Energy and Power Engineering, 2011, 3, 79-86
doi:10.4236/epe.2011.32011 Published Online May 2011 (
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. EPE
Studying Effect of Magnetizing Curve Nonlinearity Index
on the Occurring Chaotic Ferroresonance Oscillation in
Hamid Radmanesh
, Mehrdad Rostami
, Jafar Khalilpour
Electrical Engineering Department, Shahid Sattari Aeronautical University of Science & Technology,
Tehran, Iran
Electrical Engineering Department, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran
Received December 31, 2010; revised March 7, 2011; accepted March 15, 2011
This paper investigates the effect of iron core saturation characteristic degree on the onset of chaotic ferrore-
sonance and duration of transient chaos in an autotransformer. The transformer chosen for study has a rating
of 50 MVA, 635.1 kV, the magnetization characteristic of the autotransformer is modeled by a single-value
two-term polynomial with q = 5, 7, 11. The core loss is modeled by a linear resistance and is considered a fix
value for it. Simulation results are derived by using MATLAB software and nonlinear dynamics tool such as
bifurcation and phase plan diagrams. It is shown settling down to the chaotic region is increased when degree
of core nonlinearity is gone from 5 to 11.
Keywords: Linear Core Losses, Chaotic Ferroresonance, Bifurcation Diagrams, Autotransformers
1. Introduction
Ferroresonance is initiated by improper switching opera-
tion, routine switching, or load shedding involving a high
voltage transmission line. It can result in Unpredictable
over voltages and high currents. The prerequisite for fer-
roresonance is a circuit containing iron core inductance
and a capacitance. Such a circuit is characterized by si-
multaneous existence of several steady-state solutions for
a given set of circuit parameters. The abrupt transition or
jump from one steady state to another is triggered by a
disturbance, switching action or a gradual change in val-
ues of a parameter. Typical cases of ferroresonance are
reported in [1-4]. Theory of nonlinear dynamics has been
found to provide deeper insight into the phenomenon. In
[5,6] is among the early investigations in applying theory
of bifurcation and chaos to ferroresonance. The suscepti-
bility of a ferroresonance circuit to a quasi-periodic and
frequency locked oscillations has been presented in [7].
In this case, investigation of ferroresonance has been
done upon the new branch of chaos theory that is qua-
siperiodic oscillation in the power system and finally
ferroresonance appears by this route. Effect of initial
conditions on occurring ferroresonance oscillation is
investigated in [8,9]. Effect of circuit breaker grading
capacitance on ferroresonance in voltage transformer is
investigated in [10]. Analysis of ferroresonance modes in
power transformers using preisach-type hysteretic mag-
netizing inductance is described in [11]. Effect of a con-
nected MOV arrester in parallel to the power transformer
is illustrated in [12]. Analysis of ferroresonance phe-
nomena in power transformers including neutral resis-
tance effect is investigated in [13]. Effect of circuit
breaker shunt resistance on chaotic ferroresonance in
voltage transformer has shown in [14]. In this work fer-
roresonance is controlled by considering C.B resistance
effect. Controlling ferroresonance in voltage transformer
by considering circuit breaker shunt resistance including
transformer nonlinear core losses effect is done in [15].
Decreasing Ferroresonance Oscillation in Potential
Transformers Including Nonlinear Core Losses by Con-
necting Metal Oxide Surge Arrester in Parallel to the
Transformer is studied in [16]. This paper studies the
effect of linear core losses and iron core saturation char-
acteristics degree on the global behavior of a ferroreso-
nance circuit. The circuit under study represents a case of
ferroresonance that occurred on 1100 kV system of
Bonneville Power Administration as described in [17].
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. EPE
2. Circuit Descriptions and Modeling
Three-phase diagram for the circuit is shown in Figure 1.
The 1100 kV transmission line was energized through a
bank of three single-phase as reported in autotrans-
formers. Ferroresonance occurred in phase A when this
phase was switched off on the low-voltage side of the
autotransformer; phase C was not yet connected to the
transformer at that time [17]. The autotransformer is
modeled by a T-equivalent circuit with all impedances
referred to the high voltage side. The magnetization
branch is modeled by a nonlinear inductance in parallel
with a nonlinear resistance and these represent the
nonlinear saturation characteristic, and nonlinear hys-
teresis curve [17]. Iron core saturation characteristic is
given by:
The exponent q depends on the degree of saturation. It
was shown that for proper representation of the satura-
tion characteristics of a power transformer the exponent
q may take the values 5, 7, and 11. In this paper, the core
losses model is described by a linear resistance. The
polynomial of order seven and the coefficient b of Equa-
tion (1) are chosen for the best fit of the saturation region.
