Wireless Sensor Network, 2011, 3, 147-157
doi:10.4236/wsn.2011.35017 Published Online May 2011 (http://www.SciRP.org/journal/wsn)
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. WSN
3D Localization and Tracking of Objects Using
Radu Ionescu1, Riccardo Carotenuto1*, Fabio Urbani2
1DIMET, Università “Mediterranea” di Reggio Calabria, R eggio Calabri a , Italy
2Departme n t of Engineer ing, the University of Texas at Brownsville, Brownsville, USA
Received March 1, 2011; revised April 1, 2011; accepted April 11, 2011
A system for accurate localization and tracking of remote objects is introduced, which employs a reference
frame of four coplanar ultrasound sources as transmitters and miniature microphones that equip the remote
objects as receivers. The transmitters are forced to emit pulses in the 17 - 40 kHz band. A central processing
unit, knowing the positions of the transmitters and the time of flight of the ultrasound signals until they reach
the microphones, computes the positions of the microphones, identifying and discarding possible false sig-
nals due to echoes and environmental noise. Once the microphones are localized, the position of the object is
computed by finding the placement of the geometrical reconstructed object that fits best with the calculated
microphones positions. The operating principle of the localization system is based on successive frames. The
data are processed in parallel for all the microphones that equip the remote objects, leading to a high repeti-
tion rate of localization frames. In the proposed prototype, all the computation, including signal filtering,
time of flight detection, localization and results display, is carried out about 25 times per second on a note-
Keywords: Localization System, Remote Object, Tracking, Ultrasounds, Time of Flight
The increasing interest in systems able to provide users
with remotely accessible capabilities (e.g. security, do-
motics, health care, new generation of game consoles
and video games, etc.) has encouraged the development
of cheap and effective devices aimed at tracking objects
and people within a certain space region. Accurate ob-
jects localization and tracking is currently a challenging
problem. Tracking is normally performed in the context
of higher-level applications that require the location
and/or shape of the object at every iteration or time in-
stant. Difficulties in tracking objects can arise due to
object masking by external obstacles or abrupt object
A visual approach using video cameras is employed in
most applications, when objects localization and tracking
is based either on color hystograms [1-3], illumination
changes , occlusion [5-7], appearance [7,8] or scale
variations . Infrared techniques can also be applied
[10-12]. An important drawback of video localization
systems is that they cannot be us ed in many situations or
environments due to the frequent blockage of the light by
different obstacles and structures. Moreover, video lo-
calization relies on the camera resolution, generally re-
sulting in poor spatial resolution.
A variety of techniques have been developed for lo-
calization purpose, which are based on radio frequency
(RF) [13,14]. Probably the most famous one is the
Global Positioning System (G PS), but it does no t prov ide
a sufficient resolution (order of meters) for some appli-
cations such as precise localization of objects and per-
sons, and it is not effective in most indoor environments
or other areas with limited view of the sky. Another
technique, Global System for Mobile communications
(GSM), showed an uncertainty of tens to hundreds of
meters in objects localization [15,16]. By employing 29
different GSM channels, a median accuracy ranging
from 1.94 to 4.07 m was obtained in indoor objects lo-
calization . The use of Wireless Network Technolo-
gies, such as Wi-Fi , Bluetooth , Wireless Local
Area Networks (WLAN) [20,21] or ZigBee , did not
achieve better localization accuracy. Ultra-Wide Band
(UWB), Indoor GPS positioning and Radio Frequency
148 R. IONESCU ET AL.
Identification (RFID) technology were also evaluated,
providing an uncertainty in estimating mobile objects
localization in the order of cm [20,23].
The sound source localization is based on determining
the coordinates of sound sources in relation to a point in
space. In a recent paper, sound source localization and
tracking method using an array of eight microphones was
proposed . The method is based on a frequency-do-
main implementation of a steered beamformer along with
a particle filter-based tracking algorithm. Using an array
of 8 microphones, a robot was able to follow a person
speaking to it by estimating the direction where the
speech sound was coming from. The localization accu-
racy was around 1˚ within 1 m distance, both on azimuth
and elevation, and around 1.4˚ within 3 m distance. The
current location of another robot, using an array of 24
microphones distributed on two walls inside a close
laboratory room, was based on robot speaking, and pro-
duced an average localization error of about 7 cm close
to the array and 30 cm far away from the array .
These are examples of active localization systems, in
which the reference system is equipped with receivers
placed at known locations, which estimate the distance to
the remote device based on acoustic signals transmitted
from the device.
A similar strategy was employed in the case of the ac-
tive Bat ultrasonic location system for people localiza-
tion . Small units called Bats, consisting of a radio
transceiver, controlling logic and ultrasound transducer,
are carried by persons. Ultrasound receiver units are
placed at known positions on the ceiling of an indoor
room. The times-of-arrival (TOA) of ultrasound from the
Bat emitting device to each transducer are measured, and
radio signals are used for synchronization. The location
accuracy was below 10 cm.
