The COD and BOD5 results reveal three important points. In first place, Aspergillus, Penicillium and Trichoderma strains share a pluricellular organization while Chytriomyces hyalinus posses an unicellular level, such biological advantage rises the biomass presence like the resident time during the treatment, whereas this datum represent an inconvenience for Chytriomyces hyalinus. Moreover the COD and BOD5 upshots presents the same efficiency rate; even using a lower resident time [8,11, 12].

In second place, COD and BOD5 parameters can now be considered as a new contribution to biological treatment of activated sludge since the values were lessen by using fungus strains only, while the conventional treatments of activated sludge use several microorganisms consortiums [7,8,13-18].

In third place, it stresses the coupled continuous system role in the removal efficiency owing to the electrocoagulation conditions that raises the bioavailability of industrial wastewater pollutants to Chytriomyces hyalinus. [14,19,20,25,29,33-35].

Making this study the first report of industrial pretreated wastewater by electrocoagulation coupled with Chytriomyces hyalinus as a biological system.

3.1.4. Nitrate and Nitrite

Nitrates () and nitrites () dwindled subsequent to the biological treatment from 3.8 to 0.5 mg/L and from 1.5 to 0.6 mg/L with an effectiveness of 86% and 60% respectively. Such behavior is displayed in Figure 3.

Nitrates were more affected than nitrites because its chemical nitrogen trait, having as a result a higher biological assimilation thanks to aquatic microorganisms [2,6-8].

These nitrogenous compounds, industrial pollutants type, are presented naturally in the experimental effluent, therefore it is important to make a continuous revision


Figure 3. (a) COD, (b) BOD5, (c) nitrates and (d) nitrites during the electrochemical-Chytriomyces hyalinus treatment.

during the coupled treatment because the pollutant removal tendency in the continuous system can manifest. The nitrogenous compounds removal grew when they were oxidize, nitrates into nitrites by electrocoagulation treatments [25,31,32]. The nitrates amount and removal efficiency were higher than nitrites due to the reduction from nitrites to nitrates at the electrochemical reactor besides the quickly assimilation by Chytriomyces hyalinus in the biological reactor.

This reduction is an evidence of Chytriomyces hyalinus active metabolism in addition to water denitrification in aerobic conditions as its natural ability [2-4].

Similar industrial pollutant denitrification greater than 50% were reported by [6-8,10] with Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus oligosporus.

3.2. Sporangia Biomass (SB)

Figure 4 shows Chytriomyces hyalinus SB concentrations on a 60-min session of biological treatment. The biomass suffered an increment as a result of 30 min by the time sporangia amount increased. The SB tendency indicates that Chytriomyces hyalinus is capable of resisting the pollutant conditions in the liquor mix, noticed by an exponential growth y = 94.302e0.0356x [10,24,39].

SB value ascended when COD and BOD5 values decrease, this reaction denotes that pollutants bioavailability to Chytriomyces hyalinus were modified within a 15- min of electrochemical treatment, hence the toxic effect of industrial wastewater on biological treatment was reduced; opposite to the frequent problem in bio-logical treatment inhibitions [6,7,21-24].

Samanthi and Chandralata (2009) report an optimal growth for Chytriomyces hyalinus in some aquatic systems, showing pH values from 6.8 to 8.5, electrochemical and biological conditions in the treatment were kept into these pH values, consequently the pollutants removal suffered an increment.

The sludge amount after biological treatments with Chytriomyces hyalinus was 2 g/L, within normal range from 0.5 to 5 g/L was reported in laboratory level experiments [21-24].

3.3. UV-Visible Spectrophotometer Characterizations

A pollutant decrement followed by electrocoagolutions Chytriomyces hyalinus system treatment can be observed in Figure 5. The absorbance indicates a spectral reduction with a 60% efficiency, showing an absorbance result of 400, 475 and 625 nm corresponding to phenols, solvents, aromatic and organic matter; similar wastewater spectra cases have been reported [29,32,33]. The current tendency was consistent with COD and BOD5 results.

Figure 4. Sporangia biomass and Chytridium hyalinus treatment time.

Figure 5. UV visible characterizations of industrial wastewater before (-) and after (----) electrocoagulations-Chytriomyces hyalinus treatment.

4. Conclusion

All in all the Chytryomyces hyalinus effect on industrial pre-treated wastewater by electrocoagulations in a continuous system had a positive efficiency on pollutants removal. The electrochemical pulse with aluminum electrodes extends the pollutants bioavailability to Chytryomyces hyalinus. Color and turbidity exhibited a reduction with 90% efficiency, COD 62%, BOD5 69%, nitrate 86% and nitrite 60%. Chytryomyces hyalinus sporangial bio-mass (SB) heightens exponentially attending to a y = 94.302e0.0356x model, additionally increases when pollutant concentration fall, so as COD, BOD5, nitrate and nitrite values. Finally the pollutants removed exposes a UV-visible spectra corresponding to organic pollutants.

