Sociology Mind
2011. Vol.1, No.2, 74-80
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. DOI:10.4236/sm.2011.12009
New Value-Behavioral Structures and Hierarchies in the
Technical Academic Education in the Context of Romania
Integration in the European Union
Tiron Elena
Department of Teacher Training, Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iasi, Iasi, Romania.
Received February 10th, 2011; revised March 1st, 2011; accepted March 15th, 2011.
The work is structured in 4 parts: I. Conceptual differentiations: value, belief, norm, mentality, attitude, interest,
opinion, need, behavior; II. Restructuring scheme of the personality axiological components in a determined
context; III. Professional values in the technical academic education: identification and hierarchy; IV. Conclu-
sions. In the first part, there are made conceptual differentiations between the notions of belief, norm, mentality,
attitude, interest, opinion, need, behavior, emphasizing thus on mutual aspects. In the second part of the paper,
there is presented the global structuring of the axiological universe, the determinant factors of the value hierar-
chy change in a given social-economic context, there is elaborated a new re-structuring scheme of the value
components, there are identified specific mechanisms to the present Romanian society resistant to the value au-
thentic change. In the third part, there is described D. E. Super’s theory that stands at the basis of the elaboration
of the Professional Value Inventory. This was applied in our research on a sample of 120 students from the two
technical faculties, getting thus a certain professional values hierarchy. The conclusions emphasize the confir-
mation of the two hypothesis, the extrinsic motivating factors of the professional choice, behaviors and attitudes
definition, values through immediate, material profit, of the individual welfare.
Keywords: Value Hierarchy Change, Professional Values, D. E. Super’s Theory, Technical Academic Education
Conceptual Differentiations: Value, Belief, Norm,
Mentality, Attitude, Interest, Opinion, Need,
The term value is specific to philosophy, being the core of
one of its sub-branches: axiology that studies genesis, structure,
interaction, knowledge, accomplishment, hierarchy and func-
tions of the values in social life, the correlation among them,
and the dynamic of the value systems.
In explaining the meanings we give to the term value, an es-
sential role belongs to:the people’s purposes, projects,
wishes, intentions the creative activity from every field the
social relationship by which there is filtered the importance of
the created products for that society. The valorization act is
constituted at the level of social awareness, having priority
compared to the preference acts that take place at the level of
individual awareness, although it is realized only by this.
Each epoch, each social organization, each social class, each
social community admits a certain value system. The historical
and social changes amend both the valorization criteria and the
ones of the value hierarchy. The axiological criteria are dy-
namic, they change according to a dialectic that is determined
by the evolution of the social-global system. The value presents
poly (good-evil, beautiful-ugly, right-wrong) and degrees which
lead to a disjunction between the positive and negative values
and the set-up of a value hierarchic order variable for each so-
cial group or class.
At the same time, there are general-human values without
which the human life together isn’t possible. Value creation
always involves going beyond the present, inferring the devel-
opment sense of other fields of the social life.
From the psychological point of view, the problematic of
value and valorization is extremely complex. That is why we
consider necessary to analyze comparatively the meanings of
the term value, making the necessary references to the concept-
tions with deeper psychological load both from a social point of
view and of the individual: belief, norm, mentality, attitude,
interest, opinion, need, behavior. The first terms of belief, norm,
mentality have a psycho-sociologic shade more intense, and the
others are more shaped from a psychological point of view.
The term belief means determined opinion, strong conviction,
subjective certainty on a fact or relationship that is obvious, and
sometimes can not even be proved. The social norm is consid-
ered a rule that prescribes accepted behavior by a collectivity
or by an institution. Mentality is defined as an organizing man-
ner of the intellectual activity, considered from the point of
view of the logical structures, and of the affective directing
values, as the convictions and beliefs are. Attitude represents
the relatively constant activity to relate the individual or the
group to certain aspects of the social life and to his person,
orienting-regulatory structure belonging to the person’s system
or to the sintality. Interest is defined as a correspondence report
between the internal demands subject’s tendencies and a series
of objects and actions, so that the subject orients himself ac-
tively and of his own initiative towards those objects and ac-
tions, and these present a major importance for the subject,
attract him and give him satisfaction. Public opinion is psy-
cho-social phenomenon which content is given by the general-
ized appreciation of a collectivity. Need had to be understood
as the personality energetic-pulsatory dimension, subjective
that is at the bases of this dynamics.