The 2D position of an automatic guided vehicle was
obtained with an accuracy of a few mm from the
time-of-flight (TOF) of ultrasound signals . The lo-
calization system employed consisted of ultrasound re-
ception and emission beacons positioned at the same
height on the docking workstation and on the automatic
guided vehicle, respectively.
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology has devel-
oped the ‘Crick et’ indoor location system. ‘Cricket’ uses
a combination of radio frequency (RF) and ultrasound
signals to obtain the location of a remote device. Bea-
cons placed on the walls and ceilings inside a building
transmit a concurrent ultrasonic pulse on each RF adver-
tisement. When this pulse arrives to listeners attached to
the remote device, these estimate the distance to the cor-
responding beacon by taking advantage of the difference
in propagation speeds between RF and ultrasound. This
method employs a passive localization system, in which
the reference system is equipped with beacons placed at
known locations that periodically transmit signals to the
remote device equipped with receivers, which estimate
the distances to the beacons. The Cricket beacons and
listeners are identical hardware devices. The Cricket
system could provide positioning precision between 1
and 3 cm .
Most 3D-localization systems based on ultrasound
distance measurement use time-of-flight measurements
which can be easily and cost-efficiently performed be-
cause of the slow speed of ultrasound in air (about 343
m/s at 20˚C). These systems include either a few refer-
ence beacons (minimum 3 or 4) equipped with ultra-
sound transmitters to localize receiving devices, or vice
versa, the localized device transmits an ultrasound signal
received by several microphones belonging to a refer-
ence systems. Transmitted ultrasound signals are realized
as constant-frequency bursts or coded signals in a
broader frequency band . The principal advantages
of a localization system with transmitters in fixed loca-
tions and receiving sensor devices are that the device is
able to compute its own position locally, and that the
transmitters can send sign als synchronously [30,31].
Recently, we have presented promising preliminary
results for very accurate objects localization and tracking,
employing a new approach based on a passive localiza-
tion system . In this paper we show the capabilities
and achievements of our system. It is quite different from
the Cricket localization system, which is composed of
complex and intelligent nodes that allow easy cellular
management. The latter is useful especially in a
multi-room environment, but it shows relatively low po-
sitioning accuracy and rate. Moreover, the single node
results quite big and not easily worn or placed on small
objects. No applications employing the Cricket system
were reported on gesture tracking and fine positioning,
which in fact require localization rates in the order of
tens of times per second and accuracy in the sub-centi-
metric range. The localization system that we propose is
much simpler both in construction and operation mode
and, in perspective, well suited for future system-on-chip
The proposed system employs a reference frame of ul-
trasound sources as transmitters, and miniature micro-
phones that equip the remote object as receivers. The
distances between transmitters and receivers are esti-
mated from the time-of-flight of the ultrasound signals.
Ultrasound based time-of-flight methodology was proved
to be more reliable and accurate than radio based ap-
proaches . Moreover, the use of ultrasound sources
and miniature microphones reduce at a minimum both
the audible and dimensional discomfort during system
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. WSN
R. IONESCU ET AL.
The paper is organized as follows: in the next section
we describe the proposed system and its principle of op-
eration, while in the following sections we present the
realized prototype, the localization algorithm employed
and the experimental results obtained in different appli-
2. System Description and Principle of
The aim of the system that we developed is to ob tain the
accurate localization and tracking of the movement of
remote objects. The main elements of the system are a
set of ultrasound sources and one or more receiving tar-
gets. In our localization system, we employ tweeters as
emitters, being the active elements of the system, and
miniature microphones as receivers, which are the pas-
sive elements of the system.
The reference frame of the system is formed by four
tweeters placed at known locations, specifically at the
vertexes of a rectangle with the lengths of its sides a and
b, respectively (Figure 1).
The remote object is equipped with several miniature
microphones mounted at strategic positions on the object,
which are wired to a data acquisition board. Knowing the
coordinates of the microphones and the geometry of the
object, the shape of the object and its 3D orientation can
be represented in any virtual context. The strategy that
we propose is limited to devices that do not deform sig-
nificantly their shape when they are manipulated.
The operating principle of the localization system is
based on successive frames. For locating the current po-
sition, or tracking the movement of the remote object, the
localization of each individual microphone at every
Figure 1. The reference frame with four tweeters (repre-
sented by triangles) and one microphone (represented by a
given time instants (i.e., localization frame) during sys-
tem operation is necessary. Once determined the local-
ization of the microphones, the position of the object is
computed by finding the placement of the geometrical
reconstructed object that better fits with the calculated
The positions of the microphones are calculated in re-
lation with th e origin point o f the reference frame, which
for convenience was chosen to be the position of one of
the four tweeters.