It was shown in this paper that for lower order polyno-
mials, chaos occurred for larger value of input voltage,
also for polynomials of order 5 and 7, chaos did not ap-
pear for low losses and only fundamental and subhar-
monic resonances are obvious.
Figure 2 shows the hysteresis curve of the iron core of
the auto transformer that is simulated and obtained for
the transformer that is studied in this paper. It is thus
important to have as accurate an approximation to the
magnetization curve as possible. Because of the nonlin-
ear nature of the transformer magnetizing characteristics,
the behavior of the system is extremely sensitive to
change in system parameter and initial conditions. A
small change in the value of system voltage, capacitance
or losses may lead to dramatic change in the behavior of
it. A more suitable mathematical language for studying
ferroresonance and other nonlinear systems is provided
by nonlinear dynamic methods. Mathematical tools that
are used in this analysis are phase plan diagram, time
domain simulation and bifurcation diagram.
The circuit in Figure 1 can be reduced to a simple
form by replacing the proposed power system with the
thevenin equivalent circuit as shown in Figure 3. Figure
4 shows the equivalent circuit of the power system in-
cluding auto transformer that is derived by applying
thevenin theorem to the initial single line diagram of the
power system. By using the steady-state solution of
MATLAB SIMULINK with the data of the 1100 Kv
Figure 1. System modeling of the power system.
Figure 2. Hystersis curve of the iron core of the auto-
Figure 3.Thevenin circuit of the power system that is shown
in Figure 1.
Figure 4. Initial circuit of ferroresonance circuit.
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. EPE
transmission line [17], E
and z
were found to be:
2.1. Nonlinear Dynamics and Equation
The resulting circuit to be investigated is shown in Fig-
ure 4 where Zth represents the Thevenin impedance. The
behavior of this power system can be described by the
following system of nonlinear differential equations, by
applying KVL and KCL laws to the circuit in the case of
considering linear core losses effect can be driven as
evRivv (2)
The base values of the power system parameters are
listed in Table 1.
Also, the per unit values of the nonlinear index coeffi-
cients are listed in Table 2.
2.2. Simulation Results and Discussion
Ferroresonance in three phase systems can involve large
power transformers, distribution transformers, or instru-
ment transformers. The general requirements for fer-
roresonance are an applied or induced source voltage, a
saturable magnetizing inductance of a transformer, a
capacitance, and little damping. The capacitance can be
in the form of capacitance of underground cables or long
transmission lines, capacitor banks, coupling capacitances
between double circuit lines or in a temporarily-un-
grounded system, and voltage grading capacitors in HV
circuit breakers. Other possibilities are generator surge
Table 1. Basic parameters value of the power system.
635.1 kV78.72 A0.0790.0014 556.68 8067 0.0188
Table 2. Different value of q with its coefficient.
q/coefficient A B
5 0.0071 0.0034e(–19)
7 0.000375 7.3824e(–24)
11 0.000375 1.5648e(–37)
capacitors and SVC’s in long transmission lines. Due to
nonlinearities, increased capacitance does not necessarily
mean an increased likelihood of ferroresonance. Operat-
ing guidelines based on linear extrapolations of capaci-
tance may not be valid. Also, as mentioned previously,
the smaller the load on the transformer’s secondary, the
less the system damping is and the more likely ferrore-
sonance will be. Therefore, a highly capacitive line and
little or no load on the transformer are prerequisites for
ferroresonance. So, in the case of simulation, time do-
main simulations were performed using fourth order
Runge-Kutta method and validated against MATLAB
SIMULINK, and effect of changing in the value of sys-
tem capacitances doesn’t investigate in this paper. The
initial conditions as calculated from steady-state solution
of MATLAB are:
The circuit in Figure 4 is analyzed by first modeling
the core loss as a constant linear resistance. Simulation
has been done in three categories, first: system simula-
tion with linear core losses effect with considering de-
gree of core nonlinearity q = 5, second system simulation
with linear core losses effect with considering degree of
core nonlinearity q = 7 and finally investigation of cha-
otic ferroresonance by considering q = 11.
Figure 5 Shows the phase plan diagram of voltage and
flux linkage of the transformer with q = 5, according to
this plot, trajectory of the system has a chaotic behavior
and over voltages of transformer reaches to 6 p.u. Cor-
responding time domain simulation in Figure 6 clearly
shows the chaotic behavior of the voltage on the trans-
former, value of time is considered as a per unit value
and it is shows amplitude of this oscillation is reached to
5 p.u.
