Int. J. Communications, Network and System Sciences, 2011, 4, 313-322
doi:10.4236/ijcns.2011.45036 Published Online May 2011 (
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. IJCNS
A Dynamic Interval Based Circular Safe Region Algorithm
for Continuous Queries on Moving Objects
Shengsheng Wang1, Chen Zhang2
1College of Computer Science and Technology, Jilin University, Changchun, China
2Department of Com p ut er Information Systems, Bryant University, Smithfield, Rhode Island, USA
Received February 19, 2011; revised April 3, 2011; accepted April 16, 2011
Moving object database (MOD) engine is the foundation of Location-Based Service (LBS) information sys-
tems. Continuous queries are important in spatial-temporal reasoning of a MOD. The communication costs
were the bottleneck for improving query efficiency until the rectangular safe region algorithm partly solved
this problem. However, this algorithm can be further improved, as we demonstrate with the dynamic interval
based continuous queries algorithm on moving objects. Two components, circular safe region and dynamic
intervals were adopted by our algorithm. Theoretical proof and experimental results show that our algorithm
substantially outperforms the traditional periodic monitoring and the rectangular safe region algorithm in
terms of monitoring accuracy, reducing communication costs and server CPU time. Moreover, in our algo-
rithm, the mobile terminals do not need to have any computational ability.
Keywords: Location Based Service, Moving Object Database, Continuous Spatial Query
1. Introduction
The development of technology has made it possible to
track moving objects such as vehicles, aircrafts, vessels,
wildlife, and human objects such as firefighters in a fire
field. Technologies such as global positioning system
(GPS), radio-frequency identification (RFID), cellular
wireless networks (such as commercial cellular phone
networks) and even triangulated wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi)
networks can all provide location information in real-
time, although at different precisions with different ef-
fective ranges.
Two major trends can be identified to manage the
large amount of location and property information that
varies with time: moving object databases (MOD) and
data stream technology (DST). The first approach im-
plies extending traditional database techniques with
models and index structures suitable to track the loca-
tions of the moving objects efficiently. The second ap-
proach focuses on the processing of continuous location
updates as they arrive. The boundary between these two
approaches is not always clear in relation to the topic of
this survey: Both propose alternatives to classical data-
base techniques, which are not considered appropriate to
manage the continuously changing locations of the mov--
ing objects [1]. Our research will focus on the MOD ap-
proach but can be easily modified to adapt to the DST
approach as well since our Dynamic Interval Based Cir-
cular Safe Region (DIBCSR) algorithm requires the
minimum frequency of location updates which can be
provided by both approaches.
MOD is a system that performs storage management
and query analysis on time-variable spatial information
of moving objects [2-4] which combines multiple disci-
plines and research areas including geographical infor-
mation systems (GIS), spatial databases, spatial-temporal
databases, computer graphics, computational geometry,
artificial intelligence and mobile computing.
Application of MOD requires the optimal efficiency of
the queries which can only be provided by continuous
spatial-temporal queries. A regular spatial-temporal query
only returns a single result set. In contrast, a continuous
spatial-temporal query returns result sets continuously
from the registration to the cancellation of the query,
which is called the effective period of the query. Even if
the query conditions remain unchanged during the effect-
tive period, the query result must be updated continu-
ously due to the continuous movement of the queried
objects. Here are two examples of continuous spatial-
temporal queries which provide commonly used LBS
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. IJCNS
such as range query or the k-nearest neighbor (kNN)
1) List all vehicles that appear in region R in the next
10 minutes.
2) Continuously mark the ten closest vehicles to gas
station number five.
These types of queries are not commonly supported by
traditional relational database engines. In order to facili-
tate these continuous spatial-temporal queries, a MOD
engine must implement the query processing and ideally,
with optimal performance at a low cost.
2. Related Works
Performance of the dynamic updates of the query result
set during the effective period is the main research topic
of MOD and spatial-temporal reasoning. In order to per-
form continuous query optimization in a distributed sys-
tem, not only the query cost must be minimized, the
communication cost for updating location information of
the terminal devices must also be minimized. However,
most of the previous works on continuous queries have
focused on reducing the query cost and has ignored the
communication cost [5-9], in which the occasions for
reporting location information are determined by the
terminal device at fixed intervals or when the object’s
location (constant distance interval) experiences a sig-
nificant change. This class of uniform time/distance in-
terval strategies has the following weaknesses:
1) The location updates are not adaptive to queries.