During each localization frame, the tweeters emit, at
predefined constant time intervals, ultrasonic pulses to-
wards the remote object. These pulses, reaching the
miniature microphones placed on the remote object, are
acquired as electrical signals by the data acquisition
The d istance l between each microphone and each one
of the tweeters is indirectly estimated by a central proc-
essing unit from the time of flight Tf employed by the
ultrasound signal emitted by the tweeter to reach the mi-
crophone, assuming the linearity of the wave propag atio n
path and that the speed of sound v in a given transmis-
sion medium is constant and its value is known (Equa-
tion 1). An inherent delay introduced by the system
components during signal propagation must be also taken
into account. Thus, a constant offset distance loffset, whose
value was experimentally measured, must be subtracted
in order to obtain the correct distance between each pair
The obtained distances are then used to calculate mi-
crophones position s. For each microphone, the fo llowing
four sphere equations that describe the distances between
the microphone and the four tweeters forming the refer-
ence frame can be written (Equation (2)):
Resolving the four possible systems resulting from
picking in all combination s only th ree equ ations at a time
from the available four sphere equations, four values for
the position of the microphone are determined: (x1, y1, z1),
(x2, y2, z2), (x3, y3, z3) and (x4, y4, z4), respectively. Here,
we should note that every syste m of three equations of (2)
has two possible solutions, and a single solution is ob-
tained by limiting to a half-space the valid region of op-
eration for the remote device with respect to the refer-
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. WSN
150 R. IONESCU ET AL.
If the estimation of the distances between the micro-
phone and the four tweeters would be perfect, four iden-
tical values for microphone position would be obtained.
However, due to different disturbances (noise, echoes,
obstacles, etc.), l1, l2, l3, l4 are generally affected by slight
uncertainties. By computing the position of the given
microphone as the mean value of the four positions cal-
culated on each one of the three axes (Equation 3), any
small errors occurred in calculating the position of the
microphone are minimized. This represents an advantage
provided the fact that we employ a reference frame
formed by four tweeters, and not by only three tweeters
that would have been otherwise sufficient for estimating
the position of the microphone.
The robustness of the algorithm developed relies on a
technique to discard any fake points, which could imply
the failure of the correct localization of the object. For
this purpose, the “distance” between all the four com-
puted microphone positions is calculated, i.e. the square
root of the sum of squares between every pair of two
from the four computed microphone coordinates on each
one of the three Cartesian axes (Equation 4):
12 ijij i
Testx xyyz z
Miniature microphones: FG-6163 (Kn owles Acoustics,
Itasca, Illinois, USA) is a condenser microphone of
cylindrical shape, 2.6 mm length and diameter, 0.79 mm
acoustical receiver window diameter, and 80 mg weight.
The choice of a very small microphone comes as a nee d of
our application. In the proposed localization system, the
microphones are placed on the object whose localization
is desired. Thus, they must not represent a discomfort,
If the parameter Test is higher than a set threshold
value, the localization of the given microphone is con-
However, the object can be super-described by em-
ploying a higher number of miniature microphones than
the strictly necessary one to represent its shape, e.g. 4 or
more microphones for a parallelepiped. By doing this,
any failure or error in the correct localization of one or
more microphones will not compromise the accurate
computation of the position of the object, provided that
valid signals from the strictly necessary number of mi-
crophones are still obtained.
When the number of correctly localized microphones
during a given localization frame is not enough in order
to represent the shape of the object, the visualization of
the object is skipped during that particular localization
frame. However, because of the high repetition rate of
localization frames achiev ed by the propo sed localizatio n
system (Section 4), this rare undesirable event could eas-
ily pass practically unnoticed even concerning applica-
tions in which the object describes a fast movement.
3. Experimental Set-up
The prototype of the proposed system is presented in
Figure 2. The different components forming the proto-
type are listed below:
Processing unit: a PC is employed as central pro-
cessing unit of the localization system. It uses algorithms
written in Matlab (The MathWorksTM) both for building
the acoustic pulses that are emitted by the tweeters, and
for acquiring, storing and analyzing the signals received
by the microphones.
Data emission/acquisition board: MOTU 828 mk3
(MOTU, C ambri dge, M assachus etts, USA). It is p rovid ed
with ten analog inputs and outputs that can operate at
sample rates up to 192 kSamples/s. The PC connection is
realized via FireWire.
Tweeters: Sony MDR-EX33LKP (Sony Corporation,
Japan). Preliminary tests performed have shown that this
specific model is able to emit sufficiently accurate
acoustic pulses in the chosen ultra-acoustic band. It fulfils
furthermore our requirements regarding small size, while
the diameter of its pressure output hole of only 3 mm
ensures a wide emission lobe, well covering the space
region of interest at aroun d 20 - 40 kHz.
Figure 2. Photo of the localization system prototype.