Behavior is the complex of the adaptable reactions, object-
tively-observable, that an organism having nervous system exe-
cutes as a response to the environment stimuli that are also
objectively-observable.( According to the Psychology Diction-
ary, Albatros Publishing House, 1978).
From the comparative analysis of these terms we notice that:
they all refer to a relationship, to a report between objec-
tive and subjective, between individual, person with his de-
mands and subjectivity and environment, psycho-social con-
the analyzed terms express the degree of correspondence,
appreciations, valence of the subjective aspects in relationship
with the objective ones;
the meanings of these terms are cognitive, affective, voli-
Belief has a strong affective-volitional characteristic, norm is
mainly volitional, mentality is cognitive-affective, attitude is
orienting-regulatory, behavior is volitional-active.
From this results the importance of the psycho-social context,
of the social-historical period when we analyze these concepts.
The relationship among these concepts is emphasized by sev-
eral authors. Allport defined attitude as a neural and mental
status, organized through experience that exercises a dynamics
on the individual’s response to all the objects and situations he
is related with.
Considering that attitude is an indispensable concept both in
social psychology and of the personality, M. Rocheach under-
stands attitude as a durable organization of the convictions
about an object or about a situation predisposing the person to
respond in a preferential manner. R. Linton refers to the atti-
tudes-value system. Once set in the individual, attitudinal-value
systems act automatically and mostly subconsciously. Empha-
sizing the value content and the evaluative function of the atti-
tude, Kretch (1962) defined the emotional feelings as a system
of positive or negative values, with tendentious actions, pro or
against that regard the social object. The ethnologists prove
convincingly that the attitudes are acquired, learned, and al-
though their stability they are susceptible to modifications un-
der the influence of circumstances and by recurrent effects of
exercising them. G. H. Mead, A. Kardiner, R. Linton proved
attitude formation by acquiring cultural models. V. A. Measis-
cev insists on the fact that attitude disposes of an inciting-ori-
enting component, of a selective-evaluative one and of an ef-
fectory component, strongly operative. Kretch - distinguishes
attitudes: simple, uni-dimensional and multi-dimensional, those
are to be found at a heterogeneous group of objects. Taking into
consideration the correlation between attitudes, their organiza-
tion in hierarchic systems, they can be: central and periphery,
dominant and subordinate.
Depending on their stability and strength degrees, the atti-
tudes enter in the character system as its components.
The attitude changes are appreciated according to the pa-
rameters of: complexity, constancy, inter-relationship, conso-
nance, value position, motivational intensity.
Restructuring Scheme of the Axiological
Components of the Personality in a Determined
Value, attitude and interest problematic reflected in the in-
ternational psycho-sociological research from the past 5 years
emphasizes certain trends: inter-changeability of these concepts,
but also their differentiation in structural constellations, mainly
socio-cultural genesis of the phenomena reflected by these con-
cepts, mechanisms of value-attitudinal structures introversion,
central-integrative functions, but also evaluative of the values
in the personality configuration, factors of attitudinal change. P.
Ilut (2004) realizes an analogy between the factorial hierarchic
personality structure and the person’s axiological profile, set-
ting the values as general principles about desideratum, in the
center and above, these being transcribed in norms and attitudes,
and the attitudes being specified and expressed in opinions. The
central role of the values in the personality axiological structure
is divided both in older studies as well as in modern actual re-
Thus for this second instance, P. Smith and S. Schwartz
(1997) identify five more important aspects of the values:
1) Values are ideas, but not cold ones, but infused with sen-
2) They refer to desideratum purposes and to behavior ways
by which those purposes are promoted;
3) Values transcend specific actions and situations;
4) They are ordered both at society level as well as at the in-
dividual level, forming value systems;
In the issue of the value genesis and nature, it is reiterated the
report universalism-contextualism described in philosophy,
anthropology, social psychology in previous studies and re-
searches. R. Boudon (1994) considers that the cognitive ap-
proach, of neo-Weber nature can solve the epistemic tension
between universal and contextual in the axiological problematic.
