33]. The current tendency was consistent with COD and BOD5 results.
Figure 4. Sporangia biomass and Chytridium hyalinus treatment time.
Figure 5. UV visible characterizations of industrial wastewater before (-) and after (----) electrocoagulations-Chytriomyces hyalinus treatment.
All in all the Chytryomyces hyalinus effect on industrial pre-treated wastewater by electrocoagulations in a continuous system had a positive efficiency on pollutants removal. The electrochemical pulse with aluminum electrodes extends the pollutants bioavailability to Chytryomyces hyalinus. Color and turbidity exhibited a reduction with 90% efficiency, COD 62%, BOD5 69%, nitrate 86% and nitrite 60%. Chytryomyces hyalinus sporangial bio-mass (SB) heightens exponentially attending to a y = 94.302e0.0356x model, additionally increases when pollutant concentration fall, so as COD, BOD5, nitrate and nitrite values. Finally the pollutants removed exposes a UV-visible spectra corresponding to organic pollutants.
The authors wish to acknowledge CONACYT and Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México for the support given to this project 2794/2010-2011.
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