When queries are scarce or there are no queries at all, a
large amount of communication bandwidth and battery
power of the terminal device may be wasted on the up-
2) Low efficiency of queries could cause inconsistency
with reality. In the periodical update strategy, improving
the consistency of the query result with reality relies on
the location update frequency increase. This means higher
communication costs and may even make the improve-
ment impossible because of the bandwidth and network
delay limitation.
3) Unbalanced workload is applied on the server. In
order to improve the reality consistency, the server must
update large amounts of location information constantly
and recalculate all the queries. An overloaded server us-
ually means low responsiveness and poor reliability.
Hu, et al. [10] proposed a continuous query update
strategy based on a rectangular safe region (RSR) me-
thod which can alleviate the previous three problems.
However, with analysis and experiments, we found that
this strategy requires considerable computation power on
terminal devices. This performance bottleneck may be-
come more significant with a larger query load.
We propose an improved dynamic interval based cir-
cular safe region (DIBCSR) strategy to replace the RSR
strategy. In our strategy, the location update information
is updated dynamically by the server and the terminal
devices do not need to download the safe region infor-
mation. Experiments show that our strategy eliminates
the computation requirements of the terminal devices
with equal or better system performance than RSR stra-
Moreover, most of the previous studies only support
one specific query type, such as either range queries
kNN queries but not both. Our proposed DIBCSR algo-
rithm supports both range queries and kNN queries.
3. Safe Region Based Location Updates
Figure 1 demonstrates the infrastructure of a moving
object query system. The kernel of the system is the con-
trol center (the main server of the system) in the center of
the figure which runs the MOD engine, collects location
information, handles continues queries and provides query
results to the application servers to the right of the figure.
Therefore, the major computation workload is applied to
the main server/control center of a MOD system. For
simplicity, we refer to the main server/control center as
server in this paper.
Terminal devices, which are the monitored moving
objects, obtain their own location information from the
GPS system and transmit it to the server via a wireless
communication network. The whole system’s timeliness
and efficiency is affected by the wireless communication
bandwidth. The location information updates are often
the bottleneck because of the limited wireless bandwidth
and the high sampling rate in the traditional uniform
time/distance interval strategies.
The idea behind the rectangular safe region (RSR) al-
gorithm [10] is to define a rectangular safe region for
every object according to the registered query and the
latest location obtained. As long as the object’s motions
do not exceed its safe region, all the query result sets of
the object remain unchanged (Figure 2). The terminal
device is informed of the safe region assignments dy-
namically. Hence when a terminal device finds that it has
exceeded the safe region, it will report its new location
information. E.g., when an object a in Figure 2 has
moved out of its safe region of Sa to location a', it will
report its new location to the server which will recalcu-
late the results of a continuous k-nearest-neighbor (kNN)
query Q1 and a range query Q2.
Through analysis and experiments, we found that al-
though the RSR algorithm is effective, it has the follow-
ing weaknesses which can be improved:
1) RSR requires that the terminal device has memory
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. IJCNS
Figure 1. Infrastructure of the MOD system.
Figure 2. Rectangular safe region.
to store its current safe region and computing power to
determine whether it has exceeded the safe region.
However, in practice, many low-cost terminal devices
(e.g. a GPS dog collar) do not have memory and com-
puting power in addition to GPS satellites communica-
2) In RSR, data communication is bidirectional. The
terminal devices not only need to upload location infor-
mation to the server, but also need to download safe re-
gion information from the server. When the query fre-
quency increases, the frequency of safe region download
to the terminal devices increases. When the query fre-
quency is high enough, the communication cost may be
even worse than the uniform time interval (UTI) strategy.
We have a detailed analysis of this problem in Section 5.2.
3) Computations involved in the RSR strategy are
complicated, especially for kNN queries.
On the observation of these problems, we propose a
new continuous query algorithm. We define the safe re-
gion of object o (referred to as as a circle with the
center at the location of the object and the radius of o.r
(Figure 3). Assume the maximum speed of the object is
o.maxspd, then the continuous query result of query q
will not be affected within the time interval of o.r/o.
maxspd. Hence the server can issue a location report
query to the terminal device at the time of (o.r/o.maxspd -
δ) where δ is the sum of communication and computation
In comparison, the advantages of our DIBCSR strat-
egy are:
1) The terminal device does not need to have any com-
q o
Figure 3. Location update of a moving object with circular
safe region under continuous query.
puting power. The only task of the terminal device is to
report its location upon the request of the server. This is
determined by our main algorithm which is given in Sec-
tion 4.1. Moreover, the location update sampling re-
quests are distributed by the server. Therefore, when the
sampling strategy needs updating, such as when safe
regions are reassigned because of objects’ movements,
only the server is affected and the communication cost
will not be affected.