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. WSN
R. IONESCU ET AL.
especially in the case of people localization. Moreover,
the small acoustical input window, in respect of the wave-
length, ensures a good approximation of the point-like
Amplification and microphones polarization box. It
hosts a power amplifier board and a polarization board:
- A power amplifier board was designed and realized
with the purpose to amplify the output signals transmitted
by the dat a board m odule up to t he adequate values able t o
drive the tweeters. It is provided with four independent
channels able to drive simultaneously the four tweeters
forming the reference frame of the system with voltage
pulses up to 30 Vpp.
- A polarization board was designed and realized with
the purpose to provide the polarization of the micro-
phones necessary for their operation.
The shape of the acoustic signals emitted by the
tweeters is very important for the localization system. It
must be chosen in su ch a way to be easily identifiable in
the electrical signal received from the microphones
among other type of possible disturbances contained in
the acquired signal (such as acoustical or electromagnetic
noises). Furthermore, it must have a well limited band-
width in order to be well filtered after reception for
eliminating o ut -o f-band disturbance s.
The acoustic pulse emitted by the tweeters was chosen
in the near u ltrasou nd b and , wh ich w as p r efer red b ecaus e
many off-the-shelf sound products, in particular tweeters
and microphones, can still work sufficiently well for our
purposes around and slightly beyond the high corner of
their bandwidth. Using ready and mature technologies is
a very important aspect for a system intended to become
a widely used human-machine interface with very low
mass-production costs. Furthermore, signals emitted in
this frequency range are non-audible to humans and en-
sure the acoustic comfort of operation. However, they
can actually disturb certain kinds of animals, and this is
an issue to be solved in next prototypes using higher
The acoustic pulse signal was built using Matlab. It is
derived from the discrete anti-transform of a rectangular
signal with an open window corresponding to the fre-
quency band set for the emitted acoustic signal (17 - 40
kHz). Actually, for constructing the signal that is finally
emitted by the tweeters during system operation, only a
few samples (i.e., 120 samples) around the cen tral par t of
the whole signal were selected, while the rest of the sig-
nal was ignored because its power with respect to the
noise floor is negligible.
The emitted signal is sent at a sampling frequency of
192 kSamples/s and can be visualized in Figure 3. Its
central part shows the presence of a unique highest peak
and of two equal lowest peaks, which are easily identifi-
Figure 3. Acoustic pulse signal emitted by one tweeter.
able in the electrical signals acquired. A necessary com-
promise was made when the total number of samples
forming the acoustic pulse emitted by the tweeters, i.e.
the truncation level, was selected: its length has to be as
short as possible in order to speed up the velocity of sys-
tem operation, but at the same time sufficiently long for
an ease peak recognition in the received signal and for
preserving th e previously set bandwidth limitation.
All the computation performed by the localization
system during each localization frame, starting from the
mathematically synthesis of the acoustical signals emit-
ted by the tweeters and ending with the object display,
must run with a high repetition rate (>20 Hz) in order to
achieve a sort of “real-time” localization and tracking of
the object movement. This is obtained by optimizing all
The sampling rate of both data signals emission and
acquisition was set to the maximum sampling rate
provided by the data board module employed (i.e., 192
kSamples/s). In this way, the duration of the acoustic
pulse emitted by every tweeter is of only 0.625 ms (120
samples@192 kSamples/s, Figure 3). On the other hand,
this high operating rate is also important in order to obtain
very accurate object localization, allowing the acquisition
of highly accurate and well-shaped signals.
In order to minimize the communication overhead
between PC and data board, a unique sequence is used
during every localization frame of the system for
outputting the acoustic pulses emitted by the four tweeters.
Four different acoustic signals are constructed in Matlab
and they are sent simultaneously to the four tweeters
through the MOTU board, as shown in Figure 4. The
peaks of these signals occupy a different temporal
position, such that each tweete r emits its signal by its turn.
A time listening window for data acquisition was
determined by setting a maximum distance allowed for
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. WSN
152 R. IONESCU ET AL.
Figure 4. Sequence of the acoustic signals emitted by the
four tweeters forming the reference frame during a given
localization frame of the system.
the object movement with respect to the reference frame.
In particular, the maximum allowed distance for the
object movement was defined as being about 50 cm from
each tweeter, for which a time listening window of 20.4
ms was set (4000 samples acquired at 192 kSamples/s). In
practice, in order to allow a bigger action radius for the
object movement and to cover the whole space region,
different constellations of reference frames can be placed
at strategic positions. A suitable algorithm, which is
currently under investigation, must be applied in order to
determine from which constellation actually proceed the
signals received by the microphones.
The time interval passing between the acoustic
signals emitted by two consecutive tweeters was mini-
mized as much as possible. An important constrain that
had to be taken into account was to avoid the overlapping
of different signals that proceed from different tweeters
impinging simultaneously on the same miniature
microphone, because it would make im possible the task of
accurately determining the four times-of-flight corres-
ponding to the acoustic signals emitted by the four
tweeters. In the case of our application (i.e., object
movement up to 50 cm from each tweeter), the minimum
duration of this interval was found to be 2.6 ms (500
sample s @1 92 kSamples/s).
