Open Journal of Social Sciences, 2014, 2, 172-177
Published Online August 2014 in SciRes.
How to cite this paper: Kalantarkousheh, S.M., Nickamal, N., Amanollahi, Z. and Dehghani, E. (2014) Spiritual Intelligence
and Life Satisfaction among Married and Unmarried Females. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 2, 172-177.
Spiritual Intelligence and Life Satisfaction
among Married and Unmarried Females
Seyed Mohammad Kalantarkousheh, Naeimeh Nickamal, Zahra Amanollahi,
Elahe Dehghani
Department of Counseling, Faculty of Psychology and Education, Allameh Tabatabai University, Tehran, Iran
Received April 2014
The present research was performed to survey a relationship between spiritual intelligence and
life satisfaction in two groups, married and unmarried females in the city of Esfahan, Iran. A total
of 202 females were selected by the simple random sampling method to participate in this study.
It used the King’s Spiritual Intelligence Inventory and Philip Carter’s Life Satisfaction Inventory to
measure the variables. The research was designed according to the correlational method. For sta-
tistical analysis of data, it used the Pearson’s correlation method, multivariate regression and in-
dependent t-test. The results of this study showed a meaningful relation between life satisfaction
and spiritual intelligence. There was also a relation between life satisfaction in the two groups of
married and unmarried females, however there was no difference in terms of spiritual intelli-
gence in these two groups. The results of regression analysis have shown that spiritual intelli-
gence is predictive of life satisfaction. Further, findings indicated that the rate of life satisfaction in
married females is more than in unmarried females.
Females, Life Sat isf ac ti on , Married Females, Spiritual Intelligence
1. Introduction
Scientists believe that neither the intelligence quotient nor social intelligence can adequately explain the com-
plexity of intelligence and vast richness of the human soul. Computers have high classic intelligence for which
programs can operate without mistakes. Animals enjoy high emotional intelligence and know how to respond
accurately to situations. However, neither computers nor animals understand the reasons for performing their
roles, situations or how to function differently and more efficiently.
We can perceive behavioral models and rules by two types of thought processes (intelligent quotient and
emotional intelligence). Nevertheless, through the third thought process (spiritual intelligence) we create situa-
tions and rules. Spiritual intelligence makes possible to perform creatively and wisely the legislation [1]. A re-
cent scientific description of the human brain, takes into consideration three types of constructs, mental, emo-
tional and spiritual. When we use our brains for thought, this process does not only include the brain and intelli-
gent quotient, but also feelings or emotional intelligence as well as spirituality, values, hopes and meaningful-
S. M. Kalantarkousheh et al.
ness, or spiritual intelligence. Spiritual intelligence refers to orientation in life and the ability to improve all
cruelties and hatreds [2]. In the light of attention to spirituality, an established concept in psychological studies
is spiritual intelligence. As emotional intelligence differs from emotion, spiritual intelligence is not the same as
spirituality. Spiritual intelligence integrates the constructs of spirituality and intelligence into a new construct.
Spirituality is connected to seeking and experiencing sacred elements, meaningfulness, high levels of alertness,
transcendence and upmost human potential. Spiritual intelligence requires abilities which are obtained from spi-
ritual subjects and predicts the function and individual conformity for development of valuable results. In gener-
al, spiritual intelligence differs from spirituality and spiritual experiences like the expression of monotheism or
spiritual beliefs, such as believing in God [3]. Spiritual intelligence is a framework for identification and organ-
ization of skills and abilities required for adaptive use of spirituality (Emmons, 1999). It is a collection of abili-
ties obtained from spiritual sources.
Nasel [4] believes that spiritual intelligence consists of abilities that we can recognize our other spiritual abili-
ties and resources, and resolve existential and practical subjects. Spiritual intelligence assists with problem
solving and the promotion of an individual’s capacity for decision making. Thus, spiritual intelligence is one of
the abilities that differentiates humans from other creatures. Sisk [5] describes spiritual intelligence as a deep
self-awareness in which the individual becomes increasingly informed about the dimension of self not only as a
body, but rather as a body, mind and soul. He states that when we employ spiritual intelligence, we reach a point
in which the mind accelerates required data processes.
With due attention to components such as the ability to use spiritual resources for solving problems [6] we
can claim that their application in daily life increases an individuals flexibility. On this basis, many believe spi-
ritual intelligence has significant role in existential problem solving and seeking meaning and goals in everyday
actions and life events [4] [7]-[11].
The results of a study by Akbarizadeh et al. [12] show that spiritual intelligence has a meaningful and positive
connection with components such as general health. The study added that among demographical features (age,
gender, workplace, marital status, and type of academic degree) only the workplace has shown a meaningful,
positive relation with the spiritual intelligence. This research indicated that promotion of spiritual intelligence
and reinforcement of tenacity as a personality trait can help the promotion of nurses’ general health.
