Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, 2014, 2, 5-11
Published Online August 2014 in SciRes. http://www.scirp.org/journal/jbm
How to cite this paper: Fatmah, Vita, Dina, Tribudi and Sri Lasmijah (2014) The Assessment of Depok as Age Friendly City
(AFC). Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, 2, 5-11. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jbm.2014.26002
The Assessment of Depok as Age Friendly
Fatmah, Vita, Dina, Tribudi, Sri Lasmijah
Faculty of Public Health, University of Indonesia and Center for Ageing Studies, University of Indonesia, UI
Campus, Depok 16424, West Java Province, Indonesia
Received May 2014
Depok has a big opportunity to become an age friendly city (AFC) because it has a large number of
posbindu, increased elderly population, it does not have yet the pension security for the elderly
people, and it does not have yet the number of infrastructure and social facilities needed for the
elderly. Before Depok City becomes an age friendly city, an assessment of the eight-dimensional
indicators of AFC had been carried out by a team of UI researchers from Center of Ageing Studies
in collaboration with the Institute for Survey METER in March 2013. One of the main finding was
the presence of the three indicators of AFC in Depok which still lack, they are buildings and open
space, housing, and civil participation and employment. The purpose of the study was to assess the
public’s opinion on the three indicators of AFC that still lack in Depok. The study shows that the
majority of people and government as stakeholder assess that Depok is ready to become AFC as
long as supported by the government of Depok City with the good coordination with related
institutions for the budget and programs prioritizing the interests of the elderly. Moreover, the
existence of Komda (Comission Area) of Elderly Depok City can support the establishment of a
friendly city towards the elderly. The community prefers to choose the indicators of buildings and
open spaces as a top priority for elderly-friendly city rather than chooses the indicators of housing
and civil participation and employment for the elderly people. Therefore, hopefully Depok City
Government with related institutions can build the building which is elderly-friendly as well as
AFC soc i ali zation to the government and private sectors in order to achieve rapid implementation
of Depok as an AFC.
Age Friendly City, Elderly, Building and Open Space, Housing, Civil Participation and Employment
The increase of life expectancy (life expectancy) has an impact on the increase of elderly population in
Indo ne sia . The increase in the elderly population should be balanced with the efforts to achieve the goal of
active aging. Active aging which consists of three main pillars which are income security, health, and a
possibility to participate can help to establish an Age Friendly City (AFC). AFC has eight indicators i.e. the
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provision of health facilities, social, environment, communications and information, infrastructure, transpor-
tation, legal, and human rights, as well as the combination of the various dimensions .
To support the establishment of elderly-friendly community, it needs to be designed a development of AFC,
but many cities in Indonesia are not yet elderly-friendly. That fact can be seen that the elderly citizens are still
difficult to access public facilities. The real example is that the busway stations are built very hi g h so it is
difficult for the elderly to walk through. There are many multi-storey buildings that do not provide the elevators,
and that forces the elderly people to use the stairs. There are eight areas require special handling for elderly
people, namely health, social, environment, information and communications, infrastructure, transportation, law,
and art. In Indonesia, Surabaya City Government as the capital of East Java has had local regulations for elderly
care and empowerment . Meanwhile, the Depok suburb is characterized as the wish of regional leaders and
organizations to make Depok as AFC.
Depok as one of the buffer cities also has an increase elderly population. It is estimated that there are
currently 114,060 people of the total population of 1,570,949 people with life expectancy of 73 years .
Therefore, Depok has a great opportunity to be AFC because of the activities of posbindu for elderly people
have been running long enough (there are nearly 500 posbindu in Depok), there is not yet the pension security
for the elderly, the number of infrastructure and facilities for the elderly, etc. However, those things should be
done as the preparations to make Depok as an AFC.
Before Depok becomes the AFC, an assessment study of eight dimensions of AFC indicators conducted by
the research team of Center for Ageing Studies—UI in collaboration with the Institute for Survey METER in
March 2013. The results of the assessment indicate that the degree of conformity of Depok meet the WHO
criteria of AFC of 41.6%. The dimensions of AF C in Depok were communication and information (57%), as
well as community support and health services (55%). While the dimensions of AFC that still lack in Depok are
civic participation and employment of 10%, buildings and open spaces of 32%, and housing of 34% .
Therefore, it is necessary for an in-depth study to assess the elements of what are still needed to be improved as
well as recommendations for the improvement of the three elements of the indicators which still lack in Depok.
The end result of research is useful for decision-makers including local leaders in preparing Depok to become an
Cross -sectional study wa s used in this study on 125 samples which are spread over 25 villages that are selected
through direct interview at their residences by 5 enumerators. Sample criteria were men and women aged over
60 years old and live in the selected villages in Depok, and they ere still healthy and were not dementia/senile.