The data processing is conducted in parallel for all
the microphones that equip the remote object. Further-
more, signals emission, data acquisition and data proc-
essing are conducted in parallel using the Matlab envi-
ronment. Thus, while a new signal pulse sequence is
emitted to the tweeters during a given localization frame,
the object location during the previous localization frame
is computed by the software algorithm.
4.1. Data Processing
Figure 5, up, shows the data signal acquired by the data
board module from one microphone during a given lo-
calization frame, in which the ultrasound pulses emitted
by the four tweeters can be observed.
Because the audio interface connected to the computer
uses a software driver to get signals in and out of the
computer, there is an inherent latency delay in signals
emission/reception by the computer. The value of this
delay depends on the recording software, and in our case
it was found to have a constant value of about 9.5 ms
(1828 samples@192 kSamples/s sampling rate). During
signals processing, the developed software algorithm
compensates the acquired signals so that they line up
with the playback signals.
The first step of the data processing process consists in
filtering the acquired signal in order to eliminate
out-of-band disturbances and to keep only the useful
information contained in the frequency band of the
acoustic pulse emitted by the tweeters. In order to per-
form the filtering step, at first the data signal was trans-
formed from the time domain to the frequency domain
by applying the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), and then
a rectangular filter window that corresponds to the fre-
quency band of the acoustic pulse signal emitted by the
tweeters (17 - 40 kHz) was applied (Figure 6). A high
amplitude peak around 45 kHz can be observed in Fig-
ure 6. It corresponds to the disturbances produ ced by
Figure 5. Data signal capture d by one microphone during a
given localization frame (up); Filtered signal with four
defined windows corresponding to the signals emitted by the
four tweeters (middle); Normalized values of the absolute
value of the Hilbert transform computed for eac h sequence
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. WSN
R. IONESCU ET AL.
Figure 6. FFT transform of the acquired signal (continue
line); Rectangular filtering window (dashed line).
the power supply source, and its presence in the signals
acquired by the data board module is sufficiently reduced
after applying signal filtering. The filtering process is
completed by transforming back the signal obtained from
the frequency domain to the time domain.
The next step of data processing consists in determin-
ing the time-of-flight of the acoustic pulses emitted by
the four tweeters towards every individual miniature mi-
crophone equipping the object to be tracked. To this
purpose, four equal sequence windows are defined, each
one formed of 500 samples that correspond to the time
interval between the acoustic signals emitted by two
consecutive tweeters (Figure 5, middle). For calculating
very accurately the four times-of-flight, the absolute
value of the Hilbert transform of the filtered signal is
computed, which is then normalized for each one of the
four sequ ence windows (Figure 5, down).
The presence of echoes or environmental noise in the
acquired signal is very likely to produce peaks of con-
siderable intensity. In or der to avo id recognizin g a wr ong
signal, a threshold value (set to 0.8, Figure 5, down) is
defined, and for each sequence window the position of
the first sample having an amplitude superior to the
threshold value is selected.
The distances between every pair microphone/tweeter
are finally calculated using Equation 1. The offset dis-
tance loffset was experimentally measured, and it was
found to be approximately 2.4 cm. In an indoor envi-
ronment, the speed of sound in air depends significantly
only on the environmental temperature, while the at-
mospheri c p ressure is n eg ligible :
331 51273 15
where cair is the speed of sound in air and T is the envi-
ronmental temperature expressed in ˚C.
Once calculated the four distances between a given
microphone and the four tweeters forming the reference
system, the position of the microphone is computed, as
explained above, using Equations 2 and 3. For testing if
the localization of the microphone is correct, Equation 4
is applied, in which the threshold value was set to 4 mm
that we determined to be small enough to fulfil our re-
quirements in terms of an accurate localization of the
microphone. If the number of correctly localized micro-
phones during the given localization frame is enough in
order to represent the shape of the object, the data proc-
essing during the respective localization frame ends with
displaying the object on the computer screen.
4.2. Experimental Applications
The accuracy of the microphones localization was inves-
tigated at first. For performing this analysis, a single mi-
crophone was placed at different angular positions and
distances with respect to the reference frame formed by
the four tweeters. The microphone was maintained still
in each one of these positions for 1000 localization
frames of the operating system. The accuracy of the mi-
crophone coordinates localization on the three Cartesian
axes over the 1000 localization frames were found to be
always below 2 mm.
Different experiments were next performed in order to
demonstrate the robustness of the localization system
developed for the real-time localization and tracking of
objects movement. These experiments are presented in
the following paragraphs. For a better visualization, the
real-time localization and/or tracking of the object
movement was graphically plotted.
a) “Sword” equipped with three miniature micro-
The first experiment performed had as objective to
represent the real-time movement of a sword-like object.