2) The algorithm determining the assignment of a cir-
cular safe region is simpler than a rectangular one. There-
fore the computation is reduced for safe region assign-
ments. We provide the detailed safe region assignment
algorithms for continuous range queries and continuous
kNN queries in Sections 4.2 and 4.3 respectively.
3) The updates of safe regions have been minimized
with the selection of circular shape safe regions and
therefore the communication cost is minimized. We pro-
vide mathematical analysis in Section 5.1.
4) The communication cost is reduced in comparison
with the RSR strategy. Detailed analysis of this feature is
provided in Section 5.2.
5) Computations involved in the RSR strategy are
complicated, especially for kNN queries. In contrast,
computations are much more concise in our DIBCSR
4. Dynamic Interval Based Location Updates
We use a C++/Java style pseudo code syntax, including
comment syntax of double slash, to represent the algo-
rithms in a more concisely and precisely. Properties of
the moving object o and continuous query q are ex-
plained in Table 1 and Table 2.
A separate process will be responsible for determina-
tion of the objects that are due for reporting new loca-
tions and sending the requests. The main algorithm
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. IJCNS
Table 1. Properties of a moving object.
q.region Query region of a range query
q.result Query result set
q.effUTI the query effective period the center of the circular query region the radius of the circular query region
Table 2. Properties of a continuous query.
o.p Last reported object location
o.r Radius of the object safe region Object safe region
o.maxspd Maximum speed of the moving object
o.upt Next location update time of the moving object
which runs on the server is as following:
Algorithm 1. Main algorithm for continuous query
//OList is the object list, QList is the query list
while (received query q and
current time t within q.effUTI)
if (q is newly registered) then
//new a query q for processing, either //range or kNN
if (q is cancelled) then
remove q from QList;
if (q is location update of object o) then
//update safe region of object o and //related query re-
sult sets
UpdateSR(QList, o);
o.upt = t + o.r/o. maxspd - delay;
UpdateSR(QList, o)
//range query location updates processing Update-
SRA(QList, o);
//kNN query location updates processing Update-
RSR(QList, o);
4.1. The Main Algorithm for Continuous Query
Both continuous range query and continuous kNN query
are supported by our strategy. A continuous range query
is one that returns all the objects in q.region within the
query effective period where query region can be either
rectangular or circular. A continuous kNN query is one
that returns the closest k objects to the query location. An
ordered kNN query requires the results to be returned in
increasing order and an unordered kNN query does not
request the results to be in order. An ordered kNN query
is what we will consider in this paper and which is more
complicated than an unordered kNN query. These two
different types of continuous queries require different
new query processing and location update processing
algorithms which we present in different sections as fol-
4.2. Continuous Range Queries
The query processing and location update algorithm for
continuous range queries are as follows:
Algorithm 2. New range query processing
//q is a range query
for (o OList) do
qResult = Req(q,; //query result
if (qResult = “Y” ) then
q.result= q.result {o};
// added to the result set of q
// if the query result of is undecided
if (qResult = “U” ) then
Query location of object o;
//object o must report immediately
//recalculation is then performed.
UpdateSR(QList, o);
In a range query, the Req function in Algorithm 2 which
is the query result of safe region is defined as
if 5.,.
Req,. if 5.,.
q osrNRCCqrosrDC
A return value of “Y” indicates that the safe region is
inside the query region and therefore object o is within
the result set. A return value of “N” indicates that the
safe region is outside of the query region and therefore
the object o is not included in the result set. A return
value of “U” indicates that the safe region intersects with
the query region. The result is therefore undecided.
Hence the precise location of the object needs to be ob-
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. IJCNS
tained in order to recalculate. The region connection cal-
culus (RCC) serves for qualitative spatial representation
and reasoning and RCC-5 is a widely used binary rela-
tionship model in automated spatial reasoning [11] with
five binary relationships {DC, PO, PP, EQ, PPI} (dis-
creteness, proper overlap, proper part, equivalence,
proper inclusion) demonstrated in Figure 4. The function
RCC5(X, Y) returns the RCC-5 relationship of X and Y
for topology analysis.
Algorithm 3. Range query update
//The functionality is to update the range query //result
set and check/update the object safe //region by invoking
the SafeRegion sub //function.