The variables measured in the structured questionnaire covered sociodemographic characteristics; ownership
savings, insurance, and valuables assets; social activities outside the house; statements agree or disagree on
elements of the three indicators of AFC that still lack in Depok, namely buildings and open spaces; housing; and
civic participation and employment. Data processing performed after the questionnaire was completed and
collected through a process of editing, verification, and coding answers the questions. Then, they are converted
into numbers to be input to the computer to be processed by SPSS version 20 for Windows.
3.1. Sociodemographic Characteristics of Respondents
Figure 1 illustrates the distribution of respondents by sex, age, marital status, and educational background. More
than half of the total respondents are female (63.2%) with a mean age of 64 years old that the youngest of 60
years old and the oldest of 90 years old. The majority of respondents are aged between 60 - 69 years (60.8%)
when it is grouped based on RI Ministry of Health and WHO criteria.
Almost all respondents were muslims (96%) dominated by Betawi ethnic group (53.6%) and Java ethnic
group (22.4%), but it was still found parts of Manado, Banjarmasin, and Batak ethnic groups. The comparison of
the proportion of respondents who were married (59.2%) and widows/widowers (40.8%) was almost the same.
Most respondents have the educational background of elementary education (30.4%) and higher education
(29,6%), but many of them never attended school (24.8%).
Figure 2 shows that more than three-quarters of respondents were no longer working (80%), but the rest was
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Figure 1. Distribution of respondents by sex, age, marital status, and education background.
Figure 2. Status and occupation of respondents.
mostly still working in mining and quarry (36%). But, still there were respondents who work in agriculture (16%)
and work on their own/run their own business (14.4%).
The mean income of the respondents worked for 3-month activities of Rp 2,500,000, with the lowest income
of Rp 200,000, and the highest income of Rp 9,000,000. Only a fifth of respondents who were retired (20%)
with a mean of Rp 1.97 million, with the lowest pension of Rp 750,000, and the highest pension of Rp
Half of all respondents who have been interviewed stated that their basic need for everyday’s meals were still
covered by their own children (54.4%), but some others stated tha t they provided their basic need of everyday’s
meals by themselves or their spouse (49.6%). Meanwhile, half of all respondents said that they still received
cash assistance, food, and goods, from their children, the relatives, the government, or from the private sectors
within a year (55.2%) with a mean of Rp 7.182 million.
The status of saving accounts and insurance as well as the type of insurance owned by the respondents can be
seen from Figure 3. More than half of the total respondents did not have saving accounts and insurance. While
the number of respondents who have insurance generally have JAMKESNAS (37% ), Askes (33%), and
The majority of respondents already hade their own house (80.8%), electronic equipments like television,
refrigerator and rice cooker (67.2%). Nearly one third of all respondents had a car and a motorcycle (29.6%) and
one third of respondents still owns the land and/or rice field (Figure 4).
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Figure 3. Ownership of saving accounts and insurance.
Figure 4. Ownership of goods/asset of respondents .
3.2. Community Events/Social Participation
When asked whether the respondent were involved in community activities for the last one year, the majority of
them stated that they were active in religious activities such as teaching, social gathering (RT, RW, PKK, etc.),
community service, and public meetings. The rest of the respondents were active in sports activities, posyandu
for toddlers and the elderly, the arts, and youth activities. However, none of the respondents who participated in
the savings and loan activities both at RT, RW, villages, and sub-districts (Figure 5).
3.3. Building and Green Open Space
The following five conditions approved by more than 50% of the respondents. The majority of respondents
agreed with the statement that the public places in Depok we re clean and comfortable (62.4%), most of the
buildings were easily accessible and have a sloping stairs with handrail as well as anti slip floor/not slippery
floor (61.6%), most of the buildings have a clear sign either outside or inside the room, have a toilet and a sitting
area adequately (57.6%), public security in all open spaces are supported by compliance law and public support
for personal safety (56.8%), and public restrooms are clean, well-maintained, easily accessible with a variety of
capabilities, well-designed and placed in a location that is easily accessible (55.2%). Meanwhile, these two
elements were only approved by a maximum of 20% of the respondents which were the special services for the
elderly people such as: a separated queue line for the elderly and a special place for the elderly (17.6%) and the
separation of bike lanes and road pavement for pedestrians (11.2%). The conditions we re considered appropriate
according to a statement by between 20% - 50% of respondents include: street lighting and police patrols in
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Figure 5. Community service types participated by respondents.
public places are sufficient, green open spaces are well-maintained, audio -visual signs at the crosswalk lights are
adequate, pedestrian priority by motorists and motorbikes, the pavement was not slippery and flat with the road
surface, and there were special pavement ways for pedestrians.