For doing this, an ad hoc structure was built, and four
microphones were mounted in suitable places on the
structure (Figure 7, left). It is important to note that the
geometrical reconstruction of the virtual object (i.e., the
virtual sword) did not intend to reproduce the real shape
of the built structure. Instead, the length of the virtual
sword, as well as the dimensions of its hilt, were defined
in the software algorithm as arbitrary variables whose
values can be freely set. In Figure 7, it can be appreci-
ated a comparison between the real structure built and
the geometrical structure of the virtual sword computed
and displayed by the software.
The sword-like object has 6 degrees of freedom, so
that knowing the positions of only three out of the four
microphones employed to describe the object, the shape
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. WSN
154 R. IONESCU ET AL.
Figure 7. Realized structure of the sword-like object
equipped with four miniature microphones represented by
black circles (left); Virtual sword geometrically constructed
from microphones positions (right).
and the current po sition of the virtual sword in the space
region can be computed by applying a 3D extrapolation.
However, the object was super-defined by using a higher
number of microphones than the strictly necessary one
for defining it. By doing this, we avoid that the erroneous
localization of one of the microphones, due to the unde-
sired obstruction of microphone surface by the person
handling the real structure, would compromise the cor-
rect visualisation during some frames of the real-time
The graphical representation of the virtual sword
computed at a given time instant during the experiment
performed can be visualized in Figure 8 from different
This experiment has an obvious practical application
in the field of the video-game consoles. The shape of
other virtual rigid body object can be geometrically con-
structed using either the structure that we built, or build-
ing different ones.
b) Glove equipped with ten microphones.
The visualisation of the real-time movement of a hu-
man hand was the challenging goal of the next experi-
Figure 8. Experimental representation of the current posi-
tion of the virtual sword from different view angles.
ment performed. A special glove was realized for this
purpose using two cotton gloves and ten miniature mi-
crophones. The microphones were inserted between two
superimposed gloves. The two gloves were chosen very
soft and thin, such that not to represent an unpleasant
discomfort for the person wearing them. Nine micro-
phones were glued in strategic positions as indicated in
Figure 9: they were placed in positions corresponding to
the five fingers of the hand: five of them ahead the tips
of the fingers, and other four on the finger bones of the
thumb, index, middle and ring fingers, respectively. No
microphone was placed on the finger bone of the little
finger only because of the restriction of the total numbers
of microphones signals that can be simultaneously ac-
quired by the data acquisition board employed (10 in
total). Instead, for a better intuitive representation of the
shape of the human hand, the placement of the tenth mi-
crophone at the base of the palm of the hand was pre-
ferred. The dashed lines in Figure 9 were plotted for an
Figure 9. Glove equipped with ten miniature microphones
represented by black circles.
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. WSN
R. IONESCU ET AL.
Figure 10. Experimental representation of two different
positions of the hand.
Figure 11. Freehand “air” hand-writing using the virtual
indicative visualization purpose only.
The glove is worn so that the miniature microphones
are situated in the part corresponding to the palm of the
hand. In absence of any degree of redundancy, the palm
of the hand must be held facing the reference frame in
order to avoid obstructing the path of the acoustic signals
emitted by the tweeters in their way to the microphones.
Anyway, this does not constitute any inconvenience in
practice, because it represents the comfortable position
of the hand during natural movements of man-machine
The graphical representation of two different positions
of the hand during the experiment performed can be seen
in Figure 10. Although it was out of the aim of our ex-
periment, the geometrical reconstruction of the hand
could allow for a better intuitive visualization of the
shape of t he hand.
As different movements and positions of the hand can
be captured using this glove, this could find remarkable
applications in the field of domotics and in any field
where the natural manipulation of virtual 3D objects is
The last experiment performed was aimed to show the
accuracy in trajectory tracking achieved by the system
realized. In particular, it demonstrates the possibility to
realize a real-time and coherent handwriting in air by
means of freehand trajectories described by the miniature
A virtual pen was thus described by means of two
miniature microphones placed on the tip of the thumb
and index fingers of the hand, respectively. The writing
tip of the virtual pen was computed as the mean distance
between the two microphones. During the experiment, if
the distance between the two microphones is made
shorter than a threshold value (here set to 1.5 cm), i.e. the
two finger tips approach as they are holding a pen, the
virtual pen “writes”, while if this distance is made long er
than the threshold value, the virtual pen “skips writing”.
Normal word sequences can be written just playing with
the distance between the tips of thumb and index fingers.
The experimental freehand “air” handwriting of “hello
world !” using t he virt ual pen i s show n in Fi gure 11.
A localization system based on airborne ultrasounds ca-
pable of localizing several position markers with
sub-centimeter accuracy at a rate of about 25 Hz using
off-the-shelf audio components was designed, realized
and characterised. The accuracy obtained by our system
was below 2 mm in all the three spatial d irections within
a range of about 50 cm.