UpdateSRA(QList, o)
o.r = ;
for (q QList and q is a range query) do
// If safe region function returns r>0
// then o is within the result set of q
if SafeRegion(q, o, r) then{
q.result = q.result {o};
return true;
Algorithm 4. The calculation of safe region for range
The purpose of this algorithm is to calculate the safe
region radius and decide the query result set. The safe
region radius r is returned for the object o under query q.
The Boolean return value of true or false indicates wheth-
er object o is within the query result set.
SafeRegion(q, o, & r)
if (q is a rectangular range query) then
//Three circumstances exist,
//as demonstrated in Figure 5.
//A: o.p is inside query region I
//B: o.p is inside query region II
//C: o.p is inside query region III
if (o.p is inside query region I) then
r = distance from o.p to the closest edge of the rectan-
gular query region;
return true;
else if (o.p is inside query region II) then
r = distance from o.p to the closest edge of the rectan-
gular query region;
else // o.p is inside query region III
r = distance from o.p to the closest vertex of the rec-
Figure 4. Binary spatial relationships in RCC-5.
Figure 5. Rectangular range query safe region.
tangular query region;
return false ;
else if (q is a circular range query) then
//Two circumstances exist,
//as demonstrated in Figure 6.
//A: object o is inside the
//circular query region
//B: object o is outside of the
//circular query region
doq= dist(o.p,;
//dist(a, b) represents the distance
//between point a and point b. doq is the //distance
between object o and query q.
r = ABS(doq -;
if (doq <= then
return true;
return false ;
Theorem 1: When the motion of the object in Algo-
rithm 4 does not exceed the safe region, the result set of
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. IJCNS
o o
p B
Figure 6. Circular range que ry safe region.
the continuous range query does not change.
Proof: Apparently, under the circumstance, does
not intersect with q.r. Hence object os motion inside
will not affect the query result set.
4.3. Continuous kNN Query
Algorithm 5. An ordered kN N query processing
//q is an ordered kNN query
1) Decide the object list OList near query location q.p
based on the spatial-temporal index of moving objects;
/*e.g. objects within neighboring rectangles can be se-
lected in an R*-tree indexed system. This step reduces
the object set that is processed to reduce the following
2) Perform sorting to the objects in OList by dist (o.p, ascending, the nearest k + 1objects are saved
in q.result;
/*Quick Sort algorithm is applied and the Compare
function is given below. The reason why we save the (k
+1)th object is for the calculation of the safe region.*/
3) Update the safe regions for all objects;
Algorithm 6. Distance comparison algorithm for ob-
For simplicity, we use q to represent and
object names o1, o2 to represent the object location o1.p
and o2.p in this section.
// Function returns –1 when o1 is nearer than o2; // re-
turns 1 when o1 is farther than o2.
// Since all calculations are floating-point, we do // not
consider the equal scenario.
Compare (q, o1, o2)
if ( dist(q, o1) + o1.r < dist(q, o2) – o2.r ) then
return –1;
if ( dist(q, o1) – o1.r > dist(q, o2) + o2.r ) then
return 1;
Query locations of o1, o2;
//Distances of safe regions to q overlaps, //query pre-
cise locations for further //comparison.
o1.r = 0;
o2.r = 0;
if (dist(q, o1) < dist(q, o2) ) then
return –1;
return 1;
4.4. Circular Safe Region Calculation and
Updates for Continuous kNN Queries
Following is the formula to update the safe region radius
for the ith object in the object set ascending sorted by
distance to ordered kNN query q in Algorithm 5. Figure
7 shows an example of safe regions assignment in such
an ordered kNN query q. The first object in the result set
is q and the extra object ok+1 is kept for calculation of
safe region radius of ok.
if 0, in the result set, then
min. ,,
if , out of the result set, then
min. ,,
ii ii
disto odisto o
or distoqquarq
where quar(q) is the radius of the quarantine region for
query q which surround and only surround the safe re-
gions of all objects in the result set. Therefore, quar (q) =
dist(ok, q) + ok. Figure 8 shows how such a quarantine
region is assigned for such an ordered kNN query q.
Hence we have the following property: either in or out of
the kNN query result set (inside or outside the quarantine
region), none of the safe regions of objects overlaps with
each other. Therefore, when all the objects are moving
inside their own safe regions, the result set and its order
are not affected.
4.5. Location Update Processing for Continuous
kNN Queries
For continuous kNN query, when object location is up-
dated, one of the four following scenarios will happen.