The cognitive solution proposed by Boudon refers to the corre-
lation between a certain axiological rationality and the value-
moral options of the social actors according to the types of
situations. The researcher’s task is to re-construct the people’s
value judgments, in the actual living of their lives. Continuing
this idea, Tirhas (2003) introduces the concept of multimodal
personality in opposition with the older notion of modal per-
sonality. In the context of a certain society, the modal personal-
ity that would represent the most frequent personality type is
difficult to confirm from the experimental point of view (A.
Wallace, 1952). Tirhas shows that post-modern societies are
built for the same socio-cultural space in several personality
types, the society having a multimodal personality. But this
doesn’t induce chaos and essential contradictions in the context
of the axiological social and individual context. P. Ilut sustains
the global structuring of the axiological universe in the follow-
ing levels:
1) general-human values,
2) values of a socio-political system,
3) values belonging to a certain culture and ethnicity,
4) values of the big and middle-sized social groups (social
classes, professions),
5) values of micro-groups,
6) individual values.
The phenomenological problem, but also of research consists
in the homogeneity/heterogeneity of the personality axiology-
cal structure, in the relationships and hierarchies that are estab-
lished between these types of values according to different
criteria at the society and individual.
The attitudes and interests are at a subordinate level to values
and norms, having a pre-dispositional constant, evaluative and
pragmatic character. R. Baron and D. Byrne (2000) use in their
social psychological text book for the concept of social cogni-
tion the verb to think about the social world, and for attitudes
the verb to evaluate the social world. Chelcea (1994) sustains
that attitudes represent a person’s or a group’s positions to ac-
cept or reject, with a higher or lower intensity, objects, phe-
nomena or persons, groups, institutions, etc. Attitudes are
formed by social and observational learning (Bandura), by so-
cial comparison (Festinger), by reflexivity and analysis.
Thus when the issue of changing value structures and hier-
archies is formulated, in certain periods of passage from one
social-political system to another, the change starts with prag-
matic components, interests, attitudes, in order to stabilize at
the superior axiological value level. Petty and Wegennen (1998)
realize in this respect the scheme of the general structure of the
interaction between the attitudinal change factors. They identify
the mutual interaction relationship among the change source,
the transmitted message, the target receptor and the context as
well as the determination of the affective, cognitive and behav-
ioral processes from this interaction. But the attitudinal change
faces many obstacles as for example: selective exposure, source
credibility depreciation, message distortion, replacement, atti-
tudinal reactive polarization, etc. Attitudinal change is opposed
the resistance to change, that is also localized at the level of the
source, of the message, of the receptor, of the change context. I.
Caccioppo (1996) shows that the change efficiency depends on
the degree in which the subjects elaborate cognitive responses
to the message. He considers that there are two elaboration
itineraries to these responses: - central itinerary that it is char-
acterized by the fact that the receptors analyze and interpret the
arguments strength, - periphery itinerary, when the receptors
relate themselves to external aspects, of attractiveness, at the
form of the message, at the circumstances in which they receive
the message.
In socio-historical periods of radical transformations, in so-
cial, economic, cultural, scanty situations, there appear attitu-
dinal confusions, there develop impression motivations (Chai-
ken, 1996), divergences among values, attitudes, interests and
behavior. In this respect, Sears and colleagues (1991) elaborate
a model of the thought action referring to the more flexible
relationship attitude behavior and that prepares the value
change. The behavioral change is understood as a deliberate
change that depends on one’s own attitudes, but also on the
introverted social norms, and at the end on the evaluation of the
behavioral consequences by the subject, on the probability of
these consequences, on the behavior approval by important
persons to the subject.
Relating ourselves to the definition and structuring of the
value-attitudinal components in the specialized literature (S.
Schwartz, P. Smith, 1997, P. Ilut, 2004), we propose the fol-
lowing re-structuring scheme of the axiological components in
Figure 1.
As far as the cognitive approach that R. Boudon (1994) pro-
poses to solve the universalism-contextualism dilemma in the
field of axiological phenomena, we consider that all axiological
systems have a hard, trans-societal core of general-human
values and specific value-attitudinal components, that are built
by introversion mechanisms of the society demands, at the level
of social groups, institutions and persons.