Another study performed by Haditabar et al. [13] determined that instruction in spiritual intelligence influ-
enced the octopod dimension of life quality (physical function, limitation of role in connection with physical
health, role limitation in relation to emotional problems, vivacity, emotional wellbeing, social function, pain,
and general health) in wives of handicapped veterans. Deikman [14] also refers to the effect of spiritual intelli-
gence on mental health. Feelings of well-being or life satisfaction are important mental features that healthy in-
dividuals should enjoy. Satisfaction with life is a reliable, inclusive concept which reflects the feeling and gen-
eral viewpoint of a society towards the world in which they live [15]. Seligman [16] regards life satisfaction to
be a reflection of balance between an individual’s desires and his/her present situation. In other words, no matter
how much the gap between an individual’s level of expectation and his/her objective is increased, there will be a
decrease in satisfaction (Zaki, 1386).
For some, satisfaction with life is defined as future hope, whereas future hope is one of the consequences of
satisfaction or dissatisfaction with life, such that when a person is completely satisfied with their life, they be-
come more hopeful about the future. As a whole, satisfaction with life is the feeling of prosperity because the
individual finds meaning and satisfaction in life, from the past to the present with hope of a desirable life in the
future. Yang (2002) has reported a meaningful relation between the rate of an individual's combativeness and
decreased satisfaction with life. Numerous studies have shown a widespread connection between satisfaction
with life and numerous psychological behaviors and states that included depression, self-esteem, and hope (Ar-
nidul, 2007). The findings of Losoncz [17] have shown that students who enjoy a higher level of satisfaction in
life have greater feelings of welfare and happiness.
Satisfaction with life is one of the efficient factors of human promotion and evolution. This issue is particu-
larly important amongst women. The results have shown a meaningful relation between spiritual intelligence
and life satisfaction, as well as between emotional intelligence and life satisfaction. Spiritual and emotional in-
telligence variables are predictors of life satisfaction [18]. Fabricatore et al. [19] have found that spirituality in-
fluences general satisfaction with life. Personal spirituality is a reliable predictor of increased satisfaction with
life. Starks and Hughey [20] in a survey of the relation between spirituality and life satisfaction in African
American women have shown that women who had higher religious towards spirituality enjoyed meaningful
S. M. Kalantarkousheh et al.
correlations with satisfaction in life. Spirituality was a variable that played a role in life satisfaction in middle
aged African women despite their age, income and education levels. The results of a study by Okulicz-Kozaryn
[21] have also shown that being religious was connected to higher satisfaction with life.
With due attention to the aforementioned studies and the importance of satisfaction with life and recognition
of factors related to this satisfaction, this research sought to determine if a connection between spiritual intelli-
gence and life satisfaction existed in two groups, unmarried and married females. Spiritual intelligence was de-
fined based on individualsadjustment abilities that consequently influenced satisfaction with life. We have ad-
ditionally sought to determine if there was a significant difference in two groups, university and theological stu-
dents concerning spiritual intelligence and satisfaction with life.
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Research Met hod
This was a correlational research study that intended to determine if there was a connection between spiritual
intelligence and satisfaction with life in two groups of females, unmarried and married.
2.2. Statistical Population and Research Sample
This study enrolled a total of 202 females, 101 married and 101 unmarried who were residents of Esfahan, Iran.
Participants were chosen by the simple random sampling method.
2.3. Measurement Tools
This research used two questionnaires, the Spiritual Intelligence Self-Report Inventory (SISRI) and The Life
Orientation Test (LOT-R), to assess spiritual intelligence and satisfaction with life. Spiritual Intelligence Self-
Report Inventory was developed by King. There are 24 items measured in a five-degree Likert scale. In 2007, a
study of 619 students of Terent University in Canada determined that the SISRI had a Cronbach’s alpha value of
95% and reliability by the split half method of 84%. Another study that used the factor analysis method resulted
in Cronbach’s alpha and standardized alpha values of 92%. Raqib et al. (1387) reported a Cronbach’s alpha
coefficient of the questionnaire at 89%. In their study, the validity coefficient of the spiritual intelligence inven-
tory through retest in 70 participants over a two-week interval was calculated at 67%. Life Orientation Test con-
sists of 25 questions. It was developed by Carter and translated by Karami into Farsi. The reliability of the
LOT -R according to Cronbach’s alpha is 78% (Psychometrics Publications, 1388).
3. Results
Descriptive indices of life satisfaction and spiritual intelligence according to marital status are shown in Table 1.
As seen in Table 1, the mean of age for unmarried participants was 22.13 years; for married participants, it was
27.79 years. The majority of participants (n = 98) had a B.A. degree whereas 28 had a theological education.
There was a statistically significant correlation between life satisfaction and spiritual intelligence (p 0.01;
Table 2) which confirmed the hypothesis, “There is a connection between life satisfaction and spiritual intelli-
gence”. It concluded that with increased spiritual intelligence, there was increased life satisfaction. This relation
was also observed in unmarried (8.06) compared to married females (16.81).
As shown in Table 3, the t-test result for life satisfaction was −2.454, which was statistically significant.