The detailed update algorithm is given in Algorithm 7:
1) Original location was inside the quarantine region
and new location is also inside the quarantine region:
order adjustment in the result set is necessary.
2) Original location was outside the quarantine region
but new location is inside the quarantine region: a new
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. IJCNS
q o
Figure 7. Safe regions assignment in an ordered kNN query.
p o
Figure 8. Quarantine region assignment for an ordered kNN
query is necessary to recalculate the complete result set.
3) Original location was inside the quarantine region
but new location is outside the quarantine region: same
as 2).
Both original location and new location are outside the
quarantine region: only need to update the object’s safe
Algorithm 7. Location update processing for kNN
//Purpose is to update safe region and result set
UpdateRSR(QList, o)
for ( q QList and q is a kNN query ) do
if ((o q.result and dist(o, q) quar (q)) or (o
q.result and dist(o,q) > quar (q))) then
Execute Algorithm 5;
//Processed as a new query
else if (o q.result
and dist(o, q) quar (q)) then
//Original result set of q is {oi| i = 1,···, k}, //if object
o’s original index is i and //index after the new sorting by
dist(q, o) //is i'
Execute Algorithm 5 within the range of
1,,,,1, when
1,,,,1, when
iiii ii
iiii ii
 
Use result set from Algorithm 5 to replace the respec-
tive subset in the original result set;
else //o q.result and dist(o, q) > quar (q)
Adjust o.r following the Req function given by Equa-
tion (1);
5. Analysis and Experiment
5.1. Analysis of the Safe Region Shape
As previously mentioned in Section 3, one reason for
selecting the circular safe region shape is to minimize the
updates of safe regions and therefore the associated
communication cost. We further provide mathematical
analysis here.
In a safe region based strategy, the communication
cost of a location update is inversely proportional to the
minimum location update time. This is because the ob-
ject’s motion direction is generally unpredictable. There-
fore its probability of leaving the safe region through any
portion of the border is equal. Assume SR to be the safe
region, p to be the last reported location. If in the direc-
tion of
, the distance from p to the edge of the safe re-
gion is k(
) (Figure 9), then the minimum location up-
date time is
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. IJCNS
Figure 9. Shape of the safe region.
costtimeko maxspd
 (3)
Assuming o.maxspd is a property of the object that we
cannot control, our goal is to maximize the min(k(
)) in
order to maximize the tupdate. When a specific shape of
safe region is selected, increasing the area of the safe
region is obviously going to increase min(k(
)). However,
in a range query or a kNN query, the largest area is
eventually bounded by the objects’ distribution and the
size of the query region. Therefore, if we assume the area
of the safe region is determined, then the maximized
average distance from p to the edge of the safe region in
all directions, min(k(
)), will come with the isotropic
safe region – a circle.
5.2. Analysis of the Safe Region’s
Communication Cost
In the RSR strategy [10], data communication is bi-di-
rectional: the terminal devices upload location informa-
tion and download the safe region information. However,
the authors only discussed the communication cost of
location information upload, which is not precise. We
take the bi-directional data communication into consid-
eration in the following discussion and then compare the
communication cost with our DIBSCR strategy.
In the RSR strategy, communication in the down-link
direction from the server to the terminal device transmits
information of the rectangular safe region, each deter-
mined by two points or four coordinates. Communication
in the up-link direction from the terminal device to the
server transmits a location update, each includes one
point or two coordinates. In newer wireless networks
such as Wi-Fi, Wi-Max or 3G, data is transmitted in data
frames (called synchronous transmissions mode). Since
the data amount to be transmitted/received by the ter-
minal device every time is quite small which can easily
fit into a single frame, the location update rate is the
main factor affecting the communication cost. This loca-
tion update rate is constant for UTI strategy while varia-
ble for safe region based strategies. Assume in the RSR
strategy, the safe region update rate is s which depends
on the query rate of q. We therefore represent it using the
function of s(q) which increases with the query rate of q.
And assume the location update rate is u and the com-
munication delay is d. The total communication cost is
(s(q) + ud which increases with the query rate. Hence
when the query rate is high, the RSR strategy can be
even worse than the UTI which makes it not feasible.
In contrast, in our DIBSCR strategy, the terminal de-
vice does not need to download safe region information
which only leaves the location update term of u·d.