At the present transition level of the Romanian society, we
consider that there can be efficiently applied Kohlberg’s Model,
with the three development levels of morality: preconventional,
Figure 1.
The scheme of the axiological components.
conventional and post-conventional. The Romanian transition
society is at the pre-conventional level, when the morality is
under the sign of personal gratification. Personal interests, no
matter if they are convergent or divergent with the group ones,
are during this period a priority to the collective interests. Per-
sonal gratification and obtaining some rewards are considered
by us to be the psycho-social mechanisms that justify the
pre-conventional level where the morality of the Romanian
society is.
During the re-evaluation and re-constructing process of the
value-attitudinal structures, specific to the democratic societies
is the value pluralism. But due to its specific context, Roma-
nian society is at the level of the value relativism, of the value
crisis, of the value confusion. The value instrumental func-
tions, the ones utilitarian-narrow are predominant in the Roma-
nian society as well as in the Western society of the 60s (D.
Social learning faces great non-functionalities because of the
scanty models, unknown to the Romanian cultural-religious
spirit, but also because of the Romanian axiological space de-
formed by Communism. The specific mechanisms to the Ro-
manian society resistant to change are: foreign models inocula-
tion, non-critical assimilation, extreme attitudinal polarization
that lead to value confusion, decrease of the exactingness of the
educational factors, reactivity that is concretized in negative
attitudes towards change.
During this axiological confusion period, the pupils and the
students of the technical educationwe can say thatuse ac-
cording to I. Caccioppo’ conception (2000) more the periphery
itinerary than the central one, elaborating cognitive responses
based on appearances, form and circumstances.
But many social psychology researches show that stress
moves from the instrumental needs and values to the expressive
ones, from the institutional self to the intimate one (Mynatt and
Doherty, 2002), when the biological and social certainty needs
(A. Maslow) are satisfied, and the institutions work normally.
We consider that these are the solutions also for the Romanian
society. The value-attitudinal change is possible, but on long
term, as a consequence of the economic, socio-political and
educational factors convergence.
Professional Values in the Technical Academic
Education: Identification and Hierarchy
At the basis of the value identification and hierarchy, gener-
ally and of the professional values especially, there stand sev-
eral researches that lead to the elaboration of some different
theories and concepts:theories about the personality charac-
teristics and factors, Parsons (1909), Kitson (1925), Hull (1928),
psych-analytical theories about career, Hendrik (1943), R.
Foser (1953) Malning (1967), Neff (1968), theories about
psychological needs and of the personality values Murray
(1938), Maslow (1954), Darley and Hogenah (1955), Wolf
(1970),theories about social systems, C. Miller, W. H. Form
(1951), T. Caplow (1954), M. Harmany (1964), W. H. Sewell
and R. M. Hauser (1975), theories about the development of
the self concept, C. Buchler (1933), E. Gingsberg and his col-
laborators (1951), J. Samler (1953), R. Happock (1957), C. H.
Miller (1974), that include G. W. Allport, D. E. Super, E. H.
Erikson and P. Lazarsfeld’s ideas, theories about career plan-
ning (management of the professional career) (Ion Murgescu,
E. D. Super is the one who proposed the theory of the devel-
opment of self concept, applied to the behaviors specific to the
professional choice. The individual’s options are influenced by
self image and information about the jobs world. The option for
a certain profession is not just a decision moment, but also a
process and a succession of intermediary choices made in dif-
ferent life moments and related to various levels of growth and
development and ability, aptitude and skill exercising, in vari-
ous lifestyle situations. The professional orientation is for Super
the process by which a person is supported to develop and ac-
cept a complete and adequate image about the self and about
the his/her role in the labor world and is helped to test this role
in front of the reality, in order to obtain the self satisfaction also
in the best interest of the society.
From the theory analysis those results that the counseling and
orientation services need to have a continuous character during
the individual’s evolution especially in the steps before the
great decisions: the choice of the school, of the profession, of
the work place, in the moment of re-qualification and retire-
This theory is built around 14 statements:
Statement 1: People are different by their capacities and
personality, by their needs, interests, characteristics and con-
ceptions about self.
The conception about the self is defining for all the life roles,
being part of this also the professional role in a certain career.