Free space in the home for the elderly; the clean and well-maintained rent-house in a secure location; the safe
house construction from the weather; adequate number of houses and the affordable cost are some indicator
elements on housing which are approved/agreed by most respondents. Approximately 40% of respondents
agreed with the assessment of the average runway, wide entrance for wheel chairs, restrooms, toilet and kitchen
in the house have a design that is suitable for the elderly. While the existence of housing developers that
understand the needs of the elderly as well as a suitable home for the frail and disabled elderly only approved by
a maximum of 20% of respondents (Figure 7).
3.5. Civil Participation and Occupation
None of the respondents agreed on the element conditions of civil participation and employment of elderly
people in Depok which was more than the percentage above 50% because it was only 47.2% of respondents
agreed on the need to improve the quality of work for elderly people in Depok. The rest is less than 25% of
respondents who assess the exact condition of this indicator in terms of training opportunities for the elderly
after retirement, the need of recruitment policies on the worker’s age, promotion and training for the elderly, and
support for the elderly to have an entrepreneurship. In fact, only 11.2% of respondents who agreed with the lack
of job opportunities are flexible with a good income for the elderly.
3.6. The Priority of Three Indicators That Still Lack in Depok
When the respondents were asked to choose the prioritized choice of 3 indicators of an AFC that still lack in
Depok, most respondents chose buildings and open green spaces (42%) in the first place. Then, it is followed by
the indicator of housing (39%). Indicator of civil participation and employment wa s placed as the third choice
by most respondents (51%).
The above findings were consistent with the majority of respondents who give 3 points on indicators of
buildings and open green spaces (25%). One fifth of respondents gives 5 points on the housing (20%) and
followed by 3 points (15.2%). Civil participation and employment indicators wer ee given 3 points by one fifth
of respondents (23.2%).
Most of the elderly respondents were female with the age between 60 - 69 years old and the majority of
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Figure 6. Distribution of agreed statements from respondents on elements of indicators of building and open green space.
Figure 7. Distribution of agreed statement from the respondents on elements of housing indicators.
respondents had the educational background of primary school. This picture was in line with the profile of the
elderly people in Indonesia, most women were in the age range and only have primary school as their educa-
tional background .
Most respondents stated that Depok was ready and worthy to be an AFC. This was supported by the Mayor of
Depok who has a commitment on this by forming Komda (Commision Area) for the elderly people in Depok
since 2012. Eight indicators of AFC were in line with the elderly programs Komda (commission area) in the
years of 2013-2017 to improve the well-being and quality of life of the elderly people . Besides that, an
organization for eldery people, PERGERI Depok, also supports the establishment of AFC .
Indicators that still lack in Depok were buildings and open green spaces; housing; and civil participation and
employment of the elderly people. The good elements of buildings and open space indicators stated that the
level of cleanliness and comfort in public places such as bus stations and railway stations in Depok was good;
most buildings already have elderly-friendly stairs with handrails and the floors we re not slippery; the presence
of signs for direction inside the building; as well as toilets and adequate seats for the elderly. Elements were
assessed to be less or almost no special pathway were the availability of service to elderly people; separation of
bike lanes with sidewalks; as well as a special place for the elderly pedestrians (Figure 6). This finding wa s in
line with the previous surveys that found the same things of all three of these indicators with the percentage of
under 40% .
Freedom of movement within the home for the elderly; rented house for the elderly in a clean condition and in
a safe place; as well as the number of reasonably priced homes which were affordable for the elderly are a state
of the three parts of the housing indicators in Depok which were approved by the elderly people. Meanwhile,
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Figure 8. Distribution of agreed statements on elements of civic participation and employment indicators from the respon-
housing developers understood the needs of the elderly as well as the special home for frail elderly and disabled
only one-fifth the maximum approved by all respondents.
Indicators of civil participation and less work were supported by the elderly because of less than half of
respondents who approve the necessity of improving the quality of elderly workers. Only a quarter of all res-
pondents who viewed the training needs of elderly post-retirement; the need of the worker’s age recruitment
policy; promotion for the elderly; and entrepreneurial support for the elderly (Figure 8).
Buildings and open spaces were the main indicators considered important for the elderly. The next was the
final indicator of housing and civic participation and employment. This picture can be seen when most res-
pondents gave a value of 3 points on the main indicator. The rest ga ve a low point for the next two indicators.
This was consistent with a study conducted on a group of elderly in Portland, Oregon which states that elderly
people were more comfortable being outside in the open air as well as to socialize and interact with other senior
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