Moreover, the location update rate r is most equal to the
constant rate in the UTI strategy because it is based on
the dynamic time interval which is greater than or equal
to a preset value. We further provide the estimated loca-
tion update rate r in DIBSCR as following:
The basic estimate of the location update interval is
derived from Equation (3):
utor omaxspd
where tupdate is the minimum amount of time the object
may exceed the circular safe region and therefore re-
quests a location update. The estimate of the location
update rate u is therefore relying on the estimate of the
object’s maximum speed o.maxspd.
The estimate of o.maxspd can be either fixed (for in-
stance the object types of pedestrian, motor vehicle or
high-speed train) or it could also be further refined by
prediction from the object’s historical locations. This
could reduce the communication cost when the object is
temporarily immobile (such as when the pedestrian
stopped by a coffee shop or when the motor vehicle is
parked). Certainly in any prediction based speed estimate,
we need to be on the conservative side and control the
computation cost although there are outstanding predic-
tion methods such as Back Propagation Networks (BPN).
For simplicity, we do not want to include consideration
of a missing rate. One possible conservative estimate is
lastcurrent last
o maxspdfixedmaxspeed
vmax accelerationtt
fixed_max_speed: the maximum possible speed for an
object type
vlast: calculated speed at the last location report time
max_acceleration: the maximum possible acceleration
of an object type
tcurrent: the current system time
tlast: the last location report time.
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. IJCNS
Either the o.maxspd is fixed or further bounded by a
prediction, it is tightly bounded and hence the minimum
amount of time the object may exceed the circular safe
region and the maximum location updated rate is tightly
bounded and independent of the query rate.
5.3. Experimental Analysis of the System
In order to further evaluate our strategy, we constructed a
simulation system to evaluate the UTI strategy, RSR
strategy and our DIBCSR strategy. In our simulation
system, object o’s motion direction and speed are ran-
domly generated. The object’s speed should not exceed a
fixed maximum speed of o.maxspd. In UTI simulation,
we have two location update intervals of 0.1s and 1s,
referred to as UTI(0.1) and UTI(1) respectively in the
simulation results.
In our experimental analysis through simulation, three
comparison criteria are applied: 1) precision, 2) commu-
nication cost and 3) server workload. We analyze the si-
mulation results separately in the following section.
1) Precision
The precision of a continuous query result is defined
as: at time t, the system query result is RESULT(t); the
actual object set that satisfies the query condition is
TRESULT(t), standing for the true result. In order to use
a higher value to represent higher precision, we define
the equal(x, y) function to return 1 when x = y and 0
when x y. In the time interval of [a, b], we average the
equality between the returned value and the true value,
and define precision as
 
The precision is obviously affected by the communi-
cation delay since it causes the difference between the
actual location and the reported location. The result is
represented in Figure 10 and the precision of DIBCSR
and SBR are approximately the same and both are better
than UTI.
The simulation results shown in Figure 11 confirm
our analysis in Section 5.2 that the performance of DIBCSR
is significantly better (lower communication cost) than
RSR when considering bi-directional communication cost.
And at high query rate, communication cost of RSR can
be even worse than UTI with a larger time interval (low-
er sampling rate).
2) Communication cost
3) System scalability
Figure 12 shows the comparison of server workload
for different strategies under the query rate increase.
Since the workload is balanced better, both DIBCSR and
Figure 10. Comparison of precision.
Figure 11. Comparison of communication cost.
RSR apply less workload on the server than UTI. Be-
cause we further simplified the safe region computation
by applying circular safe region, DIBCSR applies even
less workload than RSR on the server. This advantage is
more significant under the query rate increase. This low
server workload feature of DIBCSR helps to improve the
system scalability.
6. Conclusions
This paper analyzes the weaknesses of the RSR strategy
and proposes a DIBCSR strategy to replace the RSR
strategy for continuous queries in MOD. Theoretical
analysis and simulation experiment both show that the
new strategy has multiple advantages. Firstly, the new
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. IJCNS
Figure 12. Comparison of server workload.
strategy does not require computation over the terminal
devices. Therefore, cost of the terminal devices is re-
duced under the precondition of equal or better system
performance. Secondly, terminal devices do not need to
download the safe region information from the server
which reduces the communication cost effectively. Fi-
nally, computation is simplified by applying circular safe
regions. Hence the server workload is reduced which
improves the system scalability. Possible future works of
the research include implementation of the strategy in an
applied MOD engine for a information system providing
LBS to public transportation, taxis and private vehicle
devices or pedestrians with hand-held mobile devices.
Application of our strategy potentially provides real-time
range queries and kNN queries to support LBS at a low
cost with a high performance in addition to system de-
sign and implementation ease and flexibility.
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