Statement 2: People are qualified in the virtue of these char-
acteristics for several professions.
Statement 3: Each statement needs a certain specific model
of personal qualities and features, with a quite big tolerance in
order to afford a certain variety of individuals for each profess-
These two statements are optimist as far as the people varied
possibilities to have several professions, occupational multi-
determination starting from the same quality complex, but also
from different quality systems for the same profession.
Statement 4: Professional preferences and competences, the
situations in which people live and work and as a consequence
their conception about the self, are modified in time and with
experience, although self conceptions as a product of social
experience are more and stable starting with the end of ado-
lescence and to the late maturity, providing a certain continuity
in options and adaptations.
Statement 5: This change process can be added to s series of
life stages (a maxi-cycle) characterized a sequence-growth-ex-
ploration-stabilization-maintenance-disengagement and these
stages can be sub-divided at their turn into periods character-
ized by certain supposed development tasks. A small cycle
(mini-cycle) there appears in the career transition period from
one stage to another when a individual’s career is destabilized
because of a disease or an accident, of staff reduction, social
changes, in the needs of human resources or other socio-eco-
nomic or personal events. Such an unstable career implies a
re-cycling, a new growth, re-exploration and re-stabilization
Statements 4 and 5 explain the preferences and professional
competences dynamics as a consequence of the life experience
and thus as a consequence also the career change possibility
from one stage to another of even of the profession.
Statement 6: Career model nature, that is the occupational
reached level and the succession, frequency and trials of the
jobs is determined by the socio-economic level of that person’s
parents, by the mental capacity, education, personal qualities
and characteristics (needs, values, interests, self conception)
and career maturity, as well as the opportunities to which the
person is exposed.
Socio-economic life environment, cultural and education
context, person’s features, values and self conception have an
essential role in the career choice, keeping and change.
Statement 7: The success before the environment and organ-
isms demands depends in all the career stages on the individ-
ual’s availability to comply with these demands (in the maturity
period of his career).
The career success cannot be obtained without the person’s
availability to make efforts to comply with the high demands of
his career.
Statement 8: Career maturity is a psychosocial concept that
designates an individual’s development degree during the con-
tinuous evolution represented by the life levels and sub-levels
from growth to disengagement. From the social or society per-
spective, career maturity can be defined operationally by com-
paring the development tasks with which the individual con-
fronts to the ones the people around him expect to be fulfilled
by him in certain stages of chronologic age. From the psycho-
logical perspective, career maturity is operationally defined by
comparing the resources of which the individual disposes both
from the cognitive and affective point of view in order to com-
ply with a current task, with the necessary resources in order to
solve that task.
Career maturity is seen both from the social point of view as
a report between the person’s possibilities and the expectations
of the persons around him to solve the tasks, as well as from the
psychological point of view as a report between the person’s
resources and the resources necessary to solve that task.
Statement 9: Development in various lifetime stages can be
directed partly by facilitating qualities and interests maturation
and partly by the help given in testing reality and self concept-
tion evolution.
Self conception evolution is considered the lever of the per-
son’s development and of his career.
Statement 10: Career development process is essentially the
evolution and implementation of the occupational concepts
about the self. This represents a synthesizing and compromise
process where the self conception is a product of the interact-
ion between inherited aptitudes, physical building, opportunity
to notice and play different roles, and evaluation of the extent
in which the play role results receive the approval of the supe-
riors and generation colleagues.
Flexible interaction between the person’s aptitudes, her qua-
lities and the availability to play different play roles lead to
career development.
Statement 11: The synthesizing process or the compromise
between the individual and social factor, between the own con-
cepts and the reality is a role play and of learning by feed-back,
no matter is the role is played in fantasy, in a counseling inter-
view or in real life activities as classes, part-time, volunteer
work, etc.
Social learning, in school, in a counseling process or in real
life realizes the compromise between the social and individual
Statement 12: Satisfaction offered by work and satisfaction
in life depend on the extent in which the individual finds the
adequate modalities to express the qualities, needs, values,
interests and features of his personality and of the self concept-
tion. Satisfaction depends also on the stabilization of a certain
work type and lifestyle in which he can play the role the indi-
vidual considers fit and adequate to his personality.