Therefore, the hypothesis, “there is a difference in life satisfaction between the two groups, married and unmar-
ried females” was confirmed at the 0.05 level of significance. According to the means of both groups, life satis-
faction in married females was significantly more than unmarried females .Additionally, results of the table
shows comparison of married and unmarried female based on spiritual question (p = 0.280). Hence, the hypo-
thesis, “There is a difference in spiritual intelligence between the two groups, married and unmarried females”
was rejected. It concluded that no meaningful difference existed between married and unmarried females con-
cerning spiritual intelligence.
The hypothesis, “There is a difference in the two groups of theological and university education” showed a
t-test value of −1.006, which was not statistically significant. Hence, no significant difference existed in the rate
of life satisfaction between the two groups of theological and university educated females.
S. M. Kalantarkousheh et al.
Table 1. Mean and standard deviation of life satisfaction and spiritual intelligence according to mar ital status.
Variable Marriage Number Mean Standard Deviation Minimum Maximum Kurtosis Skewness
Unmarri ed 101 27.17 6.9 0 49 2.355 0.727
Married 101 29.3 5.33 14 42 0.186 0.027
Total 202 28.23 6.24 0 49 2.142 0.601
Unmarri ed 102 67.07 13.35 0 94 5.031 1.421
Married 101 69.17 14.24 35 95 0.243 0.550
Total 203 68.11 13.8 0 95 2.089 0.917
Table 2. Correlation coefficient among research components.
Research Variables
Girls (n = 101)
Women (n = 101)
Total (n = 202)
r p Effect size r p Effect size r p Effect size
Relation of life satisfaction and
spiritual intelligence 0.284 **0.004 8.06 0.410 **0.001 16.81 0.353 **0.001 12.46
Table 3. Independent t-test results between research components.
Research variables
Life Satisfaction
Spiritual Intelligence
T df p T df p
Marriage Status 2.454 200 0.015 1.084 201 0.280
According to Table 3, the t-test rate of −1.465 was not statistically significant for the hypothesis, “There is a
difference in the two groups, theological and university educated, concerning spiritual intelligence”. Therefore
this hypothesis was rejected. There was no meaningful difference among the groups with theological and uni-
versity education, in terms of the rate of spiritual intelligence.
The correlation between the component of spiritual intelligence on one part and life satisfaction on the other
was determined to be R = 0.353. If this coefficient is squared, it equals 0.125. According to calculations, there
was a 12.5% variance or individual differences in spiritual intelligence related to variance or individual differ-
ences in life satisfaction, which was statistically significant (p = 0.001). The hypothesis, “Spiritual intelligence is
a predictor of life satisfaction” was confirmed at the 0.01 level of significance. The correlation between spiritual
intelligence and life satisfaction in married females equaled 0.284. If this coefficient is squared, the result will
be 0.081 There was an 8.1% variance or individual differences in spiritual intelligence related to the variance or
individual differences in life satisfaction amongst women which was statistically significant (p = 0.004).
Finally, the correlation between spiritual intelligence and life satisfaction in unmarried females equaled 0.407.
If this coefficient is squared, it will equal to 0.166 which showed that 16.6% of variance or individual differenc-
es in spiritual intelligence were related to the variance or individual differences in life satisfaction. This correla-
tion was statistically significant (p = 0.001).
4. Discussion and Conclusion
As previously mentioned, this study researched the relationship between spiritual intelligence and life satisfac-
tion among two groups, married and unmarried female residents of Esfahan, Iran. Results of this study showed a
significant relationship between spiritual intelligence and life satisfaction. Increased spiritual intelligence re-
sulted in increased life satisfaction which was congruent with the findings of Naderi and Roushani [18], Fabri-
kator et al. [19], and Akbarizadeh et al. [12].
According to the results, there were significant differences in the rate of satisfaction with life between married
and unmarried females. With due attention to the means of both groups, it observed that married females had
meaningfully more life satisfaction compared with unmarried females. Hence, this result has confirmed that be-
ing married has caused increased happiness and peace.
The present results have also shown that university and theological students do not have meaningful differ-
ences in terms of spiritual intelligence, however, in general spiritual issues or practical religious commitments
S. M. Kalantarkousheh et al.
among theological students are more significant.
We observed that spiritual intelligence predicted life satisfaction among married and unmarried females,
which agreed with studies by Naderi and Roushani [18], Fabricatore et al. [19], and Starks and Hughey [20].
In general, numerous factors can either directly, indirectly, positively or negatively influence life satisfaction
in married females. Individuals that had high scores for spiritual intelligence go beyond the limit of body and
material, and experience a high alertness and use problem solving resources. The ethical transcendental charac-
teristics such as humility, forgiveness, gratitude, pity and remission are more significant among these people.
They have a positive viewpoint towards the world and by possessing superior ethical traits, and have more sa-
tisfaction in their lives. The rate of spiritual intelligence can play a fundamental role in improving different as-
pects of life, in particular, the rate of an individual’s satisfaction with life. Therefore, we can use spiritual intel-
ligence components to increase our life satisfaction.
Limitations of this study included the research population; we did not have access to married and unmarried
females from the entire city of Esfahan. The deficiency of required recourses related to the subject of research
that is we did not have sources for the referral of some of our research findings. We recommend that researchers
study the effects of spiritual intelligence on other aspects of life such as marital and job satisfaction.
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