Figure 7 Shows the phase plan diagram of over voltage
on transformer with q = 7, it is shown when the degree of
q increases from 5 to 7, amplitude of over voltage goes
up and reaches to 6 p.u. also chaotic behavior has more
nonlinear oscillation when compared it with the previous
case of simulation.
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. EPE
Figure 5. Phase plan diagram for q = 5 considering linear core losses.
Figure 6. Time domain simulation for q = 5 considering linear core losses.
Figure 7. Phase plan diagram for q = 7 considering linear core loss.
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. EPE
Figure 8 shows time domain simulation when input
voltage of the system is 4 p.u. This plot shows the cha-
otic signal with much subharmonic resonance in it.
The circuit in Figure 4 is analyzed by first modeling
the core loss as a constant linear resistance. Figures 9
and 10 show the phase plan diagram and time domain
simulating with q = 11. It is shown that when q is in-
creased, nonlinear phenomena in the transformer are
begun in the low value of the input voltage. It was shown
that the chaotic behavior begins at a value of E
= 2 p.u
for q = 5 and E
= 1.5 p.u for q = 7, 11 where represents
the amplitude of eth(t). Another tool that can shows
manner of the system in vast variation of parameters is
bifurcation diagram. In Figure 11, voltage of the system
is increased to 8 p.u, and ferroresonance is begun in 2.5
p.u, it is shown that if input voltage goes up due to the
abnormal operation or switching action, ferroresonance
phenomena is occurred. In Figure 11 input voltage is
increased up to 8 p.u and over voltage on transformer has
been analyzed according to input voltage variation. In
point (1) period 3 appears, in point (2) period 5 appears
and jumping in the trajectory of the system has been take
placed, in point (3) chaos has been begun and in point (4)
system behavior comes out from chaotic region but there
are many subharmonic resonance in the system. By re-
peating simulation, between point (5), (6) and (7) again
system has a nonlinear behavior. After the point (7) sys-
tem has a periodic manner with the period 9 behavior.
Bifurcation diagrams in this paper are traced period
doubling route to chaos and it is begun from period1,
period 3, period 5 and by this manner goes to chaotic
region. In the big value of input voltage, system behavior
is completely nonlinear and chaotic over voltages reach
to 3 p.u; this amplitude is very dangerous for transformer
Figure 8. Time domain simulation for q = 7 considering linear core losses.
Figure 9. Phase plane diagram for q = 11 considering linear core losses.
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. EPE
Figure 10. Corresponding time domain signal that includes chaotic motion.
Figure 11. Bifurcation diagram for q = 5 considering linear core losses.
and can cause core failure. Figure 12. shows system over
voltage with q = 7. In this plot, one jump is occurred in
point (2), and chaos is appeared in point (3). By increas-
ing degree of q, it is shown chaos appear in 2 p.u. by
comparing this plot with the previous case, it is clearly
shows ferroresonance oscillation is begun 0.5 p.u earlier
than the case of considering q = 5.
Bifurcation diagram in Figure 13 shows more nonlin-
earity with q = 11, it is shown the chaotic overvoltage
after point (1) and period doubling oscillation is occurred
in E = 1 p.u. Amplitude of this case is reached to 2.5 p.u.
Figure 13 shows system over voltage with q = 11, ac-
cording to this plot, in point (1), period 3 appears and in
this point ferroresonance is begun. By comparing the
bifurcation diagram in Figures 12 and 13 by Figure 11,
it is concluded that degree of nonlinear core can cause
occurring the ferroresonance over voltages in the low
value of the input voltage. In the real system, when the
input voltage due to the abnormal switching or other
unwanted phenomena reaches to 4 p.u, transformer core
is heated and can cause transformer core failure.
3. Conclusions
The dynamic behavior of an autotransformer is shown by
the dynamical tool such as bifurcation and phase plan
diagrams. In this paper, effect of changing the value of
degree q on occurring ferroresonance over voltages is
studied, and is shown the nonlinear iron core and its de-
gree “q” has a great effect of occurring nonlinear oscilla-
tion in the autotransformer. When q is 11, chaotic over
voltages are more nonlinear and amplitude of this case is
higher than the other cases of study. Power transformer is
modeled with q = 11, so settling down to ferroresonance
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. EPE
Figure 12. Bifurcation diagram for q = 7 considering linear core loss.
Figure 13. Bifurcation diagram for q = 11 considering linear core loss.
in these transformers is more dangerous and should con-
sider protecting tool on this transformers such as damp-
ing resistor loads, MOV surge arrester and neutral earth
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