If by his profession the individual manages to implement the
self conception, this offers him satisfaction.
Statement 13: The satisfaction degree that the people get
from the work made is proportional to the extent in which they
are able to implement their self conceptions.
This statement reinforces the role of the self conception in
obtaining a higher degree of work satisfaction.
Statement 14: Work and profession involve an attention
given to personality organization for most men and women,
although in the case of certain individuals this attention is pe-
ripherical, incidental or even inexistent. Other elements can be
essential in these cases, for example spare time activities or
those related to the housekeeping. Social traditions as for ex-
ample modeling the stereotypes based on sex, ethnical and
racial differences and opportunity structure as well as individ-
ual differences represent important determinants of the prefer-
ences for the role of student, worker, holiday maker, family
member and citizen.
Super shows that the role of work is absolutely fundamental
in the case of most of the persons.
Professional values constitute a sub-system in the personality
axiological system: they refer to the particular aspects of the
professional activity that are more or less desired (Super, 1970).
According to some thorough psycho-sociological researches
for two decades, D. E. Super identifies 15 professional values.
Here is the way they are presented in the work “Etude de
l’inventaire des valeurs professionelles” (“Study of the Profes-
sional Values Inventory”) by M. Huteau and D. Pouzols
1) Altruism: “the possibility to contribute at others’ welfare”.
Altruism allows the oriented evaluation towards social services.
The obtained score is, most probably, influenced by social de-
2) Aesthetic values: values that manifest themselves in the
activities that “allow making some aesthetic objects and con-
tributing to embellish the world” we live in. Aesthetic values
are associated to artistic and handcrafting interests.
3) Intellectual stimulation: associated value to “a profession
that offers the opportunity of an autonomous reflection and
gives the possibility of continuous learning”. The persons who
have interest for scientific activities of abstract type obtain high
scores at this professional dimension.
4) Professional success: value that reflects a profession ap-
preciation that gives the individuals the feeling of satisfaction
for the thing well done. This dimension expresses the orienta-
tion to the activities with tangible, visible results.
5) Independence: value associated to professions that allow
to work according to one’s own planning, in the rhythm set by
the individual. Social desirability tends to reduce the score at
this dimension.
6) Prestige: value attached to “professions that confer im-
portance to those who exercise them and impose respect”. This
dimension reflects the interest for professions that involve busi-
ness relationships.
7) Leadership: value that manifests in the “professions that
give the possibility to plan and organize others’ work”.
8) Economic advantages: value that reflects the orientation
towards better paid professions. It is possible that in the present
transition situation to the market economy, the score at this
direction to be higher.
9) Professional certainty: value associated to “professions
in which the individual has the certainty of keeping his job”.
This dimension in the present conditions from Romania, when
the unemployment spectrum worrying, seems to be highly val-
10) Physical ambiance: value associated to “professions
characterized by satisfactory work conditions” (heat, silence,
light, etc.)
11) Relationships with the superiors: value associated to “a
job that is directed by a correct chief, with whom there can be
established good relationships”.
12) Relationships with colleagues: values associated to “a
work activity that gives the possibility to some good social
relationships with the colleagues”. In the semi-classified active-
ties, this dimension is more important than the work nature in
13) Lifestyle: value associated to “a work type that allows
organizing your lifestyle the way you want”.
14) Variety: value associated to “work activities that give
the opportunity to exercising some varied operations”.
15) Creativity: value associated to “a work that allows pro-
ducing some new things, some new products. Creativity is re-
lated to the scientific interests from the Professional Interests
Test by Martin Irle, adapted by S. Chelcea.
The score for each value direction is calculated as an arith-
metic average of the appreciation of the three items composing
that dimension. Thus the score can vary between 1 (lack of
importance) and 5 (very high importance), reflecting the appre-
ciation that the tested persons give to various aspects or work
The professional values inventory was applied on a sample
of 120 students from “Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University
of Iaşi (faculties of Electro-techniques and Electronics, 1st year)
with the purpose of identifying and setting a hierarchy of the
new professional values that are shaped after 20 years from the
revolution of December 1989 to the students of a technical
university (Table 1). From the theoretical presentation of the
values problematic, but also from the transformations that took
place at the level of the Romanian society after December 1989
resulted the conclusion according to which values change ac-
cording to the socio-economic context where they develop. This
is the first hypothesis of the research made by us. In order to set
the way the new professional values are organized, we have
made the hierarchy of these values and their comparison to the
hierarchy obtained by Septimiu Chelcea applying the same
inventory on a sample of 600 de students, in 1996.