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. WSN
156 R. IONESCU ET AL.
Different experiments performed showed that the lo-
calization system that we developed allows the real time
localization and tracking of the movement of any remote
object that does not deform significantly its shape when
it is externally manipulated. The proposed system
showed a positioning and trajectory tracking accuracy
good enough to make it possible a straightforward reali-
zation of a gestural interface, which is currently under
investigation. At the best of the authors’ knowledge, in
literature there are no similar localization systems, con-
cerning localization rate and position accuracy. Very
promising applications of the localization method here
proposed are in the field of gestural interfaces, limb and
body movement tracking for medical applications or
video game consoles, just to name a few.
Further work will consist in the implementation of
wireless communication for the microphones. Higher
frequencies, non-audible for the whole variety of living
beings, will be used in the next prototypes employing
R. Ionescu gratefully acknowledges a postdoctoral fel-
lowship funded by the European Commission under the
Marie Curie Transfer of Knowledge (TOK) Program
(contract no. MTKD-CT-2006-042269). The authors
gratefully acknowledge the support of Pentasonics S.r.l.,
 H. Zhou, Y. Yuan, Y. Zhang and C. Shi, “Non-Rigid
Object Tracking in Complex Scenes,” Pattern Recogni-
tion Letters, Vol. 30, No. 2, 2009, pp. 98-102.
 Z. Zivkovic and B. Kröse, “An EM-Like Algorithm for
Color-Histogram-Based Object Tracking,” Proceedings
of the 2004 IEEE Computer Society Conference on
Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, Washington,
27 June-2 July 2004, pp. 798-803.
 L. Peihua, “A Clustering-Based Color Model and Integral
Images for Fast Object Tracking,” Signal Processing:
Image Communication, Vol. 21, No. 8, 2006, pp. 676-687.
 S. Valette, I. Magnin and R. RémyProst, “Mesh-Based
Video Objects Tracking Combining Motion and Lumi-
nance Discontinuities Criteria,” Signal Processing, Vol.
84, No. 7, 2004, pp. 1213-1224.
 D. Greenhill, J. Renno, J. Orwell and G. A. Jones, “Oc-
clusion Analysis: Learning and Utilising Depth Maps in
Object Tracking,” Image and Vision Computing, Vol. 26,
No. 3, 2008, pp. 430-441.
 J. Jeyakar, R. V. Babu and K. R. Ramakrishnan, “Robust
Object Tracking with Background-Weighted Local Ker-
nels,” Computer Vision and Image Understanding, Vol.
112, No. 3, 2008, pp. 296-309.
 R. Marfil, L. Molina-Tanco, J. A. Rodríguez and F.
Sandoval, “Real-Time Object Tracking Using Bounded
Irregular Pyramids,” Pattern Recognition Letters, Vol. 28,
No. 9, 2007, pp. 985-1001.
 M. S. Allili and D. Ziou, “Object Tracking in Videos Using
Adaptive Mixture Models and Active Contours,” Neuro-
computing, Vol. 71, No. 10-12, 2008, pp. 2001-2011.
 J. S. Hu, C. W. Juan and J. J. Wang, “A Spatial-Color
Mean-Shift Object Tracking Algorithm with Scale and
Orientation Estimation,” Pattern Recognition Letters, Vol.
29, No. 16, 2008, pp. 2165-2173.
 S. Colantonio, M. Benvenuti, M. G. Di Bono, G. Pieri
and O. Salvetti, “Object Tracking in a Stereo and Infrared
Vision System,” Infrared Physics & Technology, Vol. 49,
No. 3, 2007, pp. 266-271.
 J. Shaik and K. M. Iftekharuddin, “Detection and Track-
ing of Targets in Infrared Images Using Bayesian Tech-
niques,” Optics & Laser Technology, Vol. 41, No. 6,
2009, pp. 832-842. doi:10.1016/j.optlastec.2008.11.007
 A. Treptow, G. Cielniak and T. Duckett, “Real-Time
People Tracking for Mobile Robots Using Thermal Vi-
sion,” Robotics and Autonomous Systems, Vol. 54, No. 9,
2006, pp. 729-739. doi:10.1016/j.robot.2006.04.013
 J. Zhoua and J. Shi, “Performance Evaluation of Object
Localization Based on Active Radio Frequency Identifi-
cation Technology,” Computers in Industry, Vol. 60, No.
9, 2009, pp. 669-676.
 J. Song, C. T. Haas and C. H. Caldas, “A Proximity-
Based Method for Locating RFID Tagged Objects,” Ad-
van ced Engineering Informatics, Vol. 21, No. 4, 2007, pp.
 Laitinen, J. Lahteenmaki and T. Nordstrom, “Database
Correlation Method for GSM Location,” Proceedings of
the 53rd IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, Rhodes,
6-9 May 2001, pp. 2504-2508.