5. Acknowledgements

The authors wish to acknowledge CONACYT and Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México for the support given to this project 2794/2010-2011.


  1. S. Golubic, G. Radtke and T. Le, “Campion-Alsumard, Endolithic Fungi in Marine Ecosystems,” Trends in Microbiology, Vol. 13, No. 5, 2005, pp. 229-234. doi:10.1016/j.tim.2005.03.007
  2. J. Sumathi and R. Chandralata, “Anaerobic Denitrifications in Fungi from the Coastal Marine Sediments off Goa, India,” Mycological Research, Vol. 113, No. 1, 2009, pp. 100-109. doi:10.1016/j.mycres.2008.08.009
  3. G. Hageskal, N. Lima and I. Skaar, “The Study of Fungi in Drinking Water,” Mycological Research, Vol. 113, No. 2, 2009, pp. 165-172. doi:10.1016/j.mycres.2008.10.002
  4. M. Barreto-Rodríguez, J. V. Souza, S. E. Silva, T. F. Silva and C. B. T. Pavia, “Combined Photocatalytic and Fungal Processes for the Treatment of Nitrocellulose Industry Wastewater,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. 161, No. 2-3, 2009, pp. 1569-1573. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.05.012
  5. T. Dalsgaard, D. E. Canfield, J. Petersen, B. Thamdrup and J. Acuña-González, “N2 Productions by the Anammox Reactions in the Anoxic Water Column of Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica,” Nature, 422, No. 6932, 2003, pp. 606-608. doi:10.1038/nature01526
  6. G. Buttiglieri, F. Malpei, E. Daverio, M. Melchiori, H. Nieman and J. Ligthart, “Denitrification of Drinking Water Sources by Advanced Biological Treatment Using a Membrane Bioreactor,” Desalination, Vol. 178, No. 1-3, 2005, pp. 211-218. doi:10.1016/j.desal.2004.11.038
  7. Y. T. Ahn, S. T. Kang, S. R. Chae, C. Y. Lee, B. U. Bae and H. S. Shin, “Simultaneous High-Strength Organic and Nitrogen Removal with Combined Anaerobic Upflow Bed Filter and Aerobic Membrane Bioreactor,” Desalination, Vol. 202, No. 1-3, 2007, pp. 114-121. doi:10.1016/j.desal.2005.12.046
  8. T. R. Thomsen, Y. Kong and P. H. Nielsen, “Ecophysiology of Abundant Denitrifying Bacteria In-Activated Sludge,” Microbiology Ecological, Vol. 60, No. 3, 2007, pp. 370-382. doi:10.1111/j.1574-6941.2007.00309.x
  9. K. Rajender, R. N. Bishnoi and K. G. Bishnoi, “Biosorption of Chromium Cr (VI) from Aqueous Solutions and Electroplating Wastewater Using Fungal Biomass,” Chemical Engineering Journal, Vol. 135, No. 3, 2008, pp. 202- 209.
  10. J. Bo, X. Q. Yan, Q. Yu and J. H. Van Leeuwen, “A Comprehensive Pilot Plant System for Fungal Biomass Protein Productions and Wastewater Reclamation,” Advances in Environmental Research, Vol. 6, No. 2, 2002, pp. 179-189. doi:10.1016/S1093-0191(01)00049-1
  11. A. Zahangir and A. Fakhru’l-Razi, “Enhanced Settlebility and Dewaterability of Fungal Treated Do-Mestic Wastewater Sludge by Liquid State Bioconversion Process,” Water Research, Vol. 37, No. 5, 2003, pp. 1118-1124. doi:10.1016/S0043-1354(02)00452-9
  12. Y. Z. Zhang, B. Jin, H. Z. Bai and Y. X. Wang, “Production of Fungal Biomass Protein Using Microfungi from Winery Wastewater Treatment,” Bioresource Technology, Vol. 99, No. 9, 2008, pp. 3871-3876. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2006.10.047
  13. E. Liwarska-Bizukojc, “Application of Image Analysis Techniques in Activated Sludge Wastewater Treatment Processes,” Biotechnology Letters, Vol. 27, No. 19, 2005, pp. 1427-1433. doi:10.1007/s10529-005-1303-2
  14. D. K. Sharma, H. S. Saini, M. Singh, S. S. Chimni and B. S. Chadha, “Biological Treatment of Textile Dye Acid Violet-17 by Bacterial Consortium in an Up-Flow Immobilized Cell Bioreactor,” Letters in Applied Microbiology, Vol. 38, No. 5, 2004, pp. 345-350. doi:10.1111/j.1472-765X.2004.01500.x
  15. C. J. Van der Gast, A. S. Whiteley and I. P. Thompson, “Temporal Dynamics and Degradation Activity of a Bacterial Inoculum for Treating Waste Metal-Working Fluid,” Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 6, No. 3, 2004, pp. 254-263. doi:10.1111/j.1462-2920.2004.00566.x
  16. C. Kragelund, C. Levantesi, A. Borger, K. Thelen, D. Eikelboom, V. Tandoi, Y. Kong, J. Van der Waarde, J. Krooneman, S. Rossetti and T. R. ThomsenNielsen, “Identity, Abundance and Ecophysiology of Filamentous Chloroflexi Species Present in Activated Sludge Treatment Plants,” Microbiological Ecology, Vol. 59, No. 3, 2007, pp. 671-682. doi:10.1111/j.1574-6941.2006.00251.x
  17. S. Rossetti, M. Tomei, P. Nielsen and V. Tandoi, “Microthrix parvicella, a Filamentous Bacterium Causing Bulking and Foaming in Activated Sludge Sys-Tems: A Review of Current Knowledge,” Microbiology Review, Vol. 29, No. 1, 2005, pp. 49-64.
  18. V. L. Barbosa, S. D. Atkins, V. P. Barbosa, J. E. BurGess and R. M. Stuetz, “Characterization of Thiobacillus thioparus Isolated from an Activated Sludge Bioreactor Used for Hydrogen Sulfide Treatment,” Journal of Applied Microbiology, Vol. 101, No. 6, 2006, pp. 1269-1281. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2672.2006.03032.x
  19. F. Fatone, D. Bolzonella, P. Battistoni and F. Cecchi, “Removal of Nutrients and Micropollutants Treating Low Loaded Wastewaters in a Membrane Bioreactor Operating the Automatic Alternate-Cycles Process,” Desalination, Vol. 183, No. 1-3, 2005, pp. 395-405. doi:10.1016/j.desal.2005.02.055
  20. J. D. Jang, J. P. Barford, A. Lindawati and R. Renneberg, “Application of Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) Biosensor for Optimization of Biological Carbon and Nitrogen Removal from Synthetic Wastewater in a Sequencing Batch Reactor System,” Biosensor and Bioelectrode, Vol. 19, No. 8, 2004, pp. 805-812. doi:10.1016/j.bios.2003.08.009
  21. C. Della Rocca, V. Belgiorno and S. Meric, “Over-View of In-Situ Applicable Nitrate Removal Processes,” Desalination, Vol. 204, No. 1-3, 2007, pp. 46-62. doi:10.1016/j.desal.2006.04.023
  22. Y. H. Kim, E. D. Hwang, W. S. Shin, J. H. Choi, T. W. Ha and S. J. Choi, “Treatments of Stainless Steel Wastewater Containing a High Concentration of Nitrate Using Reverse Osmosis and Nanomembranes,” Desalination, Vol. 202, No. 1-3, 2007, pp. 286-292. doi:10.1016/j.desal.2005.12.066
  23. M. Milovanovic, “Water Quality Assesment and DeTermination of Pollution Sources along the Axios/Vardar River, Southeastern Europe,” Desalination, Vol. 213, No. 1-3, 2007, pp. 159-173. doi:10.1016/j.desal.2006.06.022
  24. M. Ricart, E. Guasch, M. Alberch, D. Berceló, C. Bonnineau, A. Geiszinger, M. La Farré, J. Ferrer, F. Ricciardi, A. Romaní, S. Morín, L. Proia, L. Sala, D. Sureda and S. Sabater, “Triclosan Persistence through Wastewater Treated Plants and Its Potential Toxic Effects on Rever Biofilms,” Aquatic Toxicology, Vol. 100, No. 4, 2010, pp. 346-353. doi:10.1016/j.aquatox.2010.08.010
  25. P. Cañizares, R. Paz, C. Sáez and M. A. Rodrigo, “Cost of the Electrochemical Oxidation of Wastewaters: A Comparison with Ozonations and Fenton Oxidation Processes,” Journal of Environment Management, Vol. 90, No. 1, 2009, pp. 410-420. doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2007.10.010
  26. K. V. Padoley, S. N. Mudliar, S. K. Banerjee, S. C. Deshmukh and R. A. Pandey, “Fenton Oxidation: A Pretreatment Option for Improved Biological Treatment of Pyridine and 3-Cyanopyridine Plant Wastewater,” Chemical Engineering Journal, Vol. 166, No. 1, 2011, pp. 1-9. doi:10.1016/j.cej.2010.06.041
  27. O. Amuda and I. Amoo, “Coagulation/Flocculation Process and Sludge 5 Conditioning in Beverage Industrial Wastewater Treatment,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. 141, No. 3, 2007, pp. 778-783. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2006.07.044
  28. R. Braz, A. Pirra, M. Lucas and J. Peres, “Combinations of Long Term Aerated Storage and Chemical Coagulations/Flocculations to Winery Wastewater Treatment,” Desalinations, Vol. 263, No. 1-3, 2010, pp. 226-232. doi:10.1016/j.desal.2010.06.063
  29. C. Barrera-Díaz, G. Roa-Morales, L. Avila-Cordoba, T. Pavon-Silva and B. Bilyeu, “Electrochemical Treatment Applied to Food-Processing Wastewater Treatment,” Industrial Engineering Chemical Research, Vol. 45, No. 1, 2006, pp. 34-38. doi:10.1021/ie050594k
  30. M. Panizza and G. Cerisola, “Elechtrochemical Oxidation as a Final Treatment of Synthetic Tannery Wastewater,” Environment Science Technology, Vol. 38, No. 20, 2004, pp. 5470-5475. doi:10.1021/es049730n
  31. D. Rajkumar and K. Palanivelu, “Electrochemical Degradations of Cresols for Wastewater Treatment,” Industrial Engineering Chemical Research, Vol. 42, No. 9, 2003, pp. 1833-1839. doi:10.1021/ie020759e
  32. G. Roa-Morales, E. Campos-Medina, E. Aguilera-Cotero, B. Bilyeu and C. Barrera, “Aluminium Electrocuagulation with Peroxide Applied to Wastewater from Pasta and Cookie Processing,” Separations and Purifications Technology, Vol. 54, No. 1, 2006. pp. 124-129. doi:10.1016/j.seppur.2006.08.025
  33. M. Tejocote-Pérez, P. Balderas-Hernández, C. E BarreraDíaz, G. Morales and R. Natividad-Rangel, “Treatment of Industrial Effluents by a Continuous System: Electrocoagulation-Activated Sludge,” Bioresource Technology, Vol. 101, No. 20, 2010, pp. 7761-7766. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2010.05.027
  34. D. W. Graham and V. H. Smith, “Designed Ecosystem Services: Application of Ecological Principles in Wastewater Treatment Engineering,” Fronts in Ecology and the Environment, Vol. 2, No. 4, 2004, pp. 199-206. doi:10.1890/1540-9295(2004)002[0199:DESAOE]2.0.CO;2
  35. N. N. Sang, S. Soda, K. Sei and M. Ike, “Effect of Aereation on Stabilization of Organic Solid Waste and Microbial Populations Dynamics in Lab-Scale Landfill Bioreactors,” Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, Vol. 106, No. 5, 2008, pp. 425-432. doi:10.1263/jbb.106.425
  36. NMX-AA-028-SCFI, “Water Analysis-Determination for Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5) in Natural, Wastewaters and Wastewaters Treated-Test Method,” Diario Oficial de la Federación, México, 2005.
  37. American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Environment Federation, “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater,” Washington DC, Denver, Alexandria, 2005.
  38. T. T. More, S. Yan, R. D. Tyagi and R. Y. Surampalli, “Potential Use of Filamentous Fungi for Wastewater Sludge Treatment,” Bioresource Technology, Vol. 101, No. 20, 2010, pp. 7691-7700. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2010.05.033
  39. M. V. Garcia, A. C. Monteiro, M. J. P. Szabo, N. Prette and G. H. Bechara, “Mechanism of Infection and Colonization of Rhiphicephalus Sanguineus Eggs by Metarhizium anisopliae as Revealed by Scanning Electron Microscopy and Histopathology,” Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, Vol. 36, No. 3, 2005, pp. 368-372. doi:10.1590/S1517-83822005000400012
  40. NMX-AA-030-SCFI, “Water Analysis-Determination for Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) in Natural, Wastewaters and Wastewaters Treated-Test Method,” Diario Oficial de la Federación, México, 2001.
  41. NMX-AA-034-SCFI, “Water Analysis-Determination of Salts and Solids Dissolved in Natural, Wastewaters and Wastewaters Treated-Test Method,” Diario Oficial de la Federación, México, 2001.
  42. HACH, “Water Analysis Manual,” HACH Co., Loveland, 2008.

Journal Menu >>