The second hypothesis refers to the specific of the hierarchy
of professional values in the academic technical education. The
profile of this hierarchy of professional values differs from one
field to another, the academic education attracts some specific
values on the first places.
After applying the professional values inventory and after
centralizing the results, there was obtained their following gen-
eral hierarchy.
Analyzing this professional values hierarchy, we can notice:
- The first three places belong to the: lifestyle, physical
ambiance and the relationships with the superiors
- On the last 3 places there are work variety, leadership
and prestige
- This hierarchy confirms the first hypothesis according to
which values change according to the socio-economic
context in which they develop. Because the socio-eco-
nomic context characterizes itself by economic scanty
growth, the employment difficulties in a convenient job,
the managers’ exaggerated importance, the most impor-
tant values appreciated by students were: lifestyle,
physical ambiance and relationships with the superiors.
Table 1.
Professional values general hierarchy.
Rank Professional Values Average
I. Lifestyle 13.15
II. Physical ambiance 13.11
III. Relationships with the superiors 12.76
IV. Economic advantages 12.68
V. Creativity 12.60
VI. Professional success 12.54
VII. Professional certainty 12.40
VIII. Independence 12.14
IX. Intellectual stimulation 11.92
X. Altruism 11.81
XI. Relationships with the colleagues 11.04
XII. Aesthetic values 10.77
XIII. Variety 10.75
XIV. Leadership 10.52
XV. Prestige 10.31
- The second hypothesis underlines the specific of the
chosen sample: students from a technical faculty that
value the economic advantages, creativity and profes-
sional success.
- Because economic and social values are determinant,
intellectual, prestige and leadership values are on the
last places.
After applying the Professional values Inventory and cen-
tralizing the results, there was obtained the following different-
tiated hierarchy on the two genders male (Table 2) and female
(Table 3).
From the comparative analysis of the obtained results by
boys and girls in our own research, we can identify the follow-
ing differences:
- The first values are identical but the boys appreciate
more physical ambiance and the girls’ lifestyle.
- Economic advantages are better placed at girls than at
boys, on the 3rd place compared to the 4th place.
- Creativity is placed on the 5th place at girls and at boys
on the 7th place.
Table 2.
Professional values hierarchy for male gender (70 boys).
Rank Professional values Average
I. Physical ambiance 13.16
II. Lifestyle 12.96
III. Relationships with the superiors 12.76
IV. Economic advantages 12.58
V. Relationships with the colleagues 12.53
VI. Professional success 12.48
VII. Creativity 12.46
VIII. Professional certainty 12.37
IX. Independence 12.23
X. Intellectual stimulation 12.05
XI. Altruism 11.85
XII. Prestige 11.12
XIII. Variety 10.75
XIV. Aesthetic values 10.67
XV. Leadership 10.60
Table 3.
Professional values hierarchy for female gender (50 girls).
Rank Professional values Average
I. Lifestyle 13.34
II. Physical ambiance 13.06
III. Economic advantages 12.79
IV. Relationships with the superiors 12.77
V. Creativity 12.75
VI. Professional success 12.61
VII. Professional certainty 12.43
VIII. Independence 12.06
IX. Intellectual stimulation 11.79
X. Altruism 11.77
XI. Variety 11.34
XII. Aesthetic values 10.88
XIII. Leadership 10.45
XIV. Relationships with the colleagues 9.56
XV. Prestige 9.50
- Professional success is at the same 6th place for girls
and boys, the girls having higher values.
- Prestige, leadership, work variety is at the last places
for girls and boys.
Septimiu Chelcea obtained on the whole of the investigated
group, the following hierarchy:
I. LIFESTYLE average 14.04
II. WORK AMBIANCE average 13.36
At the opposed pole, there are the professional values related
to leadership average 10.3, to aesthetic values with an average
of 10.49 and the work variety with an average of 10.86.