 M. Berbineau, C. Tatkeu, J. P. Ghys and J. Rioult, “Lo-
calisation de Véhicules en Milieu Urbain par GSM Oura-
diogoniométrie Vehicle Self-Positioning in Urban Using
or Radiogoniometer,” Recherche-Transports-Sécurité,
Vol. 61, 1998, pp. 38-52.
 A. Varshavsky, E. de Lara, J. Hightower, A. LaMarca
and V. Otsason, “GSM Indoor Localization,” Pervasive
and Mobile Computing, Vol. 3, No. 6, 2007, pp. 698-720.
 M. Vossiek, L. Wiebking, P. Gulden, J. Wieghardt, C.
Hoffmann and P. Heide, “Wireless Local Positioning,”
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. WSN
R. IONESCU ET AL.
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. WSN
IEEE Microwave Magazine, Vol. 4, No. 4, 2003, pp.
 M. Lu, W. Chen, X. S. Shen, H. C. Lam and J. Liu, “Po-
sitioning and Tracking Construction Vehicles in High
Dense Urban Areas and Building Construction Sites,”
Automation in Construction, Vol. 16, No. 5, 2007, pp.
 H. M. Khoury and V. R. Kamat, “Evaluation of Position
Tracking Technologies for User Localization in Indoor
Construction Environments,” Automation in Construction,
Vol. 18, No. 4, 2009, pp. 444-457.
 A. Huhtala, K. Suhonen, P. Mäkelä, M. Hakojärvi and J.
Ahokas, “Evaluation of Instrumentation for Cow Posi-
tioning and Tracking Indoors,” Biosystems Engineering,
Vol. 96, No. 3, 2007, pp. 399-405.
 X. Shen, W. Chen and M. Lu, “Wireless Sensor Net-
works for Resources Tracking at Building Construction
Sites,” Tsinghua Science & Technology, Vol. 13, Sup-
plement 1, 2008, pp. 78-83.
 B. S. Choi, J. W. Lee, J. J. Lee and K. T. Park, “Distrib-
uted Sensor Network Based on RFID System for Local-
ization of Multiple Mobile Agents,” Wireless Sensor
Network, Vol. 3, 2011, pp. 1-9.
 J. M. Valin, F. Michaud and J. Rouat, “Robust Localiza-
tion and Tracking of Simultaneous Moving Sound
Sources using Beamforming and Particle Filtering,” Ro-
bot ics a nd Autonomous Systems, Vol. 55, No. 3, 2007, p p.
 Q. H. Wang, T. Ivanov and P. Aarabi, “Acoustic Robot
Navigation Using Distributed Microphone Arrays,” In-
formation Fusion, Vol. 5, No. 2, 2004, pp. 131-140.
 A. Harter, A. Hopper, P. Steggles, A. Ward and P. Web-
ster, “The Anatomy of a Context-Aware Application,”
Wireless Networks, Vol. 8, No. 2-3, 2002, pp. 187-197.
 F. Tong, S. K. Tso and T. Z. Xu, “A High Precision Ul-
trasonic Docking System Used for Automatic Guided
Vehicle,” Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, Vol. 118,
No. 2, 2005, pp. 183-189. doi:10.1016/j.sna.2004.06.026
 A. Smith, H. Balakrishnan, M. Goraczko and N. Priyan-
tha, “Tracking Moving Devices with the Cricket Location
System,” 2nd International Conference on Mobile Sys-
tems, Applications and Services, Boston, 6-9 June 2004.
 H. Schweinzer and G. Kaniak, “Ultrasonic Device Local-
ization and its Potential for Wireless Sensor Network
Security,” Control Engineering Practice, Vol. 18, No. 8,
2010, pp. 825-86 2. doi:10.1016/j.conengprac.2008.12.007
 M. Hazas and A. Ward, “A Novel Broadband Ultrasonic
Location System,” Proceedings of UbiComp 2002: 4th
International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing,
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Goteborg, September
2002, pp. 264-280.
 M. Hazas and A. Ward, “A High Performance Pri-
vacy-Oriented location System,” Proceedings of the First
IEEEInternational Conference on Pervasive Computing
and Communications, Fort Worth, 23-26 March 2004, pp.
 R. Carotenuto, R. Ionescu, P. Tripodi and F. Urbani,
“Three Dimensional Gestural Interface,” 2009 IEEE Ul-
trasonics Symposium, Rome, 20-23 September 2009, pp.
 L. Girod and D. Estrin, “Robust Range Estimation Using
Acoustic and Multimodal Sensing,” Proceedings of 2001
IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots
and Systems, Maui, 29 October-3 November, 2001, pp.
 D. A. Bohn, “Environmental Effects on the Speed of
Sound,” Journal of the Audio Engineering Society, Vol.
36, No. 4, 1988, pp. 223-231.