From the comparative analysis of the results obtained by the
students from the Technical University and the students from
the group investigated by Septimiu Chelcea we can draw the
following conclusions:
1) The general hierarchy is similar, more than that it con-
firms the first hypothesis of our research according to which the
socio-economic context is determinant in setting a value hier-
archy at a given moment.
2) At the opposed pole, there stand the same values: leader-
ship, prestige, work variety, aesthetic values.
Both the results obtained by us as well as the ones obtained
by S. Chelcea can be explained by taking into account the radi-
cal socio-economic changes that took place in Romania after
December 1989. In the present socio-economic context from
Romania, as well as the one from the countries from Central
and Eastern Europeas Serge Moscovici remarks, in 1990
there manifests a tension “communism and individualism”. The
freed society from despotic collectivism specific to the totali-
tarian regime orients towards an individualism as despotic and
devastating. This is how it is explained the students’ orientation
towards values as lifestyle the way they want, work optimal
physical conditions, economic advantages.
If we relate to the fact that S. Chelcea realized his investiga-
tion in 1994, and we did it in 2009, there results the fact that
during 15 years, the students’ professional values hierarchy
remained identical. This conclusion indicates the installation of
certain stability of the value hierarchy, but unfortunately of a
negative hierarchy, based on an extrinsic work motivation.
In the present social-economic situation, the students lose
sight in a certain extent the intrinsic work motivating factors:
work structure, creativity, professional fulfillment, factors that
ensure personality self-fulfillment.
Relating ourselves to the re-structuring scheme of the
value-attitudinal components from the Romanian society, we
emphasize the fact that change has started with the behavioral
level and we reached to stage of interests, attitudes, opinions,
needs that will be reflected at the superior levels: beliefs, norms,
mentalities and values. Action behaviors, immediate needs,
individual beliefs are the ones that express the best the society
development moment. The character of immediate, material
profit, of individual welfare, at any costs even against the group
interests, justice and fairness is predominant in defining value
behaviors and attitudes.
Bushman, B., & Baumeister, R. (1998). Threatened egotism, narcisism,
self-estem, and direct and desplaced aggresson. Journal of Personal-
ity and Social Personality, 24, 75-87.
Crealia, R. (1996). Attitude heritability and attitude reinforcement: A
replication. Personality and Individual Differences, 21, 803-808
Chelcea S. (1994). Personalitatea şi societatea în tranziţie. Editura
Ştiinţă şi Tehnică, Bucureşti.
Davis, M. H., & Luce, C. (1994). The heritability of characteristics
associated with dispositional empathy. Journal of Personality, 62,
369-391. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6494.1994.tb00302.x
Debono, K. G., & Snyder, M. (1995). Actings on ones’ attitude: The
role of a history of choosing situations. Personality and Social Psy-
chology Bulletin, 21, 629-636. doi:10.1177/0146167295216009
Eagly, A., & Chaiken, S. (1998). Attitude structure and function. Hand-
book of social psychology. Boston: McGrow Company.
Ilut, P. (1995). Structurile axiologice din perspectivă psihosocială.
Editura Didactică şi pedagogică, Bucureşti.
Radu, I., & Ilut, P.(1994). Atitudini, valori, comportament,în I. Radu
(coord.),Psihologie socială. Cluj-Napoca: Editura Exe,.
Rotariu, T., & Ilut, P. (1997). Ancheta sociologică şi sondajul de opinie.
Teorie şi practică. Iaşi: Editura Polirom.
Smith, P. B., & Schwartz, S. (1997). Vallues. Handbook of cross-cul-
tural psychology, 3. Boston: Allin and Bacon.
Super, D. E. (1953). A theory of vocational development. American
Psychologist, 8, 185-190.doi:10.1037/h0056046
Super, D. E. (1990). A life span, life-space approach to career devel-
opment. In D. Brown and L. Brooks (Eds.), Career choice and de-
velopment (2nd ed.). San Francisco: Jossey–Bass.
Super, D. E. (1957). The psychology of careers. New York: Harper.
Tirhas, C. (2003). Personalitate multimodală în S.Chelcea şi P. Ilut
(coord.). Enciclopedie de psihosociologie. Bucureşti: